Summary: Determination of the energy distribution of gamma rays emitted by nuclei. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
- Papastefanou C, Manolopoulou M, Stoulos S, Ioannidou A, Gerasopoulos E. Cesium-137 in grass from Chernobyl fallout. J Environ Radioact. 2005;83:253-7 pubmed..It was observed that there was a trend of decreasing 137Cs with time reflecting a removal half-time of 40 months (3 1/3 years), which is the ecological half-life, T(ec) of 137Cs in grassland. ..
- Chebli C, Cartilier L, Hartman N. Substituted amylose as a matrix for sustained-drug release: a biodegradation study. Int J Pharm. 2001;222:183-9 pubmed..Matrix systems and dry-coated tablets maintained their structure, and controlled the release of [186Re] showing no significant degradation of tablets by alpha-amylase. ..
- Santos A, Silva P, Mazzilli B, Fávaro D. Radiological characterisation of disposed phosphogypsum in Brazil: evaluation of the occupational exposure and environmental impact. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2006;121:179-85 pubmed..Sediments from rivers in the area of influence of the pile presented higher concentrations of 238U and 232Th when compared with reference values. ..
- Plamboeck A, Nylen T, Agren G. Comparative estimations of 137Cs distribution in a boreal forest in northern Sweden using a traditional sampling approach and a portable NaI detector. J Environ Radioact. 2006;90:100-9 pubmed..The agreement between the (137)Cs activity values obtained by the two approaches was 20% which is good in the field where so many factors vary. ..
- García Toraño E, Roteta M. Standardization of 67Ga by 4pigamma (NaI) and 4pibeta-gamma coincidence methods. Appl Radiat Isot. 2004;60:353-6 pubmed
- Veronese I, Guzzi G, Giussani A, Cantone M, Ripamonti D. Determination of dose rates from natural radionuclides in dental materials. J Environ Radioact. 2006;91:15-26 pubmed..with regard to content of natural radionuclides by means of thermoluminescence beta dosimetry and gamma spectrometry. The gross beta dose rate from feldspathic and glass ceramics was about ten times higher than the background ..
- Mitra S, Wielopolski L, Hendrey G. Comparison of a digital and an analog signal processing system for neutron inelastic gamma-ray spectrometry. Appl Radiat Isot. 2004;61:1463-8 pubmed..43 MeV, and O, 6.13 MeV, gamma-rays. In separate experiments, the digital and the analog systems were also compared using an intense 10.3 mCi 137Cs source to vary the ICR, and the 1.17 MeV peak area of 60Co was used as the reference. ..
- Toivonen H. Airborne gamma spectrometry--towards integration of European operational capability. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2004;109:137-40 pubmedAirborne gamma spectrometry is an excellent tool for finding out in a timely manner the extent and magnitude of the dispersion of radioactive materials resulting from a nuclear disaster...
- Sarret G, Balesdent J, Bouziri L, Garnier J, Marcus M, Geoffroy N, et al. Zn speciation in the organic horizon of a contaminated soil by micro-X-ray fluorescence, micro- and powder-EXAFS spectroscopy, and isotopic dilution. Environ Sci Technol. 2004;38:2792-801 pubmed..The speciation of Zn in this organic soil horizon is compared with that found in other types of soils...
- Chinnaesakki S, Bara S, Sartandel S, Tripathi R, Puranik V. Radiological characterisation of synthetic rutile using HPGe gamma spectrometry. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2010;140:378-82 pubmed publisher..n-type high-purity germanium-coupled gamma spectrometry was used for the analysis...
- Karunakara N, Al Azmi D. A study on radon absorption efficiencies of edible oils produced in India. Health Phys. 2010;98:621-7 pubmed publisher..32-8.22 for the Indian vegetable oils, and for olive oil it was found to be 7.88. The details of the experimental technique employed and results obtained are presented and discussed in this paper. ..
- Verdoya M, Chiozzi P, De Felice P, Pasquale V, Bochiolo M, Genovesi I. Natural gamma-ray spectrometry as a tool for radiation dose and radon hazard modelling. Appl Radiat Isot. 2009;67:964-8 pubmed publisher..76 MeV), (208)Tl (2.62 MeV) and (40)K (1.46 MeV). The inferred absorbed dose rate and the radon flux are estimated to be lower than 60 nGy h(-1) and 22 Bq m(-2)h(-1), respectively. ..
- Tyler D, Woods M, Jerome S, Harms A. Thorium in the workplace: results from a European-based measurement comparison project. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2001;97:141-52 pubmed..The discussion highlights those aspects which warrant closer and further attention. ..
- Cevik U, Damla N, Karahan G, Celebi N, Kobya A. Natural radioactivity in tap waters of Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2006;118:88-92 pubmed..878 x 10(-4) microSv y(-1) for (214)Pb, 4.800 x 10(-4) microSv y(-1) for (214)Bi, 3.916 microSv y(-1) for (226)Ra, 0.763 microSv y(-1) for (40)K, 0.052 microSv y(-1) for (137)Cs and 5.848 microSv y(-1) for (222)Rn. ..
- Hemmingsen L, Damblon C, Antony J, Jensen M, Adolph H, Wommer S, et al. Dynamics of mononuclear cadmium beta-lactamase revealed by the combination of NMR and PAC spectroscopy. J Am Chem Soc. 2001;123:10329-35 pubmed..This exchange must be fast on the (113)Cd NMR time scale and slow on the (111m)Cd PAC time scale and must thus occur in a time regime between 0.1 and 10 micros. ..
- Imtiaz M, Begum A, Mollah A, Zaman M. Measurements of radioactivity in books and calculations of resultant eye doses to readers. Health Phys. 2005;88:169-74 pubmed..Thus, no radiation hazard occurs from the radioactivity content in the book. The estimated radiation doses to eyes were found to be below the maximum permissible dose to eyes recommended by ICRP. ..
- Akram M, Qureshi R, Ahmad N, Solaija T. Gamma-emitting radionuclides in the shallow marine sediments off the Sindh coast, Arabian Sea. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2006;118:440-7 pubmed..of gamma emitting radionuclides in shallow marine sediments off the Sindh coast has been carried out using a gamma spectrometry technique...
- Floyd C, Bender J, Sharma A, Kapadia A, Xia J, Harrawood B, et al. Introduction to neutron stimulated emission computed tomography. Phys Med Biol. 2006;51:3375-90 pubmed..Here we offer proof of concept for the NSECT method, present the first single projection spectra acquired from multi-element phantoms, and discuss potential biomedical applications. ..
- Karangelos D, Anagnostakis M, Hinis E, Simopoulos S, Zunic Z. Determination of depleted uranium in environmental samples by gamma-spectroscopic techniques. J Environ Radioact. 2004;76:295-310 pubmed..The analysis results are discussed in relation to the natural radioactivity content of the soil at the sampling sites. A mapping algorithm is applied to examine the spatial variability of the DU contamination. ..
- Omar M, Ali H, Abu M, Kontol K, Ahmad Z, Ahmad S, et al. Distribution of radium in oil and gas industry wastes from Malaysia. Appl Radiat Isot. 2004;60:779-82 pubmed..Overall, 75% of the waste, mostly sludge and extraction residue lies within the normal range of radium concentration in soils of Malaysia. However, some platform sludge can have radium concentration up to 560 Bq/kg. ..
- Presler O, German U, Pelled O, Alfassi Z. The validity of the virtual point detector concept for absorbing media. Appl Radiat Isot. 2004;60:213-6 pubmed..The validity of the model was expanded also to absorbing media present between the detector and a point source in front of it. Empirical values were determined based on experiments with aluminum, copper, iron and lead. ..
- Wielopolski L, Ramirez L, Spungen A, Swaby S, Asselin P, Bauman W. Measuring partial body potassium in the legs of patients with spinal cord injury: a new approach. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009;106:268-73 pubmed publisher..The basic characteristics and performance of our PBK system and our calibration procedure are described in this preliminary report. ..
- Herzog H, Tellman L, Qaim S, Spellerberg S, Schmid A, Coenen H. PET quantitation and imaging of the non-pure positron-emitting iodine isotope 124I. Appl Radiat Isot. 2002;56:673-9 pubmed..We conclude that quantitation of a radiopharmaceutical labelled with 124I is feasible and may be improved by the development of specific corrections. ..
- Pantelica A, Georgescu I, Murariu Magureanu M, Margaritescu I, Cincu E. Thorium determination in intercomparison samples and in some Romanian building materials by gamma ray spectrometry. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2001;97:187-91 pubmed..and 40K radioactivity. and to Th, U, and K concentration values previously determined in our laboratory on similar types of samples. ..
- Al Azmi D, Sayed A, Yatim H. Variations in 7Be concentrations in the atmosphere of Kuwait during the period 1994 to 1998. Appl Radiat Isot. 2001;55:413-7 pubmed..The annual levels of occurrence of 7Be were found to be correlate with the cyclic pattern resulting from the eleven-year temporal variations associated with the solar activity. ..
- Hus M, Kosutić K, Lulic S. Radioactive contamination of wood and its products. J Environ Radioact. 2001;55:179-86 pubmed
- Sorger D, Becker G, Patt M, Schildan A, Grossmann U, Schliebs R, et al. Measurement of the alpha4beta2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligand 2-[(18)F]Fluoro-A-85380 and its metabolites in human blood during PET investigation: a methodological study. Nucl Med Biol. 2007;34:331-42 pubmed..95). Since SPE is less time-consuming than HPLC and provides comparable results, we conclude that SPE appears to be the most suitable method for measurement of 2-[(18)F]FA parent fraction during PET investigations. ..
- Koskinas M, Moreira D, Yamazaki I, de Toledo F, Brancaccio F, Dias M. Primary standardization of 57Co. Appl Radiat Isot. 2010;68:1344-8 pubmed publisher..The final activity obtained by the Monte Carlo calculation agrees with the experimental results within the experimental uncertainty...
- Guillot L. Extraction of full absorption peaks in airborne gamma-spectrometry by filtering techniques coupled with a study of the derivatives. Comparison with the window method. J Environ Radioact. 2001;53:381-98 pubmed..A quantitative estimate of radioactive anomalies can thus be obtained rapidly. ..
- Veronese I, Giussani A, Göksu H. Limits of thermoluminescence dosimetry using quartz extracted from recent building materials in urban settlements. J Environ Radioact. 2006;86:319-36 pubmed..Independent methods like alpha counting, beta dosimetry, gamma spectrometry and flame photometry were used for the annual dose assessment...
- Chang W, Nabyvanets Y, Jen M. Unusual 232Th and 238U contamination on some road surfaces in Taoyuan, Taiwan. Health Phys. 2001;80:602-4 pubmed..By employing gamma spectrometry, we have measured 232Th activity (via 228Ac) and mU activity (via 214Bi) in some of the samples to be up to ..
- Munck af Rosenschöld P, Verbakel W, Ceberg C, Stecher Rasmussen F, Persson B. Toward clinical application of prompt gamma spectroscopy for in vivo monitoring of boron uptake in boron neutron capture therapy. Med Phys. 2001;28:787-95 pubmed..The present work forms the basis for a subsequent clinical application of the PGS setup aimed at in vivo monitoring of boron uptake. ..
- Appoloni C, Pottker W. Non-destructive porosity profile measurement of amorphous materials by gamma-ray transmission. Appl Radiat Isot. 2004;61:1133-8 pubmed..for the gamma-ray transmission technique consisted of a 241Am source (5953 keV), a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, collimators, a XYZ micrometric table and standard gamma spectrometry electronics connected to a multichannel analyzer.
- Anagnostakis M, Bolzan C, De Felice P, Fazio A, Grisanti G, Risica S, et al. A preliminary intercomparison of gamma-ray spectrometry on building materials. Appl Radiat Isot. 2004;61:381-8 pubmed..Further studies are needed to draw more specific conclusions. ..
- Cevik U, Baltas H, Tabak A, Damla N. Radiological and chemical assessment of phosphate rocks in some countries. J Hazard Mater. 2010;182:531-5 pubmed publisher..compared to those of several different phosphate rocks of Tunisia, Egypt, Morocco, Algeria and Syria using gamma spectrometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurement techniques...
- Jibiri N, Farai I, Alausa S. Estimation of annual effective dose due to natural radioactive elements in ingestion of foodstuffs in tin mining area of Jos-Plateau, Nigeria. J Environ Radioact. 2007;94:31-40 pubmed..location in a high background radiation area on the Jos-Plateau, Nigeria were collected and analyzed by gamma spectrometry to measure their contents of 40K, 238U and 232Th...
- Komura K, Hoshi M, Endo S, Imanaka T, Egbert S, Ruhm W, et al. Atomic bomb induced 152Eu: reconciliation of discrepancy between measurements and calculation. Health Phys. 2007;92:366-77 pubmed..Measurements agreed well with theoretical calculations based on DS02 up to 1.4 km from hypocenter. ..
- Alvarez L, Candia O, Turner H, Polikoff L. Localization of a Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter in the rabbit lens. Exp Eye Res. 2001;73:669-80 pubmed..Its activity in the intact organ may be activated by conditions fostering cell shrinkage, and perhaps, agents stimulating epithelial cell elongation, given its distribution within the lens. ..
- Bao P. [Determination of content and specific activity of radioactive elements in phosphate slag by spectral and energy spectrum analysis]. Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. 2001;21:630-1 pubmed..0 Bq.kg-1, which is stipulated by national GB6566-86 standard for radioactivity of building materials. The slag is therefore can be utilized to produce slag cement. This provides theoretical basis for the treatment of it...
- Al Jundi J, Salah W, Bawa aneh M, Afaneh F. Exposure to radiation from the natural radioactivity in Jordanian building materials. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2006;118:93-6 pubmed..The average of the calculated annual gonadal equivalent dose was found to be 198 microSv y(-1). Results indicate no significant radiological hazards arise from using such materials in building construction. ..
- Shama S. Spectrophotometric determination of phenylephrine HCl and orphenadrine citrate in pure and in dosage forms. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2002;30:1385-92 pubmed..7, for six determinations of 20 microgram ml(-1). The proposed methods are successfully applied to the determination of drugs I and II in their dosage forms using the standard addition technique...
- Kumar A, Singhal R, Preetha J, Rupali K, Joshi V, Hegde A, et al. A non-parametric statistical analysis in the measurement of outdoor gamma exposure to the residents around Trombay. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2007;124:378-84 pubmed..Portable dose rate digital gamma spectrometry system (target fieldSPEC) was used for in situ measurement of external gamma (gamma) dose rate (measured) ..
- Madoz Escande C, Garcia Sanchez L, Bonhomme T, Morello M. Influence of rainfall characteristics on elimination of aerosols of cesium, strontium, barium and tellurium deposited on grassland. J Environ Radioact. 2005;84:1-20 pubmed..The offset value varied between 0% for tellurium (high intensity rainfalls) and 14% for cesium (medium intensity rainfalls)...
- Aage H, Korsbech U, Bargholz K. Early detection of radioactive fallout by gamma spectrometry. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2003;106:155-64 pubmed..Detection levels and the criteria for setting warning and alarm levels are discussed. The method may also be useful in other situations, for example where low-level signals from radioactive sources need to be detected. ..
- Pantelic G, Vuletic V, Mitrovic R. Proficiency test of gamma spectrometry laboratories in Serbia. Appl Radiat Isot. 2010;68:1270-2 pubmed publisher..from the analysis of 8 radionuclides in water samples within the frame of the First Proficiency Test of gamma spectrometry Laboratories in Serbia organized in 2008...
- El Daoushy F, Hernandez F. Gamma spectrometry of 234Th (238U) in environmental samples. Analyst. 2002;127:981-9 pubmed..X-ray contributions in the samples correlated with the 238U and 232Th activities, only, in closed environmental systems where a secular equilibrium with the daughters of the U/Th series can occur. ..
- Melquiades F, Appoloni C. Self-absorption correction for gamma spectrometry of powdered milk samples using Marinelli beaker. Appl Radiat Isot. 2001;55:697-700 pubmed..The results obtained show that this factor must be considered in the calculations of activities. ..
- Lavi N, Alfassi Z. Development and application of Marinelli beaker standards for monitoring radioactivity in Dairy-Products by gamma-ray spectrometry. Appl Radiat Isot. 2004;61:1437-41 pubmed..The limit of detection for the determination of radiocesium by gamma ray spectrometry under the prevailing experimental conditions is 0.03 Bq (i.e. 0.8 pCi), for samples of dairy products having lower densities of 0.7 kg dm(-1). ..
- Aparicio I, Callejón M, Bello M, Jimenez J, Guiraum A. Spectrofluorimetric determination of velnacrine in human serum and urine. Farmaco. 2003;58:1257-61 pubmed..The detection and quantitation limits were 1.7 and 4.5 ng ml(-1) respectively. The method was successfully applied to the determination of velnacrine in human serum and urine. ..
- Bikit I, Slivka J, Conkić L, Krmar M, Veskovic M, Zikić Todorović N, et al. Radioactivity of the soil in Vojvodina (northern province of Serbia and Montenegro). J Environ Radioact. 2005;78:11-9 pubmed..No traces of depleted uranium have been found. The natural radioactivity levels are compared with the results form other countries. ..