Summary: Making measurements by the use of stereoscopic photographs.
- Heike C, Cunningham M, Hing A, Stuhaug E, Starr J. Picture perfect? Reliability of craniofacial anthropometry using three-dimensional digital stereophotogrammetry. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009;124:1261-72 pubmed publisher..The authors offer guidelines for establishing protocols that can be tailored to each population and research question to maximize the accuracy of image-based measurements. ..
- Deli R, Di Gioia E, Galantucci L, Percoco G. Automated landmark extraction for orthodontic measurement of faces using the 3-camera photogrammetry methodology. J Craniofac Surg. 2010;21:87-93 pubmed publisher..onto the subject's face on the soft tissue landmarks, and then, 3 simultaneous photos were acquired using photogrammetry, at room light conditions...
- Baysal U, Sengül G. Single camera photogrammetry system for EEG electrode identification and localization. Ann Biomed Eng. 2010;38:1539-47 pubmed publisher..It is found that the proposed system automatically identifies electrodes and localizes them with a maximum error of 0.77 mm. It is suggested that this method may be used in EEG source localization applications in the human brain. ..
- Mangone M, Raimondi P, Paoloni M, Pellanera S, Di Michele A, Di Renzo S, et al. Vertebral rotation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis calculated by radiograph and back surface analysis-based methods: correlation between the Raimondi method and rasterstereography. Eur Spine J. 2013;22:367-71 pubmed publisher..47, p = 0.002, respectively). Rasterstereographic evaluation of VR shows a good correlation with the Raimondi method, thereby confirming the possibility to use this non-invasive method for deformity assessment in AIS patients. ..
- Kau C, Richmond S, Zhurov A, Ovsenik M, Tawfik W, Borbely P, et al. Use of 3-dimensional surface acquisition to study facial morphology in 5 populations. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2010;137:S56.e1-9; discussion S56-7 pubmed publisher..Facial morphologic differences were greatest when totally different ethnic variations were compared. Facial morphologic similarities were present in comparable groups, but there were large variations in concentrated areas of the face. ..
- Khambay B, Nairn N, Bell A, Miller J, Bowman A, Ayoub A. Validation and reproducibility of a high-resolution three-dimensional facial imaging system. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;46:27-32 pubmed..21mm, range 0.14-0.32mm. The Di3D system error was within 0.2mm, which is clinically acceptable, and offers considerable improvement in stereophotogrammetry for facial capture and analysis. ..
- Jayaratne Y, Lo J, Zwahlen R, Cheung L. Three-dimensional photogrammetry for surgical planning of tissue expansion in hemifacial microsomia. Head Neck. 2010;32:1728-35 pubmed publisherWe aim to illustrate the applications of 3-dimensional (3-D) photogrammetry for surgical planning and longitudinal assessment of the volumetric changes in hemifacial microsomia...
- Ozsoy U, Demirel B, Yildirim F, Tosun O, Sarikcioglu L. Method selection in craniofacial measurements: advantages and disadvantages of 3D digitization method. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2009;37:285-90 pubmed publisher..A total number of 35 female and 35 male volunteer adults were included to the study. Two-dimensional (2D) photogrammetry, three-dimensional (3D) digitization and manual anthropometry methods were used for the present study...
- Berthonnaud E, Hilmi R, Dimnet J. Personalized models of bones based on radiographic photogrammetry. Surg Radiol Anat. 2009;31:461-70 pubmed publisherThe radiographic photogrammetry is applied, for locating anatomical landmarks in space, from their two projected images...
- Bauer J, Pavol M, Snow C, Hayes W. MRI-derived body segment parameters of children differ from age-based estimates derived using photogrammetry. J Biomech. 2007;40:2904-10 pubmed..equations for estimating pediatric body segment parameters across a wide age range were developed, using photogrammetry, based on 12 boys and have not been validated to date (Jensen, R.K., 1986...
- Wong J, Oh A, Ohta E, Hunt A, Rogers G, Mulliken J, et al. Validity and reliability of craniofacial anthropometric measurement of 3D digital photogrammetric images. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2008;45:232-9 pubmed publisher..have been designed to computerize anthropometric measurements, including three-dimensional (3D) digital photogrammetry. These digital systems have the advantage of acquiring patient craniofacial surface images quickly and ..
- Tyson A, Mawdsley G, Yaffe M. Measurement of compressed breast thickness by optical stereoscopic photogrammetry. Med Phys. 2009;36:569-76 pubmed..local thickness of the breast at all points of contact with the compression paddle using optical stereoscopic photogrammetry. On both flat (solid) and compressible phantoms, the measurements were accurate to better than 1 mm with a ..
- Aroeira R, Leal J, de Melo Pertence A. New method of scoliosis assessment: preliminary results using computerized photogrammetry. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011;36:1584-91 pubmed publisher..A new method for nonradiographic evaluation of scoliosis was independently compared with the Cobb radiographic method, for the quantification of scoliotic curvature...
- Evison M, Dryden I, Fieller N, Mallett X, Morecroft L, Schofield D, et al. Key parameters of face shape variation in 3D in a large sample. J Forensic Sci. 2010;55:159-62 pubmed publisher..We anticipate this approach will lend itself to the development of methods for analysis of variation within subject groups and the establishment of the relative uniqueness or abundance of facial measurements within them. ..
- Plooij J, Swennen G, Rangel F, Maal T, Schutyser F, Bronkhorst E, et al. Evaluation of reproducibility and reliability of 3D soft tissue analysis using 3D stereophotogrammetry. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009;38:267-73 pubmed publisher..This shows that hard tissue data are not needed to perform accurate soft tissue analysis. ..
- Betsch M, Wild M, Jungbluth P, Hakimi M, Windolf J, Haex B, et al. Reliability and validity of 4D rasterstereography under dynamic conditions. Comput Biol Med. 2011;41:308-12 pubmed publisher..58 mm (SD±3.29 mm) and the dimple distance was detected with an accuracy of 0.88 mm (SD±1.04 mm). With this rasterstereographic prototype it is possible to examine dynamically the spinal posture with adequate accuracy. ..
- Schwenzer Zimmerer K, Chaitidis D, Berg Boerner I, Krol Z, Kovacs L, Schwenzer N, et al. Quantitative 3D soft tissue analysis of symmetry prior to and after unilateral cleft lip repair compared with non-cleft persons (performed in Cambodia). J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2008;36:431-8 pubmed publisher..It offers deeper insight into the complex morphology to be treated and could contribute to individualisation of surgical procedures. ..
- Gilson S, Fitzgibbon A, Glennerster A. Spatial calibration of an optical see-through head-mounted display. J Neurosci Methods. 2008;173:140-6 pubmed publisher..an optical see-through head-mounted display (HMD) using techniques usually applied to camera calibration (photogrammetry)...
- Kau C, Richmond S, Incrapera A, English J, Xia J. Three-dimensional surface acquisition systems for the study of facial morphology and their application to maxillofacial surgery. Int J Med Robot. 2007;3:97-110 pubmed..The paper shows that there is increased awareness and application of technology to the field. 3D surface acquisition technology is improving at a rapid pace and has a place in oral and maxillofacial surgery. ..
- Breuer T, Robbins M, Boesch C. Using photogrammetry and color scoring to assess sexual dimorphism in wild western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla). Am J Phys Anthropol. 2007;134:369-82 pubmed..variation of body length, head size, and sexual dichromatism in a population of wild western gorillas using photogrammetry. Digital photogrammetry is a useful and precise method to measure sexual dimorphism in physical traits ..
- de Menezes M, Rosati R, Ferrario V, Sforza C. Accuracy and reproducibility of a 3-dimensional stereophotogrammetric imaging system. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010;68:2129-35 pubmed publisher..91 mm, without systematic biases. The 3D stereophotogrammetric imaging system can assess the coordinates of facial landmarks with good precision and reproducibility. The method is fast and can obtain facial measurements with few errors. ..
- Ghoddousi H, Edler R, Haers P, Wertheim D, Greenhill D. Comparison of three methods of facial measurement. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;36:250-8 pubmed..There are clear potential benefits of using 3D measurements in the assessment of facial deformity. ..
- Valstar E, Vrooman H, Toksvig Larsen S, Ryd L, Nelissen R. Digital automated RSA compared to manually operated RSA. J Biomech. 2000;33:1593-9 pubmed..We conclude that digital RSA is an accurate, fast, and user friendly alternative for manually operated RSA. Currently, digital RSA systems are being used in a growing number of clinical RSA-studies. ..
- Onsten I, Berzins A, Shott S, Sumner D. Accuracy and precision of radiostereometric analysis in the measurement of THR femoral component translations: human and canine in vitro models. J Orthop Res. 2001;19:1162-7 pubmed..The use of only the prosthetic head as a landmark (as opposed to three markers placed on the femoral stem) led to a 3-fold larger prediction interval in the human model and a 2-fold greater prediction interval in the canine model. ..
- Thali M, Braun M, Wirth J, Vock P, Dirnhofer R. 3D surface and body documentation in forensic medicine: 3-D/CAD Photogrammetry merged with 3D radiological scanning. J Forensic Sci. 2003;48:1356-65 pubmed..Forensic, 3-D/CAD-supported Photogrammetry creates morphologic data models of the injury and of the suspected injury-causing instrument allowing the ..
- Weinberg S, Scott N, Neiswanger K, Brandon C, Marazita M. Digital three-dimensional photogrammetry: evaluation of anthropometric precision and accuracy using a Genex 3D camera system. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2004;41:507-18 pubmed..precision and accuracy of facial anthropometric measurements obtained through digital three-dimensional (3D) photogrammetry. Nineteen standard craniofacial measurements were repeatedly obtained on 20 subjects by two independent ..
- Lujan T, Lake S, Plaizier T, Ellis B, Weiss J. Simultaneous measurement of three-dimensional joint kinematics and ligament strains with optical methods. J Biomech Eng. 2005;127:193-7 pubmed..082 deg to +/-0.160 deg. These results demonstrate that simultaneous optical measurement of 3D soft tissue strain and 3D joint kinematics can be performed while achieving excellent accuracy for both sets of measurements. ..
- Söderkvist I, Wedin P. Determining the movements of the skeleton using well-configured markers. J Biomech. 1993;26:1473-7 pubmed..We present a condition number for the problem with good geometrical properties. The condition number depends on the configuration of the landmarks and indicates how to distribute the landmarks in a suitable way. ..
- Cappozzo A, Della Croce U, Leardini A, Chiari L. Human movement analysis using stereophotogrammetry. Part 1: theoretical background. Gait Posture. 2005;21:186-96 pubmed
- Katayama E, Shiraishi T, Oosawa K, Baba N, Aizawa S. Geometry of the flagellar motor in the cytoplasmic membrane of Salmonella typhimurium as determined by stereo-photogrammetry of quick-freeze deep-etch replica images. J Mol Biol. 1996;255:458-75 pubmed..of the flagellar basal structure anchored in the cytoplasmic membrane was determined by digital stereo-photogrammetry of the images captured by quick-freeze deep-etch replica electron microscopy...
- Leardini A, Benedetti M, Catani F, Simoncini L, Giannini S. An anatomically based protocol for the description of foot segment kinematics during gait. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 1999;14:528-36 pubmed..The proposed method can help clinicians to distinguish between normal and pathological pattern of foot joint rotations, and to quantitatively assess the restoration of normal function after treatment. ..
- Jemt T, Back T, Petersson A. Photogrammetry--an alternative to conventional impressions in implant dentistry? A clinical pilot study. Int J Prosthodont. 1999;12:363-8 pubmed..The different results from the model and oral examinations also imply the difficulties of assessing clinical fit when testing fit at the master cast level only. ..
- Bragdon C, Estok D, Malchau H, Kärrholm J, Yuan X, Bourne R, et al. Comparison of two digital radiostereometric analysis methods in the determination of femoral head penetration in a total hip replacement phantom. J Orthop Res. 2004;22:659-64 pubmed..The results using the two marker configurations were similar. ..
- Della Croce U, Leardini A, Chiari L, Cappozzo A. Human movement analysis using stereophotogrammetry. Part 4: assessment of anatomical landmark misplacement and its effects on joint kinematics. Gait Posture. 2005;21:226-37 pubmed..Given the relevance of this source of errors in the determination of joint kinematics, it is the authors' opinion that further efforts should be made in improving the reliability of the joint axes determination. ..
- Xu J, Chutatape O, Zheng C, Kuan P. Three dimensional optic disc visualisation from stereo images via dual registration and ocular media optical correction. Br J Ophthalmol. 2006;90:181-5 pubmed
- Aldridge K, Boyadjiev S, Capone G, Deleon V, Richtsmeier J. Precision and error of three-dimensional phenotypic measures acquired from 3dMD photogrammetric images. Am J Med Genet A. 2005;138A:247-53 pubmed..New technologies, such as 3D photogrammetry are being implemented in phenotypic studies due to their ability to collect data rapidly and non-invasively...
- Leardini A, Chiari L, Della Croce U, Cappozzo A. Human movement analysis using stereophotogrammetry. Part 3. Soft tissue artifact assessment and compensation. Gait Posture. 2005;21:212-25 pubmed..Alternatively, inclusion of joint constraints into a more general STA minimization approach may provide an acceptable solution. ..
- Weinberg S, Naidoo S, Govier D, Martin R, Kane A, Marazita M. Anthropometric precision and accuracy of digital three-dimensional photogrammetry: comparing the Genex and 3dMD imaging systems with one another and with direct anthropometry. J Craniofac Surg. 2006;17:477-83 pubmed..purpose of this study was to compare anthropometric measurements obtained by way of two different digital 3D photogrammetry systems (Genex and 3dMD) as well as direct anthropometry and to evaluate intraobserver precision across these ..
- Krimmel M, Kluba S, Bacher M, Dietz K, Reinert S. Digital surface photogrammetry for anthropometric analysis of the cleft infant face. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2006;43:350-5 pubmedTo analyze the three-dimensional morphology of the cleft infant face with digital surface photogrammetry. Fifty plaster casts of unoperated infants with cleft lip and palate were imaged three-dimensionally with digital surface ..
- Drerup B, Ellger B, Meyer zu Bentrup F, Hierholzer E. [Functional rasterstereographic images. A new method for biomechanical analysis of skeletal geometry]. Orthopade. 2001;30:242-50 pubmed..The resulting rms-error of kyphosis/lordosis measurement is then reduced from 3.10 degrees/2.95 degrees to 1.65 degrees/1.40 degrees. These figures open up new applications in the follow-up of kyphotic and lordotic deformities. ..
- von Schewelov T, Sanzen L, Onsten I, Carlsson A, Besjakov J. Total hip replacement with a zirconium oxide ceramic femoral head: a randomised roentgen stereophotogrammetric study. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2005;87:1631-5 pubmed..Hylamer has already been withdrawn from the market. ..
- Ayoub A, Garrahy A, Hood C, White J, Bock M, Siebert J, et al. Validation of a vision-based, three-dimensional facial imaging system. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2003;40:523-9 pubmed..79 mm (median 0.68). The presented 3D imaging system is reliable in recording facial deformity and could be utilized in recording cleft deformities and measuring the changes following surgery ..
- Honrado C, Larrabee W. Update in three-dimensional imaging in facial plastic surgery. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2004;12:327-31 pubmed..The availability of three-dimensional imaging and software systems presents new opportunities for the facial cosmetic surgeon to plan, execute, and assess the outcomes in patients undergoing surgery of the face and neck. ..
- Hajeer M, Millett D, Ayoub A, Siebert J. Applications of 3D imaging in orthodontics: part I. J Orthod. 2004;31:62-70 pubmed..Part II explores the different 3D techniques of imaging the dental arches, and their possible uses in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment. ..
- Bragdon C, Malchau H, Yuan X, Perinchief R, Kärrholm J, Börlin N, et al. Experimental assessment of precision and accuracy of radiostereometric analysis for the determination of polyethylene wear in a total hip replacement model. J Orthop Res. 2002;20:688-95 pubmed..5 microm for the resultant 3-D vector length. This in vitro model is proposed as a useful tool for developing a standard for the evaluation of radiostereometric and other radiographic methods used to measure in vivo wear. ..
- Weinberg S, Kolar J. Three-dimensional surface imaging: limitations and considerations from the anthropometric perspective. J Craniofac Surg. 2005;16:847-51 pubmed..In this brief report, the authors consider 3D surface imaging from the anthropometric perspective, specifically focusing on issues related to the capture of reliable quantitative information from the head and face. ..
- Nicolella D, Nicholls A, Lankford J, Davy D. Machine vision photogrammetry: a technique for measurement of microstructural strain in cortical bone. J Biomech. 2001;34:135-9 pubmed..030 (30,000 microstrain) and 0.010 (10,000 microstrain) near osteocyte lacunae. It is expected that the use of this technique will allow a greater understanding of bone strength and fracture as well as bone mechanotransduction. ..
- Russell G, Jeffrey Eriksen K, Poolman P, Luu P, Tucker D. Geodesic photogrammetry for localizing sensor positions in dense-array EEG. Clin Neurophysiol. 2005;116:1130-40 pubmed..56 mm). Accurate determination of 3D sensor positions can be accomplished with minimal demands on the time of the subject and the experimenter using the photogrammetric method. ..
- Chiari L, Della Croce U, Leardini A, Cappozzo A. Human movement analysis using stereophotogrammetry. Part 2: instrumental errors. Gait Posture. 2005;21:197-211 pubmed
- Madanat R, Makinen T, Moritz N, Mattila K, Aro H. Accuracy and precision of radiostereometric analysis in the measurement of three-dimensional micromotion in a fracture model of the distal radius. J Orthop Res. 2005;23:481-8 pubmed..These results suggest a strong rationale for the use of RSA as an objective tool for comparing different treatment modalities and novel bone graft substitutes aimed at stabilization of fractures of the distal radius. ..
- Madanat R, Moritz N, Larsson S, Aro H. RSA applications in monitoring of fracture healing in clinical trials. Scand J Surg. 2006;95:119-27 pubmed..The RSA method may serve as a scientific tool to accurately evaluate the significance of supporting novel biomaterials for the early stability and the rate of healing in fractures. ..
- Thali M, Braun M, Brüschweiler W, Dirnhofer R. Matching tire tracks on the head using forensic photogrammetry. Forensic Sci Int. 2000;113:281-7 pubmed..of forensics-relevant injuries, from the reconstructive point of view, the forensic, CAD-supported photogrammetry plays an important role; particularly so when a detailed 3-D reconstruction is vital...