Summary: The experimental joining of two individuals for the purpose of studying the effects of one on the other.

Top Publications

  1. Coleman D. Effects of parabiosis of obese with diabetes and normal mice. Diabetologia. 1973;9:294-8 pubmed
  2. Boban I, Barisic Dujmovic T, Clark S. Parabiosis and transplantation models show no evidence of circulating dermal fibroblast progenitors in bleomycin-induced skin fibrosis. J Cell Physiol. 2008;214:230-7 pubmed
    To test the hypothesis of an extra-dermal origin of dermal fibroblasts, parabiosis, and transplantation models were developed utilizing a collagen promoter green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter transgene expressed in dermal fibroblasts...
  3. Villeda S, Luo J, Mosher K, Zou B, Britschgi M, Bieri G, et al. The ageing systemic milieu negatively regulates neurogenesis and cognitive function. Nature. 2011;477:90-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, using heterochronic parabiosis we show that blood-borne factors present in the systemic milieu can inhibit or promote adult neurogenesis in an ..
  4. Donskoy E, Goldschneider I. Two developmentally distinct populations of dendritic cells inhabit the adult mouse thymus: demonstration by differential importation of hematogenous precursors under steady state conditions. J Immunol. 2003;170:3514-21 pubmed
  5. Dumond H, Maufroid J, Ko C, Chardard D, Chesnel A, Flament S. Freemartin in the amphibian Pleurodeles waltl: parabiosis between individuals from opposite sex triggers both germ and somatic cells alterations during female gonad development. Mol Reprod Dev. 2008;75:439-49 pubmed
    Wild type embryos of the newt Pleurodeles waltl were used to realize parabiosis, a useful model to study the effect of endogenous circulating hormones on gonad development...
  6. Conboy I, Rando T. Heterochronic parabiosis for the study of the effects of aging on stem cells and their niches. Cell Cycle. 2012;11:2260-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In this regard, recent studies of heterochronic parabiosis provide important clues as to the mechanisms of stem cell aging and suggest novel strategies for enhancing ..
  7. Liu K, Waskow C, Liu X, Yao K, Hoh J, Nussenzweig M. Origin of dendritic cells in peripheral lymphoid organs of mice. Nat Immunol. 2007;8:578-83 pubmed
    b>Parabiosis experiments demonstrating that dendritic cells (DCs) do not equilibrate between mice even after prolonged joining by parabiosis have suggested that DCs are derived from self-renewing progenitors that divide in situ...
  8. Conboy M, Conboy I, Rando T. Heterochronic parabiosis: historical perspective and methodological considerations for studies of aging and longevity. Aging Cell. 2013;12:525-30 pubmed publisher
    Pairing two animals in parabiosis to test for systemic or circulatory factors from one animal affecting the other animal has been used in scientific studies for at least 150 years...
  9. Kierdorf K, Katzmarski N, Haas C, Prinz M. Bone marrow cell recruitment to the brain in the absence of irradiation or parabiosis bias. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58544 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, parabiosis experiments using temporarily joined circulatory systems generally yielded low levels of myeloid cell chimerism ..

More Information


  1. Ajami B, Bennett J, Krieger C, Tetzlaff W, Rossi F. Local self-renewal can sustain CNS microglia maintenance and function throughout adult life. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10:1538-43 pubmed
    ..Here, we investigated the origin of microglia using chimeric animals obtained by parabiosis. We found no evidence of microglia progenitor recruitment from the circulation in denervation or CNS ..
  2. Harris R. Parabiosis between db/db and ob/ob or db/+ mice. Endocrinology. 1999;140:138-45 pubmed
    ..did not raise their body temperature, but lost significant amounts of both lean and fat tissue during 25 days of parabiosis. The differences between the db/+ and ob/ob partners of db/db mice may be caused by leptin inhibiting growth of ..
  3. Song G, Nguyen D, Pietramaggiori G, Scherer S, Chen B, Zhan Q, et al. Use of the parabiotic model in studies of cutaneous wound healing to define the participation of circulating cells. Wound Repair Regen. 2010;18:426-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Application of this approach enables further investigation into the contribution of peripheral blood in normal and abnormal healing responses. ..
  4. Fisher M, Kripke M. Systemic alteration induced in mice by ultraviolet light irradiation and its relationship to ultraviolet carcinogenesis. 1977. Bull World Health Organ. 2002;80:908-12 pubmed
    ..b>Parabiosis of normal mice with UV-irradiated mice, followed by tumor challenge of both parabionts with a UV-induced tumor, ..
  5. Theise N, Krause D, Sharkis S. Comment on "Little evidence for developmental plasticity of adult hematopoietic stem cells". Science. 2003;299:1317; author reply 1317 pubmed
  6. Grayson B, Seeley R. Deconstructing obesity: the face of fatness before and after the discovery of leptin. Diabetologia. 2012;55:3-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The influence of genetic background on the expression of the obese (ob) gene in the mouse' and 'Effects of parabiosis of obese with diabetes and normal mice', which featured in Diabetologia in 1973, are appraised for their merit ..
  7. Saeki K, Kanai T, Nakano M, Nakamura Y, Miyata N, Sujino T, et al. CCL2-induced migration and SOCS3-mediated activation of macrophages are involved in cerulein-induced pancreatitis in mice. Gastroenterology. 2012;142:1010-1020.e9 pubmed publisher
    ..We performed parabiosis surgery to assess the hemodynamics of pancreatic macrophages...
  8. McPherron A. Through thick and thin: a circulating growth factor inhibits age-related cardiac hypertrophy. Circ Res. 2013;113:487-91 pubmed publisher
  9. Villeda S, Wyss Coray T. The circulatory systemic environment as a modulator of neurogenesis and brain aging. Autoimmun Rev. 2013;12:674-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss recent work from our group using the aging model of heterochronic parabiosis - in which the circulatory system of two animals is connected - to highlight the contribution of circulatory ..
  10. Gong B, Li C, Yang L. [Parabiosis theory and effective stimulating amount, reinforcing-reducing, therapeutic time and course of acupuncture]. Zhongguo Zhen Jiu. 2005;25:184-6 pubmed
    b>Parabiosis theory clearly expounds the change course of stimulatiom, namely, parabiotic equalization phase, parabiotic deregulation phase and parabiotic inhibition phase, and it can clearly explain that the effective stimulating amount is ..
  11. Coleman D. A historical perspective on leptin. Nat Med. 2010;16:1097-9 pubmed publisher
  12. Melamed D, Scott D. Aging and neoteny in the B lineage. Blood. 2012;120:4143-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose the novel hypothesis that altering the homeostatic process during cellular depletion can reverse aging in the hematopoietic system. ..
  13. Ergun S, Gehling U. Non-bone-marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells: what is their exact location?. Circ Res. 2007;101:e31 pubmed
  14. Heeschen C, Chang E, Aicher A, Cooke J. Endothelial progenitor cells participate in nicotine-mediated angiogenesis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;48:2553-60 pubmed
    ..and outside of the bone marrow and to avoid the adverse effects of total body irradiation, we employed a murine parabiosis model with tie-2-LacZ FvB/N mice connected to wild-type FvB/N mice and induced unilateral hind limb ischemia in ..
  15. Boban I, Jacquin C, Prior K, Barisic Dujmovic T, Maye P, Clark S, et al. The 3.6 kb DNA fragment from the rat Col1a1 gene promoter drives the expression of genes in both osteoblast and osteoclast lineage cells. Bone. 2006;39:1302-12 pubmed
    ..They also represent a system to test lineage progression in vivo after the transplantation of progenitors. A parabiosis system was used in which pOBCol3.6GFP transgenic mice were surgically joined with mice bearing a Col2...
  16. McKinney Freeman S, Goodell M. Circulating hematopoietic stem cells do not efficiently home to bone marrow during homeostasis. Exp Hematol. 2004;32:868-76 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to explore these dynamics in detail using parabiosis and bone marrow transplantation...
  17. Ivanyi J. Milan Hasek and the discovery of immunological tolerance. Nat Rev Immunol. 2003;3:591-7 pubmed publisher
  18. Brack A. Ageing of the heart reversed by youthful systemic factors!. EMBO J. 2013;32:2189-90 pubmed publisher
    ..One such factor is GDF11. Exposure of aged mice to youthful systemic factors or GDF11 decreases cardiac hypertrophy of the heart. ..
  19. Vogel G. Reproduction. Bone marrow fails to produce oocytes. Science. 2006;312:1583 pubmed
  20. Zhang N, Mustin D, Reardon W, Almeida A, Mozdziak P, Mrug M, et al. Blood-borne stem cells differentiate into vascular and cardiac lineages during normal development. Stem Cells Dev. 2006;15:17-28 pubmed
    ..the contribution of blood-borne cells to various organ systems of the developing embryo using a quail-chick parabiosis model...
  21. Kotani M, Kikuta J, Klauschen F, Chino T, Kobayashi Y, Yasuda H, et al. Systemic circulation and bone recruitment of osteoclast precursors tracked by using fluorescent imaging techniques. J Immunol. 2013;190:605-12 pubmed publisher
    ..To address this question, we combined two different experimental procedures: 1) shared blood circulation "parabiosis" with fluorescently labeled osteoclast precursors, and 2) photoconversion-based cell tracking with a Kikume ..
  22. Donskoy E, Foss D, Goldschneider I. Gated importation of prothymocytes by adult mouse thymus is coordinated with their periodic mobilization from bone marrow. J Immunol. 2003;171:3568-75 pubmed
    ..Because each resulting wave of thymocytopoiesis is accompanied by a wave of intrathymic dendritic cell formation, these coordinated events may help to optimize thymocyte selection as well as production. ..
  23. LUNSFORD W, McCay C, Lupien P, POPE F, Sperling G. Parabiosis as a method for studying factors which affect aging in rats. Gerontologia. 1963;7:1-8 pubmed
  24. Salpeter S, Khalaileh A, Weinberg Corem N, Ziv O, Glaser B, Dor Y. Systemic regulation of the age-related decline of pancreatic ?-cell replication. Diabetes. 2013;62:2843-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of p16/INK4A mRNA did not change in heterochronic parabiosis, suggesting the involvement of other pathways...
  25. Gibney B, Chamoto K, Lee G, SIMPSON D, Miele L, Tsuda A, et al. Cross-circulation and cell distribution kinetics in parabiotic mice. J Cell Physiol. 2012;227:821-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Flow cytometry analysis of the peripheral blood after parabiosis demonstrated no evidence for a "parabiotic barrier" based on cell size or surface characterstics; all ..
  26. Glennie N, Volk S, Scott P. Skin-resident CD4+ T cells protect against Leishmania major by recruiting and activating inflammatory monocytes. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006349 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these data highlight a novel role for tissue-resident memory cells in recruiting and activating inflammatory monocytes, and underscore the central role that skin-resident T cells play in immunity to cutaneous leishmaniasis. ..
  27. Harris R. Is leptin the parabiotic "satiety" factor? Past and present interpretations. Appetite. 2013;61:111-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The hypothesis resulted from a parabiosis study in which one animal became obese following lesioning of the ventromedial hypothalamus...
  28. Tanaka K, Sata M, Natori T, Kim Kaneyama J, Nose K, Shibanuma M, et al. Circulating progenitor cells contribute to neointimal formation in nonirradiated chimeric mice. FASEB J. 2008;22:428-36 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that circulating progenitors contribute to re-endothelialization and neointimal formation after mechanical vascular injury even in nonirradiated mice. ..
  29. Ajami B, Bennett J, Krieger C, McNagny K, Rossi F. Infiltrating monocytes trigger EAE progression, but do not contribute to the resident microglia pool. Nat Neurosci. 2011;14:1142-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a combination of parabiosis and myeloablation to replace circulating progenitors without affecting CNS-resident microglia, we found a strong ..
  30. Katsimpardi L, Litterman N, Schein P, Miller C, Loffredo F, Wojtkiewicz G, et al. Vascular and neurogenic rejuvenation of the aging mouse brain by young systemic factors. Science. 2014;344:630-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of factors that slow the age-dependent deterioration of the neurogenic niche in mice may constitute the basis for new methods of treating age-related neurodegenerative and neurovascular diseases. ..
  31. Zidek W, Ottens E, Heckmann U. Transmission of hypertension in rats by cross circulation. Hypertension. 1989;14:61-5 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that, in this strain of spontaneously hypertensive rats, a circulating hypertensive factor exists. The factor binds to digoxin antibody and is not produced in sympathetic nervous tissue. ..
  32. Vinik A, Pittenger G, Rafaeloff R, Rosenberg L. Factors controlling pancreatic islet neogenesis. Yale J Biol Med. 1992;65:471-91; discussion 531-6 pubmed
    ..There may also be greater scope for gene therapy when the growth factor(s) have been isolated, purified, sequenced, and cloned. ..
  33. Kah Wei Hee A, Tan K. Transport of methyl eugenol-derived sex pheromonal components in the male fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2006;143:422-8 pubmed
    ..dorsalis. Therefore, using physiological techniques such as parabiosis, rectal gland transplantation and hemolymph transfusion coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)..
  34. Stringham J, Mix D, Petersen G, Sorensen S. Membrane oxygenation is superior to parabiotic support in blood-reperfused isolated hearts. J Surg Res. 2005;125:98-103 pubmed
    ..Membrane oxygenators reduce complexity, variability, and animal wastage in isolated heart experiments. ..
  35. Coulson P, Wilson R. Recruitment of lymphocytes to the lung through vaccination enhances the immunity of mice exposed to irradiated schistosomes. Infect Immun. 1997;65:42-8 pubmed
    ..We have used the technique of parabiosis, as a means of adoptive transfer, to demonstrate the relevance of pulmonary T cells to protection...
  36. Klonowski K, Williams K, Marzo A, Blair D, Lingenheld E, Lefrancois L. Dynamics of blood-borne CD8 memory T cell migration in vivo. Immunity. 2004;20:551-62 pubmed
    ..memory T cells to populate lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues was examined using adoptive transfer and parabiosis systems...
  37. Scadden D. The weight of cell identity. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:3653-5 pubmed
    ..These cells remained true to their roots, indicating how difficult it will be to exploit cell plasticity for therapeutic purposes. ..
  38. Harper S, Brack A, MacDonnell S, Franti M, Olwin B, Bailey B, et al. Is Growth Differentiation Factor 11 a Realistic Therapeutic for Aging-Dependent Muscle Defects?. Circ Res. 2016;118:1143-50; discussion 1150 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, high [GDF11] causes reductions in body and heart weight in both young and old animals, suggestive of a cachexia effect. Our conclusion is that elevating blood levels of GDF11 in the aged might cause more harm than good. ..
  39. Snoeck H. Serum of youth?. Nat Biotechnol. 2005;23:434-5 pubmed
  40. Tan S, Krasnow M. Developmental origin of lung macrophage diversity. Development. 2016;143:1318-27 pubmed publisher
    ..development and maintenance of mouse lung macrophages by marker expression patterns, genetic lineage tracing and parabiosis. We show that macrophages populate the lung in three developmental waves, each giving rise to a distinct lineage...
  41. Harris R, Martin R. Specific depletion of body fat in parabiotic partners of tube-fed obese rats. Am J Physiol. 1984;247:R380-6 pubmed
    ..The results are discussed as evidence for a humoral factor that crossed the parabiotic union and acted as a "lipid-depleting" agent in the partners of overfed rats. ..
  42. Kakkanaiah V, MacDonald G, Cohen P, Eisenberg R. Suppression and reversal of gld disease by parabiosis with normal mice. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1996;78:6-13 pubmed, we have studied the role of normal lymphocytes in suppressing or reversing gld-induced autoimmunity by parabiosis with normal mice...
  43. Wagers A, Sherwood R, Christensen J, Weissman I. Little evidence for developmental plasticity of adult hematopoietic stem cells. Science. 2002;297:2256-9 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that "transdifferentiation" of circulating HSCs and/or their progeny is an extremely rare event, if it occurs at all. ..
  44. Fruhbeck G, Gomez Ambrosi J. Rationale for the existence of additional adipostatic hormones. FASEB J. 2001;15:1996-2006 pubmed
    b>Parabiosis studies with obese rodents demonstrated that circulating factors are involved in the long-term control of food intake and energy balance...
  45. Harris R. Contribution made by parabiosis to the understanding of energy balance regulation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1832:1449-55 pubmed publisher
    b>Parabiosis is a chronic preparation that allows exchange of whole blood between two animals. It has been used extensively to test for involvement of circulating factors in feedback regulation of physiological systems...
  46. Mendelsohn A, Larrick J. Rejuvenation of aging hearts. Rejuvenation Res. 2013;16:330-2 pubmed publisher
    ..hypothesized that extrinsic circulating factors in young mice might reverse cardiac aging. Parabiosis, the surgical linking of circulations between old and young mice, was employed to identify an anti-hypertrophic ..
  47. Abe S, Boyer C, Liu X, Wen F, Kobayashi T, Fang Q, et al. Cells derived from the circulation contribute to the repair of lung injury. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004;170:1158-63 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates that stem/progenitor cells in blood contribute to the repair of lung injury in irradiated mice. ..
  48. Brack A, Conboy M, Roy S, Lee M, Kuo C, Keller C, et al. Increased Wnt signaling during aging alters muscle stem cell fate and increases fibrosis. Science. 2007;317:807-10 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the Wnt signaling pathway may play a critical role in tissue-specific stem cell aging and an increase in tissue fibrosis with age...
  49. Goldman D, Bailey A, Pfaffle D, Al Masri A, Christian J, Fleming W. BMP4 regulates the hematopoietic stem cell niche. Blood. 2009;114:4393-401 pubmed publisher
    ..This defect is even more pronounced in a parabiosis model that demonstrates a profound reduction in wild-type hematopoietic cells within the bone marrow of BMP4-..
  50. Guo H, Brewer J, Champhekar A, Harris R, Bittman E. Differential control of peripheral circadian rhythms by suprachiasmatic-dependent neural signals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:3111-6 pubmed
    ..The pathways by which the pacemaker controls the periphery are unclear. Here, we used parabiosis between intact and SCN-lesioned mice to show that nonneural (behavioral or bloodborne) signals are adequate to ..
  51. Harris R. In vivo evidence for unidentified leptin-induced circulating factors that control white fat mass. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2015;309:R1499-511 pubmed publisher
    ..This, in turn, stimulated release of unidentified circulating factors, which travelled back to the db/db partner and acted on the transplant to reduce fat cell size. ..
  52. Hervey G. Control of appetite. Personal and departmental recollections. Appetite. 2013;61:100-10 pubmed publisher
    ..D. project: The Effect of Ventromedial Lesions in the Hypothalamus in Rats in Parabiosis. It had recently been discovered that such lesions cause obesity, and energy balance was an active field...
  53. Li J, Park J, Foss D, Goldschneider I. Thymus-homing peripheral dendritic cells constitute two of the three major subsets of dendritic cells in the steady-state thymus. J Exp Med. 2009;206:607-22 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, the migrant cDCs proliferated extensively, up-regulated CD11c, MHC II, and CD86, and expressed dendritic processes. The possible functional implications of these findings are discussed. ..