scanning probe microscopy


Summary: Scanning microscopy in which a very sharp probe is employed in close proximity to a surface, exploiting a particular surface-related property. When this property is local topography, the method is atomic force microscopy (MICROSCOPY, ATOMIC FORCE), and when it is local conductivity, the method is scanning tunneling microscopy (MICROSCOPY, SCANNING TUNNELING).

Top Publications

  1. Jesse S, Kalinin S. Principal component and spatial correlation analysis of spectroscopic-imaging data in scanning probe microscopy. Nanotechnology. 2009;20:085714 pubmed publisher
    ..The prospects for PCA combined with correlation function analysis of component maps as a universal tool for data analysis and representation in microscopy are discussed. ..
  2. Moreno Flores S, Toca Herrera J. The new future of scanning probe microscopy: Combining atomic force microscopy with other surface-sensitive techniques, optical microscopy and fluorescence techniques. Nanoscale. 2009;1:40-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Interesting possibilities include using AFM to bring optical microscopies beyond the diffraction limit and also bestowing spectroscopic capabilities on the atomic force microscope. ..
  3. Gross L, Mohn F, Moll N, Meyer G, Ebel R, Abdel Mageed W, et al. Organic structure determination using atomic-resolution scanning probe microscopy. Nat Chem. 2010;2:821-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To validate the usefulness of scanning probe microscopy as an adjunct to the other tools available for organic structure analysis, we used the natural product ..
  4. Slade A, Schoeniger J, Sasaki D, Yip C. In situ scanning probe microscopy studies of tetanus toxin-membrane interactions. Biophys J. 2006;91:4565-74 pubmed
    ..We report herein the results of an in situ scanning probe microscopy study of the interaction of tetanus toxin C-fragment (Tet C) with supported planar lipid bilayers ..
  5. Mann S, Meyer J, Dietzel I. Integration of a scanning ion conductance microscope into phase contrast optics and its application to the quantification of morphological parameters of selected cells. J Microsc. 2006;224:152-7 pubmed
    ..We show an application in which surfaces and volumes of somata and processes of cultured cells from the central nervous system were quantified separately. ..
  6. Turner Y, Roberts C, Davies M. Scanning probe microscopy in the field of drug delivery. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2007;59:1453-73 pubmed
    ..In formulation, the use of SPMs in different drug delivery systems is discussed in light of different host entry routes. ..
  7. Cecchet F, Lussis P, Jerome C, Gabriel S, Silva Goncalves E, Jerome R, et al. A generic chemical platform for molecular recognition and stimuli-responsive probes based on scanning probe microscopy. Small. 2008;4:1101-4 pubmed publisher
  8. Happel P, Hoffmann G, Mann S, Dietzel I. Monitoring cell movements and volume changes with pulse-mode scanning ion conductance microscopy. J Microsc. 2003;212:144-51 pubmed
    ..Difference images indicate that volume changes can affect cell surfaces inhomogeneously, emphasizing the role of the cytoskeleton in the stabilization of cell shape. ..
  9. Vranić Mandusić V, Subota V, Savovski K, Medić L, Dramićanin T, Jozanov Stankov O, et al. Erythrocytotoxicity of tiazofurin in vivo and in vitro detected by scanning probe microscopy. Toxicol Lett. 2004;146:275-84 pubmed
    ..Early signs of hemolysis or aberrant structures were monitored by scanning probe microscopy (SPM)...

More Information


  1. Giannazzo F, Sonde S, Raineri V, Rimini E. Screening length and quantum capacitance in graphene by scanning probe microscopy. Nano Lett. 2009;9:23-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally the lateral variations of the DOS in graphene was determined. ..
  2. Castellanos Gomez A, Agraït N, Rubio Bollinger G. Dynamics of quartz tuning fork force sensors used in scanning probe microscopy. Nanotechnology. 2009;20:215502 pubmed publisher
    ..characterization of the dynamics of oscillating quartz tuning forks which are being increasingly used in scanning probe microscopy as force sensors. We show that tuning forks can be described as a system of coupled oscillators...
  3. Gruverman A, Wu D, Rodriguez B, Kalinin S, Habelitz S. High-resolution imaging of proteins in human teeth by scanning probe microscopy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;352:142-6 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that the PFM approach can be used to study the structure of a wide range of biological materials by monitoring their electromechanical behavior at the nanoscale. ..
  4. Silva Pinto E, Gomes A, Pinheiro C, Ladeira L, Pimenta M, Neves B. Controlled growth and positioning of metal nanoparticles via scanning probe microscopy. Langmuir. 2009;25:3356-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Using scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques, metal NPs are directly grown in the region of interest via the reduction of metallic ..
  5. Disseldorp E, Tabak F, Katan A, Hesselberth M, Oosterkamp T, Frenken J, et al. MEMS-based high speed scanning probe microscopy. Rev Sci Instrum. 2010;81:043702 pubmed publisher
    ..Even higher speed MEMS scanners with fundamental resonance frequencies in excess of a megahertz are currently under development. ..
  6. Happel P, Möller K, Kunz R, Dietzel I. A boundary delimitation algorithm to approximate cell soma volumes of bipolar cells from topographical data obtained by scanning probe microscopy. BMC Bioinformatics. 2010;11:323 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide a new algorithm to repeatedly determine single cell soma volume and thus to quantify cell volume changes during cell movements occuring over a time range of hours. ..
  7. Mann S, Hoffmann G, Hengstenberg A, Schuhmann W, Dietzel I. Pulse-mode scanning ion conductance microscopy--a method to investigate cultured hippocampal cells. J Neurosci Methods. 2002;116:113-7 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate the applicability by showing first high-resolution images of neural cells produced with the pulse-mode operated SICM. ..
  8. Edwards M, Williams C, Whitworth A, Unwin P. Scanning ion conductance microscopy: a model for experimentally realistic conditions and image interpretation. Anal Chem. 2009;81:4482-92 pubmed publisher
    ..In typical experimental practice, the response of the SICM tip to surface features occurs over much greater lateral distances than the size of the pipet aperture. ..
  9. Buchanan K, Zhu X, Meldrum A, Freeman M. Ultrafast dynamics of a ferromagnetic nanocomposite. Nano Lett. 2005;5:383-7 pubmed
    ..Analytical modeling and micromagnetic simulations confirm that magnetostatic interactions between nanoparticles play an important role in the dynamic response. ..
  10. Yip C, Darabie A, McLaurin J. Abeta42-peptide assembly on lipid bilayers. J Mol Biol. 2002;318:97-107 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that the composition of the lipid bilayer governs the outcome of Abeta interactions. ..
  11. Shin H, Hesketh P, Mizaikoff B, Kranz C. Batch fabrication of atomic force microscopy probes with recessed integrated ring microelectrodes at a wafer level. Anal Chem. 2007;79:4769-77 pubmed
    ..In addition, simulations of the diffusion-limited steady-state currents at the integrated electrode using finite element methods were performed for characterizing the developed probes. ..
  12. Dietz C, Roper S, Scherdel S, Bernstein A, Rehse N, Magerle R. Automatization of nanotomography. Rev Sci Instrum. 2007;78:053703 pubmed
    An approach for automated nanotomography, a layer-by-layer imaging technique based on scanning probe microscopy (SPM), is presented. Stepwise etching and imaging is done in situ in a liquid cell of an SPM...
  13. Gerber C, Lang H. How the doors to the nanoworld were opened. Nat Nanotechnol. 2006;1:3-5 pubmed publisher
  14. Garcia Sanchez D, van der Zande A, Paulo A, Lassagne B, McEuen P, Bachtold A. Imaging mechanical vibrations in suspended graphene sheets. Nano Lett. 2008;8:1399-403 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanical vibrations were detected using a novel form of scanning probe microscopy, which allowed identification and spatial imaging of the shape of the mechanical eigenmodes...
  15. Shekhawat G, Dravid V. Nanoscale imaging of buried structures via scanning near-field ultrasound holography. Science. 2005;310:89-92 pubmed
    ..ultrasound wave, reflected in perturbation to the surface acoustic standing wave, are mapped with a scanning probe microscopy platform to provide nanoscale-resolution images of the internal substructure of diverse materials...
  16. Hoppe H, Glatzel T, Niggemann M, Hinsch A, Lux Steiner M, Sariciftci N. Kelvin probe force microscopy study on conjugated polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction organic solar cells. Nano Lett. 2005;5:269-74 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that surfaces of toluene cast films exhibit a morphologically controlled hindrance for electron propagation toward the cathode, which is usually evaporated on top of the films in the solar cell device configuration. ..
  17. Herrmann M, Neuberth N, Wissler J, Perez J, Gradl D, Naber A. Near-field optical study of protein transport kinetics at a single nuclear pore. Nano Lett. 2009;9:3330-6 pubmed publisher
    ..NSOM-FCS may help to understand the facilitated translocation in more detail and offers a new way to study single molecule mobility on a nanoscale...
  18. Cannan S, Zhang J, Grunfeld F, Unwin P. Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) studies of oxygen transfer across phospholipid monolayers under surface pressure control: comparison of monolayers at air/water and oil/water interfaces. Langmuir. 2004;20:701-7 pubmed
    ..The results obtained for each interface are compared, and the implications for studies of passive diffusion across cell membranes are discussed. ..
  19. Greene M, Kinser C, Kramer D, Pingree L, Hersam M. Application of scanning probe microscopy to the characterization and fabrication of hybrid nanomaterials. Microsc Res Tech. 2004;64:415-34 pubmed
    b>Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a widely used experimental technique for characterizing and fabricating nanostructures on surfaces...
  20. Kazantsev D, Dal Savio C, Pierz K, Güttler B, Danzebrink H. Low-temperature scanning system for near- and far-field optical investigations. J Microsc. 2003;209:199-204 pubmed
    ..The presented results demonstrate the potential of the system. ..
  21. Akhremitchev B, Bemis J, al Maawali S, Sun Y, Stebounova L, Walker G. Application of scanning force and near field microscopies to the characterization of minimally adhesive polymer surfaces. Biofouling. 2003;19 Suppl:99-104 pubmed
    ..The reported work is part of a larger effort to reduce biofouling on ships' hulls through the development and use of improved coating materials. ..
  22. Schrock D, Wipf D, Baur J. Feedback effects in combined fast-scan cyclic voltammetry-scanning electrochemical microscopy. Anal Chem. 2007;79:4931-41 pubmed
    ..These results suggest conditions can be selected that allow chemical imaging of substrates without the feedback interactions typically encountered in scanning electrochemical microscopy. ..
  23. Dawood M, Liew T, Lianto P, Hong M, Tripathy S, Thong J, et al. Interference lithographically defined and catalytically etched, large-area silicon nanocones from nanowires. Nanotechnology. 2010;21:205305 pubmed publisher
  24. Ying L, Bruckbauer A, Zhou D, Gorelik J, Shevchuk A, Lab M, et al. The scanned nanopipette: a new tool for high resolution bioimaging and controlled deposition of biomolecules. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2005;7:2859-66 pubmed
    ..We have pioneered the application of a form of scanning probe microscopy based on a scanned nanopipette, originally developed by Hansma and co-workers, for reliable non-contact ..
  25. Kawazoe T, Kobayashi K, Sangu S, Ohtsu M. Demonstrating nanophotonic switching using near-field pump-probe photoluminescence spectroscopy of CuCl quantum cubes. J Microsc. 2003;209:261-6 pubmed
    ..The internal quantum efficiency of the switching operation was close to 1. These results suggest the possibility of making a nanophotonic switching device smaller than 30 nm. ..
  26. Mamin J. Nanosensors: small strains, big gains. Nat Nanotechnol. 2007;2:81-2 pubmed publisher
  27. Huisstede J, Subramaniam V, Bennink M. Combining optical tweezers and scanning probe microscopy to study DNA-protein interactions. Microsc Res Tech. 2007;70:26-33 pubmed
    ..This microscope combines optical tweezers with scanning probe microscopy and allows us to locate DNA-binding proteins on a single suspended DNA molecule...
  28. Qi C, Tian X, Chen S, Yan J, Cao Z, Tian K, et al. Detection of avian influenza virus subtype H5 using a biosensor based on imaging ellipsometry. Biosens Bioelectron. 2010;25:1530-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that this biosensor might be a valuable diagnostic tool for avian influenza virus detection. ..
  29. Liao X, Wiedmann T. Characterization of pharmaceutical solids by scanning probe microscopy. J Pharm Sci. 2004;93:2250-8 pubmed
    ..Given the flexibility and power of this approach, nanoindentation coupled with atomic force microscopy may be a useful means to characterize materials for evaluating tablet-processing conditions, perhaps at a preformulation stage. ..
  30. Toumey C. Cubism at the nanoscale. Nat Nanotechnol. 2007;2:587-9 pubmed publisher
  31. Munuera C, Puigmarti Luis J, Paradinas M, Garzón L, Amabilino D, Ocal C. Layer-by-layer electropeeling of organic conducting material imaged in real time. Small. 2009;5:214-20 pubmed publisher
    ..It depends on the potential applied and is initiated only above a threshold value of 200 mV. The results indicate the importance of electric fields on the stability and performance of conducting organic systems at the nanoscale. ..
  32. Hildebrand G, Kunze S, Driver M. Blood cell adhesion on sensor materials studied by light, scanning electron, and atomic-force microscopy. Ann Biomed Eng. 2001;29:1100-5 pubmed
    ..AFM gives topographical information, and the calculated contact areas and cell volumes indicate smaller interactions between cells and sensor material in the case of PC-polymer-coated sensors. ..
  33. Zweyer M, Troian B, Spreafico V, Prato S. SNOM on cell thin sections: observation of Jurkat and MDAMB453 cells. J Microsc. 2008;229:440-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Scanning near-field optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy allow to obtain different, however comparable, and complementary information of the cell sample. ..
  34. Liu H, Hawkins A, Schultz S, Oliphant T. Fast nonlinear image reconstruction for scanning impedance imaging. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2008;55:970-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Two-dimensional current images were measured and corresponding quantitative conductivity images were restored using our approach. The reconstructed images are quantitative and reveal details not present in the measured images. ..
  35. Gorelik J, Gu Y, Spohr H, Shevchuk A, Lab M, Harding S, et al. Ion channels in small cells and subcellular structures can be studied with a smart patch-clamp system. Biophys J. 2002;83:3296-303 pubmed
  36. Gapan R, Evyapan M, Namli H, Turhan O, Stanciu G. Characterization of a novel 1,3-bis(p-iminobenzoic acid)indane Langmuir-Blodgett film for organic vapor sensing. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2005;5:1108-12 pubmed
    ..This newly synthesized IBI is a suitable molecule for the fabrication of an LB film and can be regarded as a promising sensing material in the development of a room temperature gas sensor for benzene vapor applications...
  37. Fuchigami N, Hazel J, Gorbunov V, Stone M, Grace M, Tsukruk V. Biological thermal detection in infrared imaging snakes. 1. Ultramicrostructure of pit receptor organs. Biomacromolecules. 2001;2:757-64 pubmed
    The receptor organs of snakes with "thermal vision" were studied with ultra-high-resolution scanning probe microscopy (SPM) at close to in vivo conditions to elucidate their surface morphology and materials properties critical ..
  38. Leggett G. Biological nanostructures: platforms for analytical chemistry at the sub-zeptomolar level. Analyst. 2005;130:259-64 pubmed
    ..These techniques offer a multitude of strategies that may at last make the manipulation of handfuls of molecules--and perhaps single molecules--a practical possibility for the analytical chemist. ..
  39. Cuche A, Drezet A, Sonnefraud Y, Faklaris O, Treussart F, Roch J, et al. Near-field optical microscopy with a nanodiamond-based single-photon tip. Opt Express. 2009;17:19969-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work may be of importance to various emerging fields of nanoscience where an accurate positioning of a quantum emitter is required such as for example quantum plasmonics. ..
  40. Fallahi P, Bleszynski A, Westervelt R, Huang J, Walls J, Heller E, et al. Imaging a single-electron quantum dot. Nano Lett. 2005;5:223-6 pubmed
    ..SPM manipulation of electrons in quantum dots promises to be useful in understanding, building, and manipulating circuits for quantum information processing. ..
  41. Yeo B, Zhang W, Vannier C, Zenobi R. Enhancement of Raman signals with silver-coated tips. Appl Spectrosc. 2006;60:1142-7 pubmed
    ..This work helps to enable the more frequent use of the 488 nm laser for nanoscale chemical analysis with both TERS and fluorescence imaging in the same setup. ..
  42. Kadalbajoo M, Park J, Opdahl A, Suda H, Kitchens C, Garno J, et al. Synthesis and structural characterization of glucopyranosylamide films on gold. Langmuir. 2007;23:700-7 pubmed
    ..Acetate analogues of these conjugates do not form SAMs on gold; they form multilayered films under identical deposition conditions. ..
  43. Qin Y, Reifenberger R. Measuring the interaction force between a tip and a substrate using a quartz tuning fork under ambient conditions. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2006;6:3455-9 pubmed
    ..provide an alternate method to silicon microcantilevers for probing the tip-substrate interaction in scanning probe microscopy. The high quality factor and stable resonant frequency of the tuning fork allow accurate measurements of ..
  44. Na C, Kendall T, Martin S. Surface-potential heterogeneity of reacted calcite and rhodochrosite. Environ Sci Technol. 2007;41:6491-7 pubmed
    ..Taking into consideration such heterogeneities, which are not included in state-of-the-art models, should improve the accuracy of the predictions of contaminantfate and transport in natural environments. ..
  45. Kim E, Xiong H, Striemer C, Fang D, Fauchet P, McGrath J, et al. A structure-permeability relationship of ultrathin nanoporous silicon membrane: a comparison with the nuclear envelope. J Am Chem Soc. 2008;130:4230-1 pubmed publisher
  46. Erfle H, Pepperkok R. Arrays of transfected mammalian cells for high content screening microscopy. Methods Enzymol. 2005;404:1-8 pubmed
    ..The method is suitable for high content screening microscopy at a high spatial and temporal resolution allowing even time-lapse analysis of hundreds of samples in parallel. ..
  47. Stieg A, Wilkinson P, Gimzewski J. Vertical inertial sliding drive for coarse and fine approaches in scanning probe microscopy. Rev Sci Instrum. 2007;78:036110 pubmed
    ..controlled approach of a probe tip toward the sample surface are essential in high resolution imaging by scanning probe microscopy (SPM)...
  48. Baltes N, Heinze J. Imaging local proton fluxes through a polycarbonate membrane by using scanning electrochemical microscopy and functionalized alkanethiols. Chemphyschem. 2009;10:174-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, local pH changes in the close vicinity of a membrane-like substrate lead to different current responses recorded at the tip electrode when scanning above the surface. ..
  49. Altman E, Schwarz U. Mechanisms, kinetics, and dynamics of oxidation and reactions on oxide surfaces investigated by scanning probe microscopy. Adv Mater. 2010;22:2854-69 pubmed publisher
  50. Stöhr M, Wahl M, Spillmann H, Gade L, Jung T. Lateral manipulation for the positioning of molecular guests within the confinements of a highly stable self-assembled organic surface network. Small. 2007;3:1336-40 pubmed
  51. Tokumasu F, Hwang J, Dvorak J. Heterogeneous molecular distribution in supported multicomponent lipid bilayers. Langmuir. 2004;20:614-8 pubmed
    ..Our high-resolution NSOM studies of membrane domain behavior provide a better understanding of complex membrane phase phenomena in multicomponent biological membranes. ..
  52. Bond L, Allen S, Davies M, Roberts C, Shivji A, Tendler S, et al. Differential scanning calorimetry and scanning thermal microscopy analysis of pharmaceutical materials. Int J Pharm. 2002;243:71-82 pubmed
    ..It is also shown that microTA offers the opportunity to study single particles and the interfacial region between particles, data which is currently inaccessible through the DSC technique. ..
  53. Grosges T, Barchiesi D. Scanning near-field optical microscopy signal processing and resolution. Appl Opt. 2007;46:2248-55 pubmed
    ..ratio and to remove the spatially slow varying signals, a lock-in amplifier is often used in scanning probe microscopy. The signal reconstructed from the lock-in data contains the contributions of the evanescent and ..