phase contrast microscopy


Summary: A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.

Top Publications

  1. Wei H, Juhasz O, Li J, Tarasova Y, Boheler K. Embryonic stem cells and cardiomyocyte differentiation: phenotypic and molecular analyses. J Cell Mol Med. 2005;9:804-17 pubmed
    ..With these issues in mind, this review will focus on the differentiation of pluripotent embryonic stem cells into cardiomyocytes as a developmental model, and the possible use of ES cell-derived cardiomyocytes as source of donor cells. ..
  2. Aggarwal R, Ahlawat S, Kumar Y, Panwar P, Singh K, Bhargava M. Biometry of frozen-thawed sperm from eight breeds of Indian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Theriogenology. 2007;68:682-6 pubmed
    ..Multivariate analysis and clustering put six breeds (Surti, Tarai, Mehsana, Jaffrabadi, Bhadawari and Nili-Ravi) in one cluster, whereas Murrah and Pandharpuri appeared as separate entities. ..
  3. Kemper B, Kosmeier S, Langehanenberg P, von Bally G, Bredebusch I, Domschke W, et al. Integral refractive index determination of living suspension cells by multifocus digital holographic phase contrast microscopy. J Biomed Opt. 2007;12:054009 pubmed
    ..Results obtained from human pancreas and liver tumor cells show that the integral cellular refractive index decreases with increasing cell radius. ..
  4. Danev R, Nagayama K. Single particle analysis based on Zernike phase contrast transmission electron microscopy. J Struct Biol. 2008;161:211-8 pubmed
    ..The same resolution, about 12A, was achieved by both imaging methods. The reconstruction based on Zernike phase contrast data required about 30% fewer particles. The advantages and prospects of each technique are discussed. ..
  5. Langehanenberg P, Kemper B, Dirksen D, von Bally G. Autofocusing in digital holographic phase contrast microscopy on pure phase objects for live cell imaging. Appl Opt. 2008;47:D176-82 pubmed
  6. Maurer C, Jesacher A, Bernet S, Ritsch Marte M. Phase contrast microscopy with full numerical aperture illumination. Opt Express. 2008;16:19821-9 pubmed
    ..In standard Zernike phase contrast microscopy the illumination is achieved through an annular ring aperture, and the phase filtering operation is ..
  7. Jurna M, Korterik J, Otto C, Herek J, Offerhaus H. Vibrational phase contrast microscopy by use of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering. Phys Rev Lett. 2009;103:043905 pubmed
    ..The detection of the phase of the vibrational motion can be regarded as a vibrational extension of the linear (refractive index) phase contrast microscopy introduced by Zernike around 1933.
  8. Kong L, Zhang P, Setlow P, Li Y. Characterization of bacterial spore germination using integrated phase contrast microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and optical tweezers. Anal Chem. 2010;82:3840-7 pubmed publisher
    We present a methodology that combines external phase contrast microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and optical tweezers to monitor a variety of changes during the germination of single Bacillus cereus spores in both nutrient (l-alanine) and ..
  9. Choi W, Yu C, Fang Yen C, Badizadegan K, Dasari R, Feld M. Field-based angle-resolved light-scattering study of single live cells. Opt Lett. 2008;33:1596-8 pubmed

More Information


  1. Wells W, Wang X, Daghlian C, Paulsen K, Pogue B. Phase contrast microscopy analysis of breast tissue: differences in benign vs. malignant epithelium and stroma. Anal Quant Cytol Histol. 2009;31:197-207 pubmed
    To assess how optical scatter properties in breast tissue, as measured by phase contrast microscopy and interpreted pathophysiologically, might be exploited as a diagnostic tool to differentiate cancer from benign tissue...
  2. Symonds J, Lovicu F, Chamberlain C. Posterior capsule opacification-like changes in rat lens explants cultured with TGFbeta and FGF: effects of cell coverage and regional differences. Exp Eye Res. 2006;82:693-9 pubmed
    ..Such overall resilience to variations in conditions may contribute to the insidious nature of PCO, while factors related to observed early differences between groups may contribute to PCO pleiomorphism. ..
  3. Choi W, Fang Yen C, Badizadegan K, Oh S, Lue N, Dasari R, et al. Tomographic phase microscopy. Nat Methods. 2007;4:717-9 pubmed
    ..Our results will permit quantitative characterization of specimen-induced aberrations in high-resolution microscopy and have multiple applications in tissue light scattering. ..
  4. Park K, Lee Y, Kang K. In vitro neuronal and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells from human umbilical cord blood. J Vet Sci. 2006;7:343-8 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it is suggested that the MSCs from UCB might be a good alternative to bone marrow cells for transplantation or cell therapy. ..
  5. Kaneko Y, Danev R, Nagayama K, Nakamoto H. Intact carboxysomes in a cyanobacterial cell visualized by hilbert differential contrast transmission electron microscopy. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:805-8 pubmed
    ..The carboxysome was surrounded by a 5- to 6-nm-thick monolayer shell which consisted of orderly arrays of globular particles. ..
  6. Popescu G, Ikeda T, Dasari R, Feld M. Diffraction phase microscopy for quantifying cell structure and dynamics. Opt Lett. 2006;31:775-7 pubmed
    ..The potential of the technique for quantifying nanoscale motions in live cells is demonstrated by experiments on red blood cells. ..
  7. Ivanov V, Gewolb I, Uhal B. A new look at the pathogenesis of the meconium aspiration syndrome: a role for fetal pancreatic proteolytic enzymes in epithelial cell detachment. Pediatr Res. 2010;68:221-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed protective effects of protease inhibitors suggest that they may be useful in the treatment and/or prophylaxis of MAS...
  8. Khelifi N, Ben Romdhane E, Hedi A, Postec A, Fardeau M, Hamdi M, et al. Characterization of Microaerobacter geothermalis gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel microaerophilic, nitrate- and nitrite-reducing thermophilic bacterium isolated from a terrestrial hot spring in Tunisia. Extremophiles. 2010;14:297-304 pubmed publisher
    ..nov., sp. nov. The type strain is Nad S1(T) (=DSM 22679(T) =JCM 16213(T)). ..
  9. Escrich L, Grau N, Meseguer M, Pellicer A, Escribá M. Morphologic indicators predict the stage of chromatin condensation of human germinal vesicle oocytes recovered from stimulated cycles. Fertil Steril. 2010;93:2557-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Noninvasive analysis of GV oocytes using contrast-phase microscopy maintains oocytes in a viable state and allows the chromatin condensation status to be predicted. ..
  10. Maiden A, Rodenburg J, Humphry M. Optical ptychography: a practical implementation with useful resolution. Opt Lett. 2010;35:2585-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The microscope uses the recently reported coherent diffractive imaging technique of ptychography to generate images from recorded diffraction patterns. ..
  11. Yamakawa T, Kakinoki R, Ikeguchi R, Nakayama K, Morimoto Y, Nakamura T. Nerve regeneration promoted in a tube with vascularity containing bone marrow-derived cells. Cell Transplant. 2007;16:811-22 pubmed
    ..They thus functioned similarly to Schwann cells, promoting nerve regeneration. ..
  12. Li J, Xue Y, Han B, Li Q, Liu L, Xiao T, et al. Application of X-ray phase contrast imaging technique in detection of pulmonary lesions induced by multi-walled carbon nanotubes in rats. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2008;8:3357-62 pubmed
    ..It is hoped that this work can act as an impetus for further application of phase imaging technique to nanotoxicology and to assessment of occupational safety of nanomaterials. ..
  13. Döbbeler P. Hyperepiphyllous, perianthicolous hypocreales--highly specialized ascomycetes of the phyllosphere. Mycologia. 2010;102:404-17 pubmed
    ..They are sex- and organ-specific and seem to be restricted to certain hosts but are not poor in characters as are many bryophilous fungi. These species increase the complexity of the phyllosphere. ..
  14. Pelc R, Hostounský Z, Otaki T. Correlation between off-axis illumination and apodized phase-contrast: two complementary microscopic phase-imaging modes. J Biomed Opt. 2008;13:054067 pubmed publisher
    ..g., larger cells or cell clusters). ..
  15. Liu G, Zhang J, Yu L, Xie T, Chen Z. Real-time polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography data processing with parallel computing. Appl Opt. 2009;48:6365-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The real-time 2D and 3D polarization-sensitive imaging of chicken muscle and pig tendon is also demonstrated. ..
  16. Cai N, Wong C, Gong Y, Tan S, Chan V, Liao K. Modulating cell adhesion dynamics on carbon nanotube monolayer engineered with extracellular matrix proteins. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2010;2:1038-47 pubmed publisher
    ..were elucidated with confocal reflectance interference contrast microscopy (C-RICM) integrating with phase contrast microscopy. Moreover, CNT monolayer (CNT-ML) was functionalized with two typical extracellular matrix (ECM) ..
  17. Wood L, Das A, Kamm R, Asada H. A stochastic broadcast feedback approach to regulating cell population morphology for microfluidic angiogenesis platforms. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2009;56:2299-303 pubmed publisher
    ..Initial simulation experiments demonstrate that vascular development can be guided toward a desired morphologic pattern using this technique. ..
  18. Kernt M, Neubauer A, Liegl R, Eibl K, Alge C, Lackerbauer C, et al. Cytoprotective effects of a blue light-filtering intraocular lens on human retinal pigment epithelium by reducing phototoxic effects on vascular endothelial growth factor-alpha, Bax, and Bcl-2 expression. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2009;35:354-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Both IOLs reduced light-induced RPE damage. The UV- and blue light-filtering IOL reduced damage more than the conventional IOL. This supports the hypothesis that blue light-filtering IOLs may prevent retinal damage in clinical use. ..
  19. Janson V, Behnam Motlagh P, Henriksson R, Hörstedt P, Engström K, Grankvist K. Phase-contrast microscopy studies of early cisplatin-induced morphological changes of malignant mesothelioma cells and the correspondence to induced apoptosis. Exp Lung Res. 2008;34:49-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors concluded that very early morphological changes can be determined with PCM in MPM, but they did not convincingly correspond to apoptosis induction. ..
  20. Liu B, Wang J, Yildirir G, Englund P. TbPIF5 is a Trypanosoma brucei mitochondrial DNA helicase involved in processing of minicircle Okazaki fragments. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000589 pubmed publisher
    ..This replication defect is associated with kinetoplast shrinkage and eventual slowing of cell growth. We propose that TbPIF5 unwinds RNA primers after lagging strand synthesis, thus facilitating processing of Okazaki fragments. ..
  21. Yoo J, Kim M, Ogay V, Soh K. In vivo visualization of bonghan ducts inside blood vessels of mice by using an Alcian blue staining method. Indian J Exp Biol. 2008;46:336-9 pubmed
    ..Further studies are needed to investigate their physiological functions, especially in relation with those of other circulatory systems. ..
  22. Cooper T, Hellenkemper B. Method-related estimates of sperm vitality. J Androl. 2009;30:214-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Only with the latter method did the sum of motile (presumed live) and stained (presumed dead) preparations never exceed 100%, making this the method of choice for sperm viability estimates. ..
  23. Huang L, Meng Y, Ren A, Han X, Bai D, Bao L. Response of cementoblast-like cells to mechanical tensile or compressive stress at physiological levels in vitro. Mol Biol Rep. 2009;36:1741-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that cementoblast-like cells are sensitive to mechanical stress, and may play a role in regulating orthodontic-related root resorption/repair. ..
  24. Feng Y, Yang S, Xiao B, Xu W, Ye S, Xia T, et al. Decreased in the number and function of circulation endothelial progenitor cells in patients with avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Bone. 2010;46:32-40 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated whether abnormalities in EPCs levels and functions are present in ANFH patients...
  25. Suhr S, Chang E, Rodriguez R, Wang K, Ross P, Beyhan Z, et al. Telomere dynamics in human cells reprogrammed to pluripotency. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8124 pubmed publisher
  26. Jiménez Banzo A, Sagrista M, Mora M, Nonell S. Kinetics of singlet oxygen photosensitization in human skin fibroblasts. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008;44:1926-34 pubmed publisher
    ..This observation may reconcile earlier views that singlet oxygen-induced photodamage is highly localized, while its lifetime is long enough to diffuse over long distances within the cells. ..
  27. Stachelscheid H, Urbaniak T, Ring A, Spengler B, Gerlach J, Zeilinger K. Isolation and characterization of adult human liver progenitors from ischemic liver tissue derived from therapeutic hepatectomies. Tissue Eng Part A. 2009;15:1633-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Ischemic liver tissue from various sources, thought to be unsuitable for cell isolation, may be considered as a prospective source of hepatic progenitor cells. ..
  28. Müller C, Weiss K, Richtering W, Loman A, Enderlein J. Calibrating differential interference contrast microscopy with dual-focus fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Opt Express. 2008;16:4322-9 pubmed
    ..The method is easy to implement and allows for determining the shear distance with nanometer accuracy. ..
  29. Amaral I, Moreira Neto J, Pereira G, Franco M, Beletti M, Kerr W, et al. Circulating hemocytes from larvae of Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini): cell types and their role in phagocytosis. Micron. 2010;41:123-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results presented plasmatocytes and granulocytes involved in phagocytic response of foreign particles in 3rd instar larvae of M. scutellaris. ..
  30. Hart L, El Deiry W. Invincible, but not invisible: imaging approaches toward in vivo detection of cancer stem cells. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:2901-10 pubmed publisher
    ..This review examines the opportunities for in vivo imaging of putative cancer stem cells with regard to currently accepted cancer stem-cell characteristics and advanced imaging technologies. ..
  31. Narducci P, Nicolin V. Differentiation of activated monocytes into osteoclast-like cells on a hydroxyapatite substrate: an in vitro study. Ann Anat. 2009;191:349-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies were designed to test a model in which osteoclasts could be formed from HA-activated monocytes via positive feedback elicited by RANKL, allowing for identification of innovative targets for therapeutic approaches. ..
  32. Nagayama K, Danev R. Phase contrast electron microscopy: development of thin-film phase plates and biological applications. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2008;363:2153-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Phase contrast cryo-TEM has the potential to bridge the gap between cellular and molecular biology in terms of high-resolution visualization. Examples using proteins, viruses, cyanobacteria and somatic cells are provided. ..
  33. Saravanan C, Cao Z, Kumar J, Qiu J, Plaut A, Newburg D, et al. Milk components inhibit Acanthamoeba-induced cytopathic effect. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:1010-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The goal of the present study was to determine whether human mucosal secretions have the potential to provide protection against the Acanthamoeba-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) by an additional mechanism that is independent of IgA...
  34. Prikrylová I, Matejusova I, Jarkovsky J, Gelnar M. Morphometric comparison of three members of the Gyrodactylus nemachili-like species group (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) on Barbatula barbatula L. in the Czech Republic, with a reinstatement of G. papernai Ergens & Bychowsky, 1967. Syst Parasitol. 2008;69:33-44 pubmed
    ..These analyses provided sufficient evidence for the restoration of G. papernai as a valid taxon. Partial sequences of the internal transcribed spacer rRNA genes (ITS rDNA) verified the validity of all three Gyrodactylus species studied...
  35. Krishnan S, Iyer G, Krishnakumar S. Culture & characterisation of limbal epithelial cells & oral mucosal cells. Indian J Med Res. 2010;131:422-8 pubmed
    ..characteristics of cultivated epithelial cells were analyzed by haematoxylin and eosin staining and phase contrast microscopy. Confluent sheets of epithelial cells were seen at the end of 14(th) day resembling the morphological ..
  36. Lue N, Choi W, Badizadegan K, Dasari R, Feld M, Popescu G. Confocal diffraction phase microscopy of live cells. Opt Lett. 2008;33:2074-6 pubmed
  37. Boeger W, Kritsky D. Neotropical Monogenoidea. 54. Proposal of Aetheolabes n. g. (Dactylogyrinea: Diplectanidae), with the description of A. goeldiensis n. sp. from the gills of 'pescada' Plagioscion sp. (Teleostei: Sciaenidae) in Brazil. Syst Parasitol. 2009;74:137-42 pubmed publisher
    ..sp. closely resembles Diplectanum umbrinum Tripathi, 1957 from India and China by the haptoral sclerites forming a clasp, but differs from it primarily by the orientation of the reproductive organs and absence of squamodiscs. ..
  38. Mazzucchelli G, Cellier N, Mshviladzade V, Elias R, Shim Y, Touboul D, et al. Pores formation on cell membranes by hederacolchiside A1 leads to a rapid release of proteins for cytosolic subproteome analysis. J Proteome Res. 2008;7:1683-92 pubmed publisher
    ..This can lead to a new rapid and efficient strategy to analyze the cytosolic subproteome and it opens the door to get information from the cytosolic compartment for clinical proteomic studies. ..
  39. Hoshino K, Hirose M, Iwabuchi K. A new insect cell line from the longicorn beetle Plagionotus christophi (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2009;45:19-22 pubmed publisher
    ..79 d. Isozyme analysis of malic enzyme, phosphoglucose isomerase, and phosphoglucomutase revealed that PC-1 cells were enzymatically distinct from coleopteran XP-1, AnCu-35, dipteran AeAl-2, and lepidopteran GaMe-LF1 cell lines. ..
  40. McClelland R, Wauthier E, Zhang L, Melhem A, Schmelzer E, Barbier C, et al. Ex vivo conditions for self-replication of human hepatic stem cells. Tissue Eng Part C Methods. 2008;14:341-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The conditions for self-replication should offer ideal culture conditions for generating large numbers of hHpSCs for use in commercial and clinical programs. ..
  41. Si K, Gong W, Chen N, Sheppard C. Edge enhancement for in-phase focal modulation microscope. Appl Opt. 2009;48:6290-5 pubmed publisher
    ..4% and 58.9% for a thick edge and a thin edge, respectively. Signal level is also discussed, and the results show that, to obtain high transverse resolution with IPFMM, the normalized detector pinhole radius should not exceed 2.8. ..
  42. Young J, Guttman J, Vaid K, Vogl A. Tubulobulbar complexes are intercellular podosome-like structures that internalize intact intercellular junctions during epithelial remodeling events in the rat testis. Biol Reprod. 2009;80:162-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results are consistent with the conclusion that tubulobulbar complexes are podosome-like structures that are responsible for internalizing intact intercellular junctions during spermatogenesis...
  43. Chang S, Chou S, Yu S. Dexamethasone reduces mitomycin C-related inflammatory cytokine expression without inducing further cell death in corneal fibroblasts. Wound Repair Regen. 2010;18:59-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Combined MMC and DEX treatment may facilitate corneal wound healing. ..
  44. Lee C, Lin E, Cheng J, Wei P. Study of gold nanoparticles and live cells interactions by using planar evanescent wave excitation. J Biomed Opt. 2009;14:021005 pubmed publisher
    ..At the same time, cells are observed only by using the phase contrast microscopy. The nanoparticles and cell images indicated that unmodified AuNPs had no interactions with cells, ..
  45. Peterson A, Halter M, Tona A, Bhadriraju K, Plant A. Surface plasmon resonance imaging of cells and surface-associated fibronectin. BMC Cell Biol. 2009;10:16 pubmed publisher
    ..This technique is compatible with live cells such that it is possible to monitor cellular modifications to the extracellular matrix in real-time. ..
  46. Li Y, Chang J, Chou W, Liaw C, Wang H, Huang J, et al. Zoledronic acid is unable to induce apoptosis, but slows tumor growth and prolongs survival for non-small-cell lung cancers. Lung Cancer. 2008;59:180-91 pubmed
    ..Although the clinical relevance of these results warrants verification for human lung cancer patients, ZOL combined with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy appears to be a new therapeutic strategy for the effective treatment of NSCLC. ..
  47. Dutt K, Cao Y, Ezeonu I. Ciliary neurotrophic factor: a survival and differentiation inducer in human retinal progenitors. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2010;46:635-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Our conclusion is that CNTF could be an agent that has therapeutic potential and possibly induces differentiation of large multipolar ganglionic phenotype in a subset of progenitors. ..
  48. Kirkman Brown J, Björndahl L. Evaluation of a disposable plastic Neubauer counting chamber for semen analysis. Fertil Steril. 2009;91:627-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The plastic disposable chamber type was not suitable for routine semen analysis because results are variable depending on the microscope used, and increased time is necessary to do the assessment accurately. ..
  49. Kanaya T, Miyazawa K, Takakura I, Itani W, Watanabe K, Ohwada S, et al. Differentiation of a murine intestinal epithelial cell line (MIE) toward the M cell lineage. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2008;295:G273-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here that MIE cells have the potential ability to differentiate into M cells and that this differentiation required activated T cells and B cells. ..
  50. Giusti C, Kosta A, Lam D, Tresse E, Luciani M, Golstein P. Analysis of autophagic and necrotic cell death in Dictyostelium. Methods Enzymol. 2008;446:1-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Methods to follow these non-apoptotic cell death types qualitatively and quantitatively will be reported. ..
  51. Tychinskii V, Kretushev A, Klemyashov I, Vyshenskaya T, Ivanov A, Ignat yev P, et al. Reduction of phase thickness is a characteristic reaction of the nucleoli to toxicity as shown by coherent phase microscopy. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2007;143:493-7 pubmed
    ..Hence, quantitative parameters of coherent phase microscopy describe common reaction of the nucleolus to stress; reduction of optical thickness of the nucleolus is a component of this reaction. ..
  52. Burger M, Adlard R. Four new species of KudoaMeglitsch, 1947 (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) from Australia with recommendations for species descriptions in the Kudoidae. Parasitology. 2010;137:793-814 pubmed publisher
    ..This article proposes comprehensive requirements for species descriptions within the Kudoidae that incorporate biology, morphology, and genetic sequence. ..
  53. Salmon E, Canman J. Proper alignment and adjustment of the light microscope. Curr Protoc Cell Biol. 2001;Chapter 4:Unit 4.1 pubmed publisher
    ..The principles of microscopy and step-by-step alignment and adjustment procedures are described in this unit. ..