thermodilution

Summary

Summary: Measurement of blood flow based on induction at one point of the circulation of a known change in the intravascular heat content of flowing blood and detection of the resultant change in temperature at a point downstream.

Top Publications

  1. Breukers R, Trof R, de Wilde R, van den Berg P, Twisk J, Jansen J, et al. Relative value of pressures and volumes in assessing fluid responsiveness after valvular and coronary artery surgery. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2009;35:62-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We measured central venous pressure (CVP), pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (PAOP) and, by transpulmonary thermodilution, cardiac index (CI) and global end-diastolic (GEDVI) and intrathoracic blood volume (ITBVI) indices...
  2. Wolf S, Riess A, Landscheidt J, Lumenta C, Friederich P, Schürer L. Global end-diastolic volume acquired by transpulmonary thermodilution depends on age and gender in awake and spontaneously breathing patients. Crit Care. 2009;13:R202 pubmed publisher
    Volumetric parameters acquired by transpulmonary thermodilution had been repeatedly proven superior to filling pressures for estimation of cardiac preload. Up to now, the proposed normal ranges were never studied in detail...
  3. Kuzkov V, Suborov E, Kirov M, Waerhaug K, Mortensen R, Kuklin V, et al. Radiographic lung density assessed by computed tomography is associated with extravascular lung water content. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2010;54:1018-26 pubmed publisher
    ..oleic acid-induced ALI, with extravascular lung water indexes (EVLWI), determined with single transpulmonary thermodilution (EVLWI(STD)), thermal-dye dilution (EVLWI(TDD)), and postmortem gravimetry (EVLWI(G))...
  4. Berkowitz D, Danai P, Eaton S, Moss M, Martin G. Accurate characterization of extravascular lung water in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care Med. 2008;36:1803-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Prior studies using single indicator thermodilution have reported that 21% to 35% of patients with clinical acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have normal ..
  5. Gujjar A, Muralidhar K, Banakal S, Gupta R, Sathyaprabha T, Jairaj P. Non-invasive cardiac output by transthoracic electrical bioimpedence in post-cardiac surgery patients: comparison with thermodilution method. J Clin Monit Comput. 2008;22:175-80 pubmed publisher
    ..This study compared TEB-CO measured using a new instrument--NICOMON (Larsen & Toubro Ltd. India) with thermodilution (Td) CO in post-cardiac surgery patients...
  6. Lemson J, Backx A, van Oort A, Bouw T, Van Der Hoeven J. Extravascular lung water measurement using transpulmonary thermodilution in children. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2009;10:227-33 pubmed publisher
    ..in the treatment of critically ill children and can be performed at the bedside using the transpulmonary thermodilution technique (TPTD). There are currently no data to verify the accuracy of these measurements in (small) children...
  7. Breukers R, Sepehrkhouy S, Spiegelenberg S, Groeneveld A. Cardiac output measured by a new arterial pressure waveform analysis method without calibration compared with thermodilution after cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2007;21:632-5 pubmed
    ..need for calibration (FloTrac/Vigileo [FV]; Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA), conforms to the standard bolus thermodilution method via a pulmonary artery catheter (PAC). Prospective study. Intensive care unit of university hospital...
  8. Yamashita K, Nishiyama T, Yokoyama T, Abe H, Manabe M. Effects of vasodilation on cardiac output measured by PulseCO. J Clin Monit Comput. 2007;21:335-9 pubmed
    ..vasodilation by prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) on the relation between cardiac output measured by PulseCO and that by thermodilution. Twenty patients who underwent off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) were enrolled in this study...
  9. Button D, Weibel L, Reuthebuch O, Genoni M, Zollinger A, Hofer C. Clinical evaluation of the FloTrac/Vigileo system and two established continuous cardiac output monitoring devices in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Br J Anaesth. 2007;99:329-36 pubmed
    ..a PAC (CCO; Vigilance monitoring, Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine CA, USA) with intermittent pulmonary artery thermodilution (ICO). The study was conducted in patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery...

More Information

Publications61

  1. Paarmann H, Groesdonk H, Sedemund Adib B, Hanke T, Heinze H, Heringlake M, et al. Lack of agreement between pulmonary arterial thermodilution cardiac output and the pressure recording analytical method in postoperative cardiac surgery patients. Br J Anaesth. 2011;106:475-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Sparse data comparing the accuracy of the PRAM-CO with conventional thermodilution CO (ThD-CO) in cardiac surgery patients are available...
  2. Trepte C, Eichhorn V, Haas S, Richter H, Goepfert M, Kubitz J, et al. Thermodilution-derived indices for assessment of left and right ventricular cardiac function in normal and impaired cardiac function. Crit Care Med. 2011;39:2106-12 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to assess whether thermodilution-derived parameters of right and left ventricular cardiac function (right ventricular ejection fraction, global ejection fraction, cardiac function index) are able to track changes ..
  3. Bigatello L, Kistler E, Noto A. Limitations of volumetric indices obtained by trans-thoracic thermodilution. Minerva Anestesiol. 2010;76:945-9 pubmed
    Transthoracic thermodilution (TTT) measures cardiac output without the need for right heart catheterization...
  4. Hadian M, Kim H, Severyn D, Pinsky M. Cross-comparison of cardiac output trending accuracy of LiDCO, PiCCO, FloTrac and pulmonary artery catheters. Crit Care. 2010;14:R212 pubmed publisher
    ..analysis techniques for estimating cardiac output (CO) have not been simultaneously compared to PAC bolus thermodilution CO (COtd) or continuous CO (CCO) devices...
  5. Belda F, Aguilar G, Teboul J, Pestana D, Redondo F, Malbrain M, et al. Complications related to less-invasive haemodynamic monitoring. Br J Anaesth. 2011;106:482-6 pubmed publisher
    ..during insertion, maintenance, and withdrawal of central arterial catheters used for transpulmonary thermodilution haemodynamic monitoring (PiCCO™)...
  6. Critchley L, Yang X, Lee A. Assessment of trending ability of cardiac output monitors by polar plot methodology. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2011;25:536-46 pubmed publisher
    ..cardiac output (CO) trending ability when new CO monitors are compared to a reference standard, such as thermodilution, using polar coordinates. Developing a new statistical analytic method using historic data...
  7. Kirov M, Lenkin A, Kuzkov V, Suborov E, Slastilin V, Borodin V, et al. Single transpulmonary thermodilution in off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting: haemodynamic changes and effects of different anaesthetic techniques. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2007;51:426-33 pubmed
    ..Our aim was to investigate the feasibility of transpulmonary single thermodilution (STD) combined with pulse-contour analysis, a newly introduced method for cardiovascular monitoring, for ..
  8. De Backer D, Taccone F, Holsten R, Ibrahimi F, Vincent J. Influence of respiratory rate on stroke volume variation in mechanically ventilated patients. Anesthesiology. 2009;110:1092-7 pubmed publisher
  9. Zoremba N, Bickenbach J, Krauss B, Rossaint R, Kuhlen R, Schälte G. Comparison of electrical velocimetry and thermodilution techniques for the measurement of cardiac output. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2007;51:1314-9 pubmed
    ..method of non-invasive determination of cardiac output based on electrical velocimetry (EV-CO) with invasive thermodilution methods. Fifty critically ill patients were enrolled into the study...
  10. Saugel B, Phillip V, Ernesti C, Messer M, Meidert A, Schmid R, et al. Impact of large-volume thoracentesis on transpulmonary thermodilution-derived extravascular lung water in medical intensive care unit patients. J Crit Care. 2013;28:196-201 pubmed publisher
    ..of this study was to investigate the impact of large-volume thoracentesis (>1000 mL) on transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD)-derived cardiopulmonary parameters with special regard to extravascular lung water index (EVLWI)...
  11. Schmidt S, Westhoff T, Hofmann C, Schaefer J, Zidek W, Compton F, et al. Effect of the venous catheter site on transpulmonary thermodilution measurement variables. Crit Care Med. 2007;35:783-6 pubmed
    Transpulmonary thermodilution is increasingly used for hemodynamic monitoring of critically ill patients. Injection of a cold saline bolus in the central venous circulation is a prerequisite for transpulmonary thermodilution measurements...
  12. Monnet X, Anguel N, Osman D, Hamzaoui O, Richard C, Teboul J. Assessing pulmonary permeability by transpulmonary thermodilution allows differentiation of hydrostatic pulmonary edema from ALI/ARDS. Intensive Care Med. 2007;33:448-53 pubmed
    To test whether assessing pulmonary permeability by transpulmonary thermodilution enables to differentiate increased permeability pulmonary edema (ALI/ARDS) from hydrostatic pulmonary edema.
  13. López Herce J, Bustinza A, Sancho L, Mencía S, Carrillo A, Moral R, et al. Cardiac output and blood volume parameters using femoral arterial thermodilution. Pediatr Int. 2009;51:59-65 pubmed publisher
    The pulse-induced continuous cardiac output (PiCCO) system is a less invasive method than pulmonary thermodilution for the measurement of cardiac output and estimating blood volume parameters...
  14. Friesecke S, Heinrich A, Abel P, Felix S. Comparison of pulmonary artery and aortic transpulmonary thermodilution for monitoring of cardiac output in patients with severe heart failure: validation of a novel method. Crit Care Med. 2009;37:119-23 pubmed publisher
    ..For measurement of cardiac output (CO), transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD) has recently been adopted into clinical practice as an alternative to pulmonary artery thermodilution...
  15. Cecconi M, Dawson D, Grounds R, Rhodes A. Lithium dilution cardiac output measurement in the critically ill patient: determination of precision of the technique. Intensive Care Med. 2009;35:498-504 pubmed publisher
    ..This will allow changes in cardiac output of more than 14% to be reliably detected. The understanding of the precision of this technique allows the user to know when a real change has happened to their patient. ..
  16. Sakka S, Reuter D, Perel A. The transpulmonary thermodilution technique. J Clin Monit Comput. 2012;26:347-53 pubmed publisher
    The transpulmonary thermodilution technique (TPTD) is a safe, multi-parametric advanced cardiopulmonary monitoring technique that provides important parameters required for making decisions in critically ill patients...
  17. de Waal E, Kalkman C, Rex S, Buhre W. Validation of a new arterial pulse contour-based cardiac output device. Crit Care Med. 2007;35:1904-9 pubmed
    ..Vigileo cardiac output (VigileoCO) was compared with intermittent transpulmonary thermodilution cardiac output (TPCO) and an established arterial pulse contour-based cardiac output (PCCO)...
  18. Halvorsen P, Sokolov A, Cvancarova M, Hol P, Lundblad R, Tønnessen T. Continuous cardiac output during off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery: pulse-contour analyses vs pulmonary artery thermodilution. Br J Anaesth. 2007;99:484-92 pubmed
    ..between the two most frequently used methods, PiCCO pulse-contour analysis (PCCO) and STAT pulmonary artery thermodilution (STAT-CO), was assessed during multiple-vessel off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) surgery...
  19. Cooper E, Muir W. Continuous cardiac output monitoring via arterial pressure waveform analysis following severe hemorrhagic shock in dogs. Crit Care Med. 2007;35:1724-9 pubmed
    ..Recalibration of PulseCO may be necessary after any apparent or suspected decrease in cardiac preload, afterload, or contractility. ..
  20. Hamzaoui O, Monnet X, Richard C, Osman D, Chemla D, Teboul J. Effects of changes in vascular tone on the agreement between pulse contour and transpulmonary thermodilution cardiac output measurements within an up to 6-hour calibration-free period. Crit Care Med. 2008;36:434-40 pubmed
    To examine whether the agreement between pulse contour and transpulmonary thermodilution cardiac index (CI) measurements is altered by changes in vascular tone within an up to 6-hr calibration-free period. Observational study...
  21. Hüter L, Schwarzkopf K, Preussler N, Schubert H, Schreiber T. The level of cardiac output affects the relationship and agreement between pulmonary artery and transpulmonary aortic thermodilution measurements in an animal model. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2007;21:659-63 pubmed
    The authors investigated the relationship between pulmonary artery and transpulmonary aortic thermodilution cardiac output measurements under conditions of increasing cardiac output (CO)...
  22. Lorsomradee S, Lorsomradee S, Cromheecke S, De Hert S. Uncalibrated arterial pulse contour analysis versus continuous thermodilution technique: effects of alterations in arterial waveform. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2007;21:636-43 pubmed
    ..07; Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA) and a thermodilution cardiac output (CCO) as methods for measuring cardiac output under different pathologic and experimental ..
  23. Sakka S, Hanusch T, Thuemer O, Wegscheider K. The influence of venovenous renal replacement therapy on measurements by the transpulmonary thermodilution technique. Anesth Analg. 2007;105:1079-82, table of contents pubmed
    Use of the transpulmonary thermodilution technique has been suggested for extended hemodynamic monitoring in critically ill patients. However, many of these patients also require renal replacement therapy (RRT)...
  24. Trof R, Danad I, Reilingh M, Breukers R, Groeneveld A. Cardiac filling volumes versus pressures for predicting fluid responsiveness after cardiovascular surgery: the role of systolic cardiac function. Crit Care. 2011;15:R73 pubmed publisher
    ..systolic cardiac function, estimated by global ejection fraction (GEF, normal 25 to 35%) from transpulmonary thermodilution. We studied hypovolemic, mechanically ventilated patients after coronary (n = 18) or major vascular (n = 14) ..
  25. Sakka S, Kozieras J, Thuemer O, van Hout N. Measurement of cardiac output: a comparison between transpulmonary thermodilution and uncalibrated pulse contour analysis. Br J Anaesth. 2007;99:337-42 pubmed
    ..In this clinical study, we evaluated the accuracy of this system by comparing it with the transpulmonary thermodilution technique (TPID) in septic patients...
  26. Franchi F, Silvestri R, Cubattoli L, Taccone F, Donadello K, Romano S, et al. Comparison between an uncalibrated pulse contour method and thermodilution technique for cardiac output estimation in septic patients. Br J Anaesth. 2011;107:202-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Thermodilution measurements of CO (ThD-CO) were considered as the 'gold standard'...
  27. Saugel B, Umgelter A, Martin F, Phillip V, Schmid R, Huber W. Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome associated with hypovolemic shock and compartment syndrome. Use of transpulmonary thermodilution technique for volume management. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2010;18:38 pubmed publisher
    ..Volume and catecholamine management was guided using transpulmonary thermodilution. Extended hemodynamic monitoring for volume and catecholamine management as well as monitoring of muscle ..
  28. Lemson J, van Die L, Hemelaar A, Van Der Hoeven J. Extravascular lung water index measurement in critically ill children does not correlate with a chest x-ray score of pulmonary edema. Crit Care. 2010;14:R105 pubmed publisher
    Extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) can be measured at the bedside using the transpulmonary thermodilution technique (TPTD)...
  29. Monnet X, Persichini R, Ktari M, Jozwiak M, Richard C, Teboul J. Precision of the transpulmonary thermodilution measurements. Crit Care. 2011;15:R204 pubmed publisher
    ..indexed global end-diastolic volume (GEDVi) and indexed extravascular lung water (EVLWi) by transpulmonary thermodilution. We included 91 hemodynamically stable patients (age 59 (25% to 75% interquartile range: 39 to 79) years, ..
  30. Heise D, Faulstich M, Mörer O, Brauer A, Quintel M. Influence of continuous renal replacement therapy on cardiac output measurement using thermodilution techniques. Minerva Anestesiol. 2012;78:315-21 pubmed
    ..In view of this, a systematic analysis of the interaction between CRRT and cardiac output measurements by thermodilution is warranted...
  31. Rosendal C, Almamat Uulu K, De Simone R, Wolf I, Deckert A, Martin E, et al. Right ventricular function during orthotopic liver transplantation: three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography and thermodilution. Ann Transplant. 2012;17:21-30 pubmed
    ..of RV parameters based on reconstructive three-dimensional (3D) TEE and to compare the measurements to thermodilution-derived values acquired with a modified pulmonary artery catheter...
  32. Della Rocca G, Costa M, Chiarandini P, Bertossi G, Lugano M, Pompei L, et al. Arterial pulse cardiac output agreement with thermodilution in patients in hyperdynamic conditions. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2008;22:681-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Pulmonary artery catheters were placed in all patients, and ICO and CCO were determined using thermodilution. APCO measurements were made with the Vigileo System (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA)...
  33. Knirsch W, Kretschmar O, Tomaske M, Stutz K, Nagdyman N, Balmer C, et al. Cardiac output measurement in children: comparison of the Ultrasound Cardiac Output Monitor with thermodilution cardiac output measurement. Intensive Care Med. 2008;34:1060-4 pubmed publisher
    ..the noninvasive Ultrasound Cardiac Output Monitor (USCOM) with the invasive pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) thermodilution cardiac output measurement...
  34. Boucaud C, Bouffard Y, Dumortier J, Gaillac N, Sagnard P, Graber M, et al. Transoesophageal echo-Doppler vs. thermodilution cardiac output measurement during hepatic vascular exclusion in liver transplantation. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2008;25:485-9 pubmed publisher
    ..the cardiac output values obtained with a transoesophageal echo-Doppler and those obtained with a continuous thermodilution cardiac output pulmonary artery catheter...
  35. Biais M, Nouette Gaulain K, Cottenceau V, Vallet A, Cochard J, Revel P, et al. Cardiac output measurement in patients undergoing liver transplantation: pulmonary artery catheter versus uncalibrated arterial pressure waveform analysis. Anesth Analg. 2008;106:1480-6, table of contents pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we compared CO obtained with a PAC using automatic thermodilution, instantaneous CO stat-mode (ICO(SM)), and CO obtained with the new device, arterial pressure waveform ..
  36. Yamada T, Tsutsui M, Sugo Y, Sato T, Akazawa T, Sato N, et al. Multicenter study verifying a method of noninvasive continuous cardiac output measurement using pulse wave transit time: a comparison with intermittent bolus thermodilution cardiac output. Anesth Analg. 2012;115:82-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared esCCO and intermittent bolus thermodilution cardiac output (TDCO) in 213 patients, 139 intensive care units (ICUs), and 74 operating rooms (ORs), at 7 ..
  37. Lodato J, Weinert L, Baumann R, Coon P, Anderson A, Kim A, et al. Use of 3-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography to measure stroke volume in human beings: comparison with thermodilution. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2007;20:103-12 pubmed
    ..determination in human beings as measured by 3D-CD and conventional 2-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) using thermodilution as the gold standard for comparison...
  38. Sander M, Spies C, Grubitzsch H, Foer A, Müller M, von Heymann C. Comparison of uncalibrated arterial waveform analysis in cardiac surgery patients with thermodilution cardiac output measurements. Crit Care. 2006;10:R164 pubmed
    ..graft (CABG) surgery with a simultaneous measurement of the gold standard COPAC and aortic transpulmonary thermodilution CO (COTranspulm). Data from 30 patients were analysed during this prospective study...
  39. Huber W, Mair S, Götz S, Tschirdewahn J, Siegel J, Schmid R, et al. Extravascular lung water and its association with weight, height, age, and gender: a study in intensive care unit patients. Intensive Care Med. 2013;39:146-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We analyzed a hemodynamic monitoring database including 3,691 transpulmonary thermodilution-derived EVLW measurements (234 consecutive patients; intensive care unit of a university hospital)...
  40. Mehta Y, Chand R, Sawhney R, Bhise M, Singh A, Trehan N. Cardiac output monitoring: comparison of a new arterial pressure waveform analysis to the bolus thermodilution technique in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2008;22:394-9 pubmed publisher
    To analyze the clinical agreement between the conventional intermittent bolus thermodilution (TD) technique and a new arterial pressure waveform analysis (APCO) technique (FloTrac; Edward Lifesciences, Irvine, CA) for cardiac output (CO) ..
  41. Saugel B, Ringmaier S, Holzapfel K, Schuster T, Phillip V, Schmid R, et al. Physical examination, central venous pressure, and chest radiography for the prediction of transpulmonary thermodilution-derived hemodynamic parameters in critically ill patients: a prospective trial. J Crit Care. 2011;26:402-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Passive leg raising (PLR) is a test to estimate fluid responsiveness. Transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD) is established for measurement of cardiac index (CI), global end-diastolic volume index (GEDVI), and ..
  42. Jarvis S, Levine B, Prisk G, Shykoff B, Elliott A, Rosow E, et al. Simultaneous determination of the accuracy and precision of closed-circuit cardiac output rebreathing techniques. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2007;103:867-74 pubmed
    ..cardiac output (Q(c)) because they incur less risk than traditional invasive methods such as direct Fick and thermodilution. We compared simultaneously obtained Q(c) measurements during rest and exercise to assess the accuracy and ..
  43. Slagt C, Beute J, Hoeksema M, Malagon I, Mulder J, Groeneveld J. Cardiac output derived from arterial pressure waveform analysis without calibration vs. thermodilution in septic shock: evolving accuracy of software versions. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2010;27:550-4 pubmed publisher
    ..arterial pressure waveform analysis without calibration, in comparison with pulmonary artery catheter-derived thermodilution measurements, in patients with septic shock and presumed alterations in vascular tone...
  44. Benington S, Ferris P, Nirmalan M. Emerging trends in minimally invasive haemodynamic monitoring and optimization of fluid therapy. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2009;26:893-905 pubmed publisher
    ..will increase stroke volume in response to a fluid challenge). For patients who are not fully mechanically ventilated, pulse contour analysis allows real-time assessment of increases in cardiac output in response to passive leg-raising. ..
  45. Brown L, Liu K, Matthay M. Measurement of extravascular lung water using the single indicator method in patients: research and potential clinical value. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2009;297:L547-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Bedside measurement of extravascular lung water in patients is now possible using a single indicator thermodilution method...
  46. Bak Z, Sjoberg F, Eriksson O, Steinvall I, Janerot Sjoberg B. Hemodynamic changes during resuscitation after burns using the Parkland formula. J Trauma. 2009;66:329-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Using transesophageal echocardiography, pulmonary artery catheterization, and transpulmonary thermodilution to monitor them, we evaluated the cardiovascular coupling when urinary output and MAP were used as endpoints...
  47. Van den Oever H, Murphy E, Christie Taylor G. USCOM (Ultrasonic Cardiac Output Monitors) lacks agreement with thermodilution cardiac output and transoesophageal echocardiography valve measurements. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2007;35:903-10 pubmed
    ..We evaluated USCOM against thermodilution cardiac outputs and transoesophageal echocardiography valve area measurements in 22 ASA PS4 cardiac surgical ..
  48. Bendjelid K, Giraud R, Siegenthaler N, Michard F. Validation of a new transpulmonary thermodilution system to assess global end-diastolic volume and extravascular lung water. Crit Care. 2010;14:R209 pubmed publisher
    ..GEDV), a volumetric marker of cardiac preload, and extravascular lung water (EVLW) from a transpulmonary thermodilution curve. Our goal was to compare this new system with the system currently in clinical use...
  49. Manecke G, Auger W. Cardiac output determination from the arterial pressure wave: clinical testing of a novel algorithm that does not require calibration. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2007;21:3-7 pubmed
    ..Prospective, observational study comparing the cardiac output values of intermittent thermodilution, continuous thermodilution, and continuous arterial pressure wave assessment...
  50. Parra V, Fita G, Rovira I, Matute P, Gomar C, Pare C. Transoesophageal echocardiography accurately detects cardiac output variation: a prospective comparison with thermodilution in cardiac surgery. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2008;25:135-43 pubmed
    ..Recently, its reliability, when compared to the thermodilution technique, has been questioned...
  51. Saugel B, Umgelter A, Schuster T, Phillip V, Schmid R, Huber W. Transpulmonary thermodilution using femoral indicator injection: a prospective trial in patients with a femoral and a jugular central venous catheter. Crit Care. 2010;14:R95 pubmed publisher
    Advanced hemodynamic monitoring using transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD) is established for measurement of cardiac index (CI), global end-diastolic volume index (GEDVI) and extra-vascular lung water index (EVLWI)...
  52. Hamm J, Nguyen B, Kiss G, Wargnier J, Jauffroy A, Helaine L, et al. Assessment of a cardiac output device using arterial pulse waveform analysis, Vigileo, in cardiac surgery compared to pulmonary arterial thermodilution. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2010;38:295-301 pubmed
    ..cardiac surgery and after leaving the operating room, Vigileo is not clinically equivalent to continuous thermodilution by pulmonary artery catheter Nevertheless, the connection between CCO and ICO relates the difference between ..