indicator dilution techniques


Summary: Methods for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of an indicator, such as a dye, radionuclide, or chilled liquid, into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Tessitore N, Bedogna V, Gammaro L, Lipari G, Poli A, Baggio E, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound dilution access blood flow measurement in detecting stenosis and predicting thrombosis in native forearm arteriovenous fistulae for hemodialysis. Am J Kidney Dis. 2003;42:331-41 pubmed
    ..Neither Qa/MAP nor dQa improve the diagnostic performance of Qa alone, although its combination with dQa increases the test's sensitivity for stenosis. ..
  2. Keshishian H, Addona T, Burgess M, Mani D, Shi X, Kuhn E, et al. Quantification of cardiovascular biomarkers in patient plasma by targeted mass spectrometry and stable isotope dilution. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2009;8:2339-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results also demonstrate that these assays retain the necessary precision, reproducibility, and sensitivity to be applied to novel and uncharacterized candidate biomarkers for verification of proteins in blood. ..
  3. Clements D, Primmer J, Ryman P, Marr B, Searles B, Darling E. Measurements of recirculation during neonatal veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: clinical application of the ultrasound dilution technique. J Extra Corpor Technol. 2008;40:184-7 pubmed
    ..Application of this technique could provide early data that will assist the clinician in guiding interventions to minimize recirculation. ..
  4. Cervino C, Asam S, Knopp D, Rychlik M, Niessner R. Use of isotope-labeled aflatoxins for LC-MS/MS stable isotope dilution analysis of foods. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:1873-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The method was successfully applied to determine trace levels of aflatoxins in diverse food matrices such as peanuts, nuts, grains, and spices. Aflatoxin contents in these samples ranged from about 0.5 to 6 microg/kg. ..
  5. Rychlik M, Asam S. Stable isotope dilution assays in mycotoxin analysis. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2008;390:617-28 pubmed
    ..As the commercial availability of these compounds continues to increase, SIDAs can be expected to find expanding use in mycotoxin analysis. ..
  6. Cramer B, Bretz M, Humpf H. Stable isotope dilution analysis of the fusarium mycotoxin zearalenone. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:8353-8 pubmed
    ..Fifteen cereal products from the German retail markets were analyzed, of which seven contained ZON in levels from 4.9 to 45.0 microg/kg. ..
  7. Lee K, Kim C, Kim Y, Jung K, Ahn B, Kang J, et al. 2-layer based microfluidic concentration generator by hybrid serial and volumetric dilutions. Biomed Microdevices. 2010;12:297-309 pubmed publisher
    ..We expect that the proposed dilution method will be useful to study not only high throughput drug screening but also optimization in biology, chemistry, medicine, and material sciences. ..
  8. Lee K, Kim C, Ahn B, Panchapakesan R, Full A, Nordee L, et al. Generalized serial dilution module for monotonic and arbitrary microfluidic gradient generators. Lab Chip. 2009;9:709-17 pubmed publisher
    ..The simple universal gradient generation technology using the generalized serial dilution module will find widespread use in the greater chemical and biological community, and address many challenges of gradient-dependent phenomena. ..
  9. Zhang L, Wei Q, Mao L, Liu W, Mills G, Coombes K. Serial dilution curve: a new method for analysis of reverse phase protein array data. Bioinformatics. 2009;25:650-4 pubmed publisher
    ..A computer program in R for using serial dilution curve for RPPA data analysis is freely available at ..

More Information


  1. Mischi M, Den Boer J, Korsten H. On the physical and stochastic representation of an indicator dilution curve as a gamma variate. Physiol Meas. 2008;29:281-94 pubmed publisher
  2. Mason D, O GRADY M, Woods J, McDonell W. Assessment of lithium dilution cardiac output as a technique for measurement of cardiac output in dogs. Am J Vet Res. 2001;62:1255-61 pubmed
    ..Use of LiDCO eliminates the need for catheterization of a pulmonary artery and could increase use of cardiac output monitoring, which may improve management of cardiovascularly unstable animals. ..
  3. Asam S, Rychlik M. Synthesis of four carbon-13-labeled type a trichothecene mycotoxins and their application as internal standards in stable isotope dilution assays. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:6535-46 pubmed
    ..Diacetoxyscirpenol was detected on potatoes, whereas monoacetoxyscirpenol was not present in the analyzed samples. ..
  4. van Heijst A, van der Staak F, de Haan A, Liem K, Festen C, Geven W, et al. Recirculation in double lumen catheter veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation measured by an ultrasound dilution technique. ASAIO J. 2001;47:372-6 pubmed
    ..51 (p < 0.01); mean difference was -15.7% (p < 0.01). The ultrasound dilution method is a useful method for measurement of the recirculation fraction in DLVV-ECMO and is easier to use than the other methods. ..
  5. Della Rocca G, Costa M, Coccia C, Pompei L, Pietropaoli P. Preload and haemodynamic assessment during liver transplantation: a comparison between the pulmonary artery catheter and transpulmonary indicator dilution techniques. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2002;19:868-75 pubmed
    ..13 L min(-1) m(-2) (2 SD = 1.04L min(-1) m(-2)) (r2 = 0.86, P < 0.0001). In comparison with PAOP, ITBVI seems a more reliable indicator of cardiac preload in patients undergoing liver transplantation. ..
  6. Bretz M, Beyer M, Cramer B, Humpf H. Stable isotope dilution analysis of the Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol and 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2006;50:251-60 pubmed
    ..This is the first report of an isotope dilution MS method for the analysis of type B-trichothecenes. ..
  7. Schwarz C, Mitterbauer C, Boczula M, Maca T, Funovics M, Heinze G, et al. Flow monitoring: performance characteristics of ultrasound dilution versus color Doppler ultrasound compared with fistulography. Am J Kidney Dis. 2003;42:539-45 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that blood flow monitoring of AV hemodialysis access by ultrasound provides a reasonable prediction of access stenosis and restenosis. ..
  8. Itkonen O, Suomalainen A, Turpeinen U. Mitochondrial coenzyme Q10 determination by isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Clin Chem. 2013;59:1260-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our assay and the established reference range should facilitate the diagnosis of respiratory chain disorders and treatment of patients with CoQ10 deficiency. ..
  9. Nisar M, Khan I, Ahmad B, Ali I, Ahmad W, Choudhary M. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of Taxus wallichiana Zucc. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2008;23:256-60 pubmed
    ..08 to 200 mg/mL. Comparison results were carried out using imipinem, miconazole and amphotericin B as standard antibiotics...
  10. Bachmann L, Nilsson G, Bruns D, McQueen M, Lieske J, Zakowski J, et al. State of the art for measurement of urine albumin: comparison of routine measurement procedures to isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Clin Chem. 2014;60:471-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Bias was the dominant source of disagreement among routine measurement procedures. Consequently, standardization efforts will improve agreement among results. Variation of bias with concentration needs to be addressed by manufacturers. ..
  11. Telgmann L, Wehe C, Birka M, Künnemeyer J, Nowak S, Sperling M, et al. Speciation and isotope dilution analysis of gadolinium-based contrast agents in wastewater. Environ Sci Technol. 2012;46:11929-36 pubmed publisher
    ..This indicates that species transformation took place during anaerobic sludge treatment. ..
  12. Varga E, Glauner T, Köppen R, Mayer K, Sulyok M, Schuhmacher R, et al. Stable isotope dilution assay for the accurate determination of mycotoxins in maize by UHPLC-MS/MS. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2012;402:2675-86 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the developed method is capable of determining all regulated mycotoxins in maize and presuming similar matrix effects and extraction recovery also in other cereal-based foods. ..
  13. Kim K. Experimental demonstration of masking phenomena between competing odorants via an air dilution sensory test. Sensors (Basel). 2010;10:7287-302 pubmed publisher
    ..The overall results thus suggest that the masking phenomena between strong odorants should proceed under competing relationships, if released at the same time. ..
  14. Heilmann J, Heumann K. Development of a species-specific isotope dilution GC-ICP-MS method for the determination of thiophene derivates in petroleum products. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2008;390:643-53 pubmed
  15. Lowenthal M, Yen J, Bunk D, Phinney K. Certification of NIST standard reference material 2389a, amino acids in 0.1 mol/L HCl--quantification by ID LC-MS/MS. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2010;397:511-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first time an ID LC-MS/MS methodology has been applied for quantifying amino acids in a NIST SRM material. ..
  16. Fuller S, Frank D, Fitzhenry M, Smyth H, Poole S. Improved approach for analyzing bromophenols in seafood using stable isotope dilution analysis in combination with SPME. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:8248-54 pubmed publisher
    ..5-50 ng/g). The analytical method was applied to determine the concentration of bromophenols in a range of farmed and wild barramundi and prawns and was also used to monitor bromophenol uptake in a pilot feeding trial. ..
  17. Al Taher F, Banaszewski K, Jackson L, Zweigenbaum J, Ryu D, Cappozzo J. Rapid method for the determination of multiple mycotoxins in wines and beers by LC-MS/MS using a stable isotope dilution assay. J Agric Food Chem. 2013;61:2378-84 pubmed publisher
    ..This method was applied to a USDA-funded nationwide survey of domestic and imported wines and beers for the determination of OTA and extended to include other mycotoxins. ..
  18. Voeikov V. The possible role of active oxygen in the memory of water. Homeopathy. 2007;96:196-201 pubmed
    ..The role of coherent domains in water in maintenance of active oxygen reactions and in emergence of oscillatory modes in their course is considered. ..
  19. Chen Y, Liu Q, Yong S, Lee T. High accuracy analysis of glucose in human serum by isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Clin Chim Acta. 2012;413:808-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The IDMS method based on LC-MS/MS is precise and accurate. It does not require lengthy derivatization steps and thus, greatly simplifies the sample preparation procedure. ..
  20. Shih A, Giguere S, Vigani A, Shih R, Thuramalla N, Bandt C. Determination of cardiac output by ultrasound velocity dilution in normovolemia and hypovolemia in dogs. Vet Anaesth Analg. 2011;38:279-85 pubmed publisher
    ..88 (p < 0.0001). When compared to lithium dilution, the UDCO technique is a viable method for measuring cardiac output in a model of normovolemia and hypovolemia in dogs. ..
  21. Kakehashi R, Karlsson G, Almgren M. Stomatosomes, blastula vesicles and bilayer disks: morphological richness of structures formed in dilute aqueous mixtures of a cationic and an anionic surfactant. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2009;331:484-93 pubmed publisher
  22. Pourhassan M, Schautz B, Braun W, Gluer C, Bosy Westphal A, Muller M. Impact of body-composition methodology on the composition of weight loss and weight gain. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013;67:446-54 pubmed publisher
    ..As to the regional changes in body composition, DXA data had a considerable bias and, thus, cannot replace MRI. To assess changes in body composition associated with weight changes, only the 4C model and MRI can be used with confidence. ..
  23. Willner B, Granvogl M, Schieberle P. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in Bartlett pear brandies by means of the sensomics concept. J Agric Food Chem. 2013;61:9583-93 pubmed publisher
    ..In 15 commercial Bartlett pear brandies ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate and (E,E)-2,4-decadienoate eliciting a pear-like aroma showed a reasonable correlation of their concentrations with the overall aroma quality. ..
  24. Kuepper U, Musshoff F, Madea B. A fully validated isotope dilution HPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of succinylcholine and succinylmonocholine in serum and urine samples. J Mass Spectrom. 2008;43:1344-52 pubmed publisher
    ..5 and 4.9 ng/ml (SMC).The presented method was successfully applied to authentic samples of two forensic cases investigated in the institute of forensic medicine in Bonn, allowing the diagnosis of SUX intoxications. ..
  25. Michel C, Curry F. Glycocalyx volume: a critical review of tracer dilution methods for its measurement. Microcirculation. 2009;16:213-9 pubmed publisher
  26. Tomaiuolo M, Vecchione G, Margaglione M, Pisanelli D, Grandone E. Stable-isotope dilution LC-ESI-MS/MS techniques for the quantification of total homocysteine in human plasma. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2009;877:3292-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Taking advantage of the high sensitivity and specificity, approaches involving LC-ESI-MS/MS require less laborious sample preparation, no derivatization and produce reliable results. ..
  27. Orru C, Bongianni M, Tonoli G, Ferrari S, Hughson A, Groveman B, et al. A test for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease using nasal brushings. N Engl J Med. 2014;371:519-29 pubmed publisher
    ..We have assessed the accuracy of RT-QuIC analysis of nasal brushings from olfactory epithelium in diagnosing sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in living patients...
  28. Rayne S, Eggers N. Quantitative determination of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol in wines by a stable isotope dilution assay. J Chromatogr A. 2007;1167:195-201 pubmed
    ..The results indicate significantly different internal standard recoveries for the two analytes, demonstrating the need for individual stable isotope derivatives to reliably quantitate 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol in wines. ..
  29. Ambrisko T, Moens Y. Voltage changes in the lithium dilution cardiac output sensor after exposure to blood from horses given xylazine. Br J Anaesth. 2014;112:367-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparison of saline- and blood-exposed sensor voltages could become a tool to detect drug-sensor interactions. ..
  30. Woods C, Fernandez C, Kunze K, Atkins W. Allosteric activation of cytochrome P450 3A4 by ?-naphthoflavone: branch point regulation revealed by isotope dilution analysis. Biochemistry. 2011;50:10041-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are compared with those of earlier spectroscopic investigations of NR and ANF cooperativity, and a mechanism of ANF heteroactivation is presented that involves effects on substrate off rate and coupling efficiency. ..
  31. Rodrigues D, Lyons R, Laflin P, Pointon W, Kammonen J. A three-stage experimental strategy to evaluate and validate an interplate IC50 format. Assay Drug Dev Technol. 2007;5:805-13 pubmed
    ..The recommendation is that the three-stage experimental strategy defined here is used to assess feasibility of other assay formats used. ..
  32. Hu C, Lee H, Chen J, Li Y, Chao M. Optimization of global DNA methylation measurement by LC-MS/MS and its application in lung cancer patients. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2013;405:8859-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Levels of O (6)-meG and N3-meA were however found to be undetectable in all lung tissue samples. ..
  33. Tyan Y, Jong S, Yang M, Wu T, Chung T, Liao P, et al. Utilizing isotope dilution-matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry as a reference procedure for the radioimmunoassay of serum thyroxine. Clin Chim Acta. 2013;420:99-103 pubmed publisher
    ..982. This assay has a good relationship against a commercial RIA and the isotope dilution-mass spectrometry method and may serve as a reference method for quantitative analysis of T4. ..
  34. Cole M, Li M, Jadeja R, El Zahab B, Hayes D, Hobden J, et al. Minimizing human infection from Escherichia coli O157:H7 using GUMBOS. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2013;68:1312-8 pubmed publisher
    ..coli O157:H7 are similar. Reacting antimicrobial GUMBOS as indicated in this study may enhance the approach to current combination drug therapeutic strategies for EHEC disease control and prevention. ..
  35. Floh A, La Rotta G, Wermelt J, Bastero Miñón P, Sivarajan V, Humpl T. Validation of a new method based on ultrasound velocity dilution to measure cardiac output in paediatric patients. Intensive Care Med. 2013;39:926-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Although measurements through central and peripheral arterial lines were completed with minimal difficulties in the majority of patients, the application of COstatus(®) in neonates with low body surface area may be limited. ..
  36. Kiefl J, Pollner G, Schieberle P. Sensomics analysis of key hazelnut odorants (Corylus avellana L. 'Tonda Gentile') using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography in combination with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOF-MS). J Agric Food Chem. 2013;61:5226-35 pubmed publisher
  37. Mayr C, Schieberle P. Development of stable isotope dilution assays for the simultaneous quantitation of biogenic amines and polyamines in foods by LC-MS/MS. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:3026-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that different amino acid decarboxylases are active in the respective foods depending on the microorganisms present. The polyamine spermine was highest in salami and tuna. ..
  38. Walling L. An inline QC method for determining serial dilution performance of DMSO-based systems. J Lab Autom. 2011;16:235-40 pubmed publisher
    ..This report contains dye selection rationale for the S101 dye and its use in quantifying the performance of 96- and 384-well dilution protocols as tested on five identical instruments. ..
  39. Jang M, Cho D, Park K, Yazer M, Shin M, Shin J, et al. Autoantibodies with mimicking specificity detected by the dilution technique in patients with warm autoantibodies. Ann Lab Med. 2013;33:343-8 pubmed publisher
  40. Koroishi A, Foss S, Cortez D, Ueda Nakamura T, Nakamura C, Dias Filho B. In vitro antifungal activity of extracts and neolignans from Piper regnellii against dermatophytes. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008;117:270-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed that the plant could be explored for possible antifungal agents and provides preliminary scientific validation for the traditional medicinal use of this plant...
  41. Rowe L, Deo S, Shofner J, Ensor M, Daunert S. Aequorin-based homogeneous cortisol immunoassay for analysis of saliva samples. Bioconjug Chem. 2007;18:1772-7 pubmed
    ..To that end, it was demonstrated that the assay can be reliably used to measure the concentration of free cortisol in saliva without significant pretreatment of the sample. ..
  42. Calvo N, Maggio R, Kaufman T. An eco-friendly strategy, using on-line monitoring and dilution coupled to a second-order chemometric method, for the construction of dissolution curves of combined pharmaceutical associations. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2014;89:213-20 pubmed publisher
  43. Johnson M, Hussien R, Horning M, Brooks G. Transpulmonary pyruvate kinetics. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2011;301:R769-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that a major site of circulating pyruvate extraction resides with the lungs and that during times of elevated circulating lactate, pyruvate, or epinephrine stimulation, pyruvate extraction is increased. ..
  44. Liu Y, Zhang K, Liu Y, Zhang H, Song Y, Pu H, et al. Pharmacokinetic properties and bioequivalence of two sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine fixed-dose combination tablets: a parallel-design study in healthy Chinese male volunteers. Clin Ther. 2012;34:2212-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The formulations met WHO's and China's FDA regulatory criteria for bioequivalence in these healthy Chinese volunteers under fasting conditions. Both formulations were generally well-tolerated. ..
  45. Rahman M, Chuah K, Macdonald E, Trusler J, Ramaesh K. The effect of pH, dilution, and temperature on the viscosity of ocular lubricants--shift in rheological parameters and potential clinical significance. Eye (Lond). 2012;26:1579-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Developing lubricants with stable viscosities may maximise therapeutic efficacy. ..
  46. Molnár P, Dux L, Reinauer H, Kress M, Akerboom T, Szederkenyi E, et al. Procedure for determination of immunosuppressive drugs in whole blood with liquid chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Clin Lab. 2011;57:983-92 pubmed
    ..1 and 31.4 microg/L. An isotope dilution LC-MS/MS procedure for determination of four immunosuppressive drugs was developed to provide a basis for further development toward a reference measurement procedure. ..
  47. Onda K, Yamaguchi M, Ohashi M, Sato R, Ochiai H, Iriki T, et al. Modification of the analysis of parathyroid hormone-related protein in milk and concentrations of this protein in commercial milk and milk products in Japan. J Dairy Sci. 2010;93:1861-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The PTHrP concentration in infant formulas (<2nM) was lower than that in the other milk products. These results indicate that a certain amount of PTHrP is ingested when milk and milk products are consumed. ..
  48. Arendrup M, Garcia Effron G, Lass Florl C, Lopez A, Rodriguez Tudela J, Cuenca Estrella M, et al. Echinocandin susceptibility testing of Candida species: comparison of EUCAST EDef 7.1, CLSI M27-A3, Etest, disk diffusion, and agar dilution methods with RPMI and isosensitest media. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:426-39 pubmed publisher
    ..7% as caspofungin susceptible, and 92.9% as micafungin susceptible. In conclusion, no test was perfect, but anidulafungin susceptibility testing using the WT-UL to define susceptibility reliably identified fks hot spot mutants. ..
  49. Zhou C, Han J, Guo R. Dilute anionic surfactant solution route to polyaniline rectangular sub-microtubes as a novel nanostructure. J Phys Chem B. 2008;112:5014-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The directing role of other anionic surfactants with -SO3(-) as the hydrophilic group for constructing polyaniline rectangular sub-microtubes has been investigated in detail. ..
  50. Ohta Y, Suzuki N, Kobayashi Y, Hirano S. Rapid speciation and quantification of selenium compounds by HPLC-ICP MS using multiple standards labelled with different isotopes. Isotopes Environ Health Stud. 2011;47:330-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Multiple standards labelled with different stable isotopes enable high-throughput identification and quantitative measurements of Se metabolites. ..
  51. Henriksen J. [Minute volume determination with Stewart-Henrique-Hamilton indicator dilution principle]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2008;170:1258; author reply 1258 pubmed
  52. Goszczyńska H, Rewicki M. Coronary flow evaluation by densitometric analysis of sequences of coronarographic images. Med Biol Eng Comput. 2008;46:199-204 pubmed publisher
    ..A comparative analysis between a group of patients having presumably normal flows and another group exhibiting slow dye progression (SDP) shows a moderate consistency between the method and the clinical assessments. ..
  53. Hényková E, Vránová H, Amakorová P, Pospíšil T, Žukauskaitė A, Vlčková M, et al. Stable isotope dilution ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry quantitative profiling of tryptophan-related neuroactive substances in human serum and cerebrospinal fluid. J Chromatogr A. 2016;1437:145-157 pubmed publisher
    ..The method was used to determine the physiological levels of target analytes in serum and CSF samples from 18 individuals, demonstrating its reliability and potential usefulness in large-scale epidemiological studies. ..