primary cell culture


Summary: The initial culturing of cells derived directly from fresh TISSUES.

Top Publications

  1. Hasegawa T, Kamada Y, Hosoya T, Fujita S, Nishiyama Y, Iwata N, et al. A regulatory role of androgen in ovarian steroidogenesis by rat granulosa cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2017;172:160-165 pubmed publisher
    ..Cooperative effects of androgen and IGF-I counteract endogenous BMP-6 activity in rat granulosa cells, which is likely to be functionally linked to the steroidogenic property shown in the PCOS ovary. ..
  2. Esebanmen G, Langridge W. Mechanism of chimeric vaccine stimulation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase biosynthesis in human dendritic cells is independent of TGF-? signaling. Cell Immunol. 2017;319:43-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our experimental findings identify additional immunoregulatory proteins induced by the CTB-INS fusion protein, suggesting CTB-INS may utilize multiple mechanisms in the induction of tolerance in human moDCs. ..
  3. Mei L, Shen B, Xue J, Liu S, Ma A, Liu F, et al. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells in combination with xanthan gum attenuate osteoarthritis progression in an experimental rat model. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;494:285-291 pubmed publisher
    ..IA injection of XG-ADSCs might be an effective treatment for OA in humans...
  4. Pickering A, Lehr M, Gendron C, Pletcher S, Miller R. Mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase 2 is elevated in long-lived primate as well as rodent species and extends fly mean lifespan. Aging Cell. 2017;16:683-692 pubmed publisher
  5. Lu N, Li M, Lei H, Jiang X, Tu W, Lu Y, et al. Butyric acid regulates progesterone and estradiol secretion via cAMP signaling pathway in porcine granulosa cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2017;172:89-97 pubmed publisher
    ..05), and the cAMP signaling pathway. In conclusion, present findings for the first time demonstrated that BA could regulate the P4 and E2 hormone synthesis in PGCs via the cAMP signaling pathway. ..
  6. Clements M, Byrne E, Camarillo Guerrero L, Cattin A, Zakka L, Ashraf A, et al. The Wound Microenvironment Reprograms Schwann Cells to Invasive Mesenchymal-like Cells to Drive Peripheral Nerve Regeneration. Neuron. 2017;96:98-114.e7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the wound microenvironment is a key determinant of Schwann cell identity, and it promotes nerve repair through integration of multiple concerted signals. VIDEO ABSTRACT. ..
  7. Kim H, Chang J, Shao L, Han L, Iyer S, Manolagas S, et al. DNA damage and senescence in osteoprogenitors expressing Osx1 may cause their decrease with age. Aging Cell. 2017;16:693-703 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings suggest that the decline in bone mass with age is the result of intrinsic defects in osteoprogenitor cells, leading to decreased osteoblast numbers and increased support of osteoclast formation. ..
  8. Chen Z, Chang W, Etheridge A, Strickfaden H, Jin Z, Palidwor G, et al. Reprogramming progeria fibroblasts re-establishes a normal epigenetic landscape. Aging Cell. 2017;16:870-887 pubmed publisher
  9. Zarnegar M, Reinitz F, Newman A, Clarke M. Targeted chromatin ligation, a robust epigenetic profiling technique for small cell numbers. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:e153 pubmed publisher
    ..Our technique eliminates loss of material and sensitivity due to multiple inefficient steps, while simplifying the workflow to enhance sensitivity and create the potential for novel applications...

More Information


  1. Fan Y, Gao Y, Rao J, Wang K, Zhang F, Zhang C. YAP-1 Promotes Tregs Differentiation in Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Enhancing TGFBR2 Transcription. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;41:1189-1198 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression and activation of YAP-1 in HCC T cells can induce immunosuppression by promoting Treg differentiation via transcriptional enhancement of TGFBR2. ..
  2. Anuradha R, Munisankar S, Bhootra Y, Dolla C, Kumaran P, Nutman T, et al. Modulation of CD4+ and CD8+ T Cell Function and Cytokine Responses in Strongyloides stercoralis Infection by Interleukin-27 (IL-27) and IL-37. Infect Immun. 2017;85: pubmed publisher
    ..stercoralis infections, which suggest the importance of IL-27 and IL-37 in immune modulation in a chronic helminth infection. ..
  3. Lee J, Lee J, Kang K, Jang Y. Functional efficacy of human recombinant FGF-2s tagged with (His)6 and (His-Asn)6 at the N- and C-termini in human gingival fibroblast and periodontal ligament-derived cells. Protein Expr Purif. 2017;135:37-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggested that biological activities of the recombinant hFGF-2 are irrelevant to types and positions of tags, but may have an influence on the expression efficiency and solubility. ..
  4. Garcia Gomez A, Li T, Kerick M, Català Moll F, Comet N, Rodriguez Ubreva J, et al. TET2- and TDG-mediated changes are required for the acquisition of distinct histone modifications in divergent terminal differentiation of myeloid cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:10002-10017 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate a novel role of these enzymes in the establishment of specific elements of identity and function in terminal myeloid differentiation...
  5. Shinjo Y, Makide K, Satoh K, Fukami F, Inoue A, Kano K, et al. Lysophosphatidylserine suppresses IL-2 production in CD4 T cells through LPS3/GPR174. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;494:332-338 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study raised the possibility that LysoPS exerts its immunosuppressive roles by down-regulating IL-2 production through a LysoPS-LPS3 axis in T cells...
  6. Hutami I, Izawa T, Mino Oka A, Shinohara T, Mori H, Iwasa A, et al. Fas/S1P1 crosstalk via NF-?B activation in osteoclasts controls subchondral bone remodeling in murine TMJ arthritis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;490:1274-1281 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the present results suggest that Fas/S1P1 signaling via activation of NF-?B in osteoclast precursor cells is a key factor in the pathogenesis of RA in the TMJ. ..
  7. Yu Y, Cao F, Ran Q, Wang F. Long non-coding RNA Gm4419 promotes trauma-induced astrocyte apoptosis by targeting tumor necrosis factor ?. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;491:478-485 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the present study would expand the insight into the novel approaches for TBI therapy. ..
  8. Hinkley J, Zou K, Park S, Turner K, Zheng D, Houmard J. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery enhances contraction-mediated glucose metabolism in primary human myotubes. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2017;313:E195-E202 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that RYGB surgery may enhance the ability of skeletal muscle from severely obese individuals to respond to contractile activity. ..
  9. Souza T, van den Beucken T, Kleinjans J, Jennen D. Inferring transcription factor activity from microarray data reveals novel targets for toxicological investigations. Toxicology. 2017;389:101-107 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion this study offers a novel mechanistic approach targeting TF activity during chemical exposure. ..
  10. Takano T, Wu M, Nakamuta S, Naoki H, Ishizawa N, Namba T, et al. Discovery of long-range inhibitory signaling to ensure single axon formation. Nat Commun. 2017;8:33 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, the authors offer in vivo evidence from a Drosophila model that supports a role for gut microbiota in modulating the progression of Alzheimer's disease. ..
  11. Tiran V, Stanzer S, Heitzer E, Meilinger M, Rossmann C, Lax S, et al. Genetic profiling of putative breast cancer stem cells from malignant pleural effusions. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0175223 pubmed publisher
    ..However, sequencing based molecular characterization is impeded due to insufficient sensitivity along with a high number of normal contaminating cells, which are masking genetic alterations of rare cancer (stem) cells. ..
  12. Kiseleva Y, Ptitsyn K, Tikhonova O, Radko S, Kurbatov L, Vakhrushev I, et al. [PCR analysis of the absolute number of copies of human chromosome 18 transcripts in liver and HepG2 cells]. Biomed Khim. 2017;63:147-153 pubmed publisher
    ..Razlichiia transkriptomnykh profile? dolzhny uchityvat'sia pri ispol'zovanii kletok linii HepG2 v kachestve modeli gepatotsitov pecheni. ..
  13. Lu F, Shao G, Wang Y, Guan S, Burlingame A, Liu X, et al. Hypoxia-ischemia modifies postsynaptic GluN2B-containing NMDA receptor complexes in the neonatal mouse brain. Exp Neurol. 2018;299:65-74 pubmed publisher
  14. Bai Q, Song D, Gu L, Verkhratsky A, Peng L. Bi-phasic regulation of glycogen content in astrocytes via Cav-1/PTEN/PI3K/AKT/GSK-3? pathway by fluoxetine. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2017;234:1069-1077 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that bi-phasic regulation of glycogen content via Cav-1/PTEN/PI3K/AKT/GSK-3? pathway by fluoxetine may be responsible for both therapeutic and side effects of the drug. ..
  15. Schmidt K, Prakash T, Donner A, Kinberger G, Gaus H, Low A, et al. Characterizing the effect of GalNAc and phosphorothioate backbone on binding of antisense oligonucleotides to the asialoglycoprotein receptor. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:2294-2306 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide insights into how backbone charge and chemical composition assist in the binding and internalization of highly polar anionic single stranded oligonucleotides into cells and tissues. ..
  16. Li Y, Lou C, Wang W. STIM1 deficiency protects the liver from ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;496:422-428 pubmed publisher
    ..STIM1 could be considered as a potential therapeutic target to ameliorate I/R injury. ..
  17. Bandyopadhyay U, Chadha A, Gupta P, Tiwari B, Bhattacharyya K, Popli S, et al. Suppression of Toll-like receptor 2-mediated proinflammatory responses by Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein Rv3529c. J Leukoc Biol. 2017;102:1249-1259 pubmed publisher
    ..The data presented show another strategy evolved by M. tuberculosis toward immune evasion that centers on incorporating sequences in proteins that are similar to crucial proteins in the innate immune system of the host. ..
  18. Halaoui R, Rejon C, Chatterjee S, Szymborski J, Meterissian S, Muller W, et al. Progressive polarity loss and luminal collapse disrupt tissue organization in carcinoma. Genes Dev. 2017;31:1573-1587 pubmed publisher
    ..This reveals a novel and common mechanism that contributes to carcinoma development by progressively disrupting cell and tissue organization. ..
  19. Yang Z, Zeng B, Wang C, Wang H, Huang P, Pan Y. MicroRNA-124 alleviates chronic skin inflammation in atopic eczema via suppressing innate immune responses in keratinocytes. Cell Immunol. 2017;319:53-60 pubmed publisher
  20. Poole N, Green S, Rajan A, Vela L, Zeng X, Estes M, et al. Role for FimH in Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli Invasion and Translocation through the Intestinal Epithelium. Infect Immun. 2017;85: pubmed publisher
    ..Our study also highlights the use of human intestinal enteroids in the study of enteric diseases. ..
  21. Chen X, Zhang J, Pan B, Ren H, Feng X, Wang J, et al. Role of canonical transient receptor potential channel-3 in acetylcholine-induced mouse airway smooth muscle cell proliferation. Life Sci. 2017;187:64-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggested ACh could induce ASMC proliferation, and TRPC3 may be involved in ACh-induced ASMC proliferation that occurs with airway remodeling. ..
  22. Sassen W, Lehne F, Russo G, Wargenau S, Dubel S, Köster R. Embryonic zebrafish primary cell culture for transfection and live cellular and subcellular imaging. Dev Biol. 2017;430:18-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose zebrafish primary cell culture as a versatile tool to address cell biological questions in combination with a powerful in vivo model.
  23. Nakamuta S, Yang Y, Wang C, Gallo N, Yu J, Tai Y, et al. Dual role for DOCK7 in tangential migration of interneuron precursors in the postnatal forebrain. J Cell Biol. 2017;216:4313-4330 pubmed publisher
    ..The coordinated action of both pathways is required to ensure efficient neuroblast migration along the RMS. ..
  24. Xiong X, Dai L, Liang W, Zhang J, Qin S, Cao W, et al. Protective effect of p53 on the viability of intervertebral disc nucleus pulposus cells under low glucose condition. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;490:1414-1419 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the expression of Sox 9 and type II collagen were higher in p53 normal control than p53 knockdown NP cells. Based on these results, we believe that relative high p53 facilitates NP cell viability and integrity. ..
  25. Kuranova M, Pleskach N, Ledashcheva T, Mikhel son V, Spivak I. [Mosaic forms of ataxia-telangiectasia]. Tsitologiia. 2014;56:619-29 pubmed
  26. Diab A, Foca A, Fusil F, Lahlali T, Jalaguier P, Amirache F, et al. Polo-like-kinase 1 is a proviral host factor for hepatitis B virus replication. Hepatology. 2017;66:1750-1765 pubmed publisher
    ..PLK1 is a proviral host factor that could be envisaged as a target for combined antiviral and antitumoral strategies against HBV infection and HBV-mediated carcinogenesis. (Hepatology 2017;66:1750-1765). ..
  27. Biran A, Zada L, Abou Karam P, Vadai E, Roitman L, Ovadya Y, et al. Quantitative identification of senescent cells in aging and disease. Aging Cell. 2017;16:661-671 pubmed publisher
  28. Chen G, Kim Y, Li H, Luo H, Liu D, Zhang Z, et al. PD-L1 inhibits acute and chronic pain by suppressing nociceptive neuron activity via PD-1. Nat Neurosci. 2017;20:917-926 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, blocking PD-L1 or PD-1 elicited spontaneous pain and allodynia in melanoma-bearing mice. Our findings identify a previously unrecognized role of PD-L1 as an endogenous pain inhibitor and a neuromodulator. ..
  29. Agathanggelou A, Smith E, Davies N, Kwok M, Zlatanou A, Oldreive C, et al. USP7 inhibition alters homologous recombination repair and targets CLL cells independently of ATM/p53 functional status. Blood. 2017;130:156-166 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results identify USP7 as a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of hematological malignancies with DDR defects, where ATM/p53-dependent apoptosis is compromised. ..
  30. Kruglov E, Ananthanarayanan M, Sousa P, Weerachayaphorn J, Guerra M, Nathanson M. Type 2 inositol trisphosphate receptor gene expression in hepatocytes is regulated by cyclic AMP. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;486:659-664 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings furthermore suggest that this mechanism is relevant for hormonal regulation of bile secretion. ..
  31. Gentile L, Nagamine M, Biondi L, Sanches D, Toyota F, Giovani T, et al. Establishment of primary mixed cell cultures from spontaneous canine mammary tumors: Characterization of classic and new cancer-associated molecules. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184228 pubmed publisher
  32. Esteves C, Sheldrake T, Mesquita S, Pesántez J, Menghini T, Dawson L, et al. Isolation and characterization of equine native MSC populations. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2017;8:80 pubmed publisher
    ..Characterization of these cells evidenced their distinct properties and MSC-like phenotype, and identified CD146+ cells as distinctly angiogenic, which may provide a novel source for enhanced regenerative therapies. ..
  33. Kuo S, Yang W, Liu S, Tsai C, Hsu H, Tang C. Transforming growth factor ?1 enhances heme oxygenase 1 expression in human synovial fibroblasts by inhibiting microRNA 519b synthesis. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0176052 pubmed publisher
    ..TGF-?1 stimulated the expression of HO-1 via activating the PLC?/PKC? pathway and suppressing the downstream expression of miRNA-519b. These results may shed light on the pathogenesis and treatment of OA. ..
  34. Lustri A, Di Matteo S, Fraveto A, Costantini D, Cantafora A, Napoletano C, et al. TGF-? signaling is an effective target to impair survival and induce apoptosis of human cholangiocarcinoma cells: A study on human primary cell cultures. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183932 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that targeting the TGF-? signaling with a combination of CX-4945 and LY2157299 could have potential benefits in the treatment of human CCA. ..
  35. Sasse S, Kadiyala V, Danhorn T, Panettieri R, Phang T, Gerber A. Glucocorticoid Receptor ChIP-Seq Identifies PLCD1 as a KLF15 Target that Represses Airway Smooth Muscle Hypertrophy. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2017;57:226-237 pubmed publisher
    ..Through defining GR interactions with chromatin on a genome-wide basis in ASM, our data also provide an important resource for future studies of GR in this therapeutically relevant cell type. ..
  36. Lauridsen H, Gonzalez A. Biomimetic, ultrathin and elastic hydrogels regulate human neutrophil extravasation across endothelial-pericyte bilayers. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0171386 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, this study demonstrates the creation and utility of a new and accessible method to recapture the mechanical and biological complexity of human basement membranes in vitro. ..
  37. Giurdanella G, Lazzara F, Caporarello N, Lupo G, Anfuso C, Eandi C, et al. Sulodexide prevents activation of the PLA2/COX-2/VEGF inflammatory pathway in human retinal endothelial cells by blocking the effect of AGE/RAGE. Biochem Pharmacol. 2017;142:145-154 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism, partially distinct from VEGF blockade, may contribute to the therapeutic effect of SDX. ..
  38. Romero M, Keyel M, Shi G, Bhattacharjee P, Roth R, Heuser J, et al. Intrinsic repair protects cells from pore-forming toxins by microvesicle shedding. Cell Death Differ. 2017;24:798-808 pubmed publisher
    ..Endocytosis may act after membrane repair is complete by removing inactivated and monomeric toxins from the cell surface. ..
  39. Aherrahrou R, Aherrahrou Z, Schunkert H, Erdmann J. Coronary artery disease associated gene Phactr1 modulates severity of vascular calcification in vitro. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;491:396-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, we demonstrated that PHACTR1 gene expression increases with the progression of calcification and that regulation of PHACTR1 in SMCs modulates the severity of vascular calcification. ..
  40. Vetsch J, Betts D, Muller R, Hofmann S. Flow velocity-driven differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells in silk fibroin scaffolds: A combined experimental and computational approach. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180781 pubmed publisher
  41. Huskova H, Ardin M, Weninger A, Vargova K, Barrin S, Villar S, et al. Modeling cancer driver events in vitro using barrier bypass-clonal expansion assays and massively parallel sequencing. Oncogene. 2017;36:6041-6048 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the information generated by deep sequencing of the BBCE cell lines coupled with phenotypic analysis of the mutant cells can yield mechanistic insights into driver events relevant to human cancer development. ..
  42. Sinnamon J, Czaplinski K. RNA detection in situ with FISH-STICs. RNA. 2014;20:260-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Using FISH-STICs, we demonstrate a nonoverlapping distribution for ?-actin and ?-actin mRNA in cultured fibroblasts, and the detection of neuron-specific transcripts within cultured primary hippocampal neurons. ..
  43. Stuelsatz P, Keire P, Yablonka Reuveni Z. Isolation, Culture, and Immunostaining of Skeletal Muscle Myofibers from Wildtype and Nestin-GFP Mice as a Means to Analyze Satellite Cell. Methods Mol Biol. 2017;1556:51-102 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, this chapter provides essential tools for studying satellite cells in their native position and their interplay with the parent myofiber. ..
  44. Mumbach M, Satpathy A, Boyle E, Dai C, Gowen B, Cho S, et al. Enhancer connectome in primary human cells identifies target genes of disease-associated DNA elements. Nat Genet. 2017;49:1602-1612 pubmed publisher
    ..The majority of disease-associated enhancers contact genes beyond the nearest gene in the linear genome, leading to a fourfold increase in the number of potential target genes for autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases. ..
  45. Rauschert I, Aldunate F, Preussner J, Arocena Sutz M, Peraza V, Looso M, et al. Promoter hypermethylation as a mechanism for Lamin A/C silencing in a subset of neuroblastoma cells. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0175953 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, these findings may have treatment implications because tumour cells lacking Lamin A/C exhibit more aggressive behaviour. ..
  46. Cao Q, Anyansi C, Hu X, Xu L, Xiong L, Tang W, et al. Reconstruction of enhancer-target networks in 935 samples of human primary cells, tissues and cell lines. Nat Genet. 2017;49:1428-1436 pubmed publisher
    ..We also identify differentially methylated enhancers in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and experimentally confirm their altered regulation of HCC-related genes. ..
  47. Li Y, Li S, Luo Y, Liu Y, Yu N. LncRNA PVT1 Regulates Chondrocyte Apoptosis in Osteoarthritis by Acting as a Sponge for miR-488-3p. DNA Cell Biol. 2017;36:571-580 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, this study revealed that lncRNA PVT1 regulated the apoptosis of chondrocytes by acting as a sponge for miR-488-3p in OA. PVT1 may be considered a new therapeutic target for the treatment of OA. ..
  48. González À, Konieczny P, Llamusi B, Delgado Pinar E, Borrell J, Teixidó J, et al. In silico discovery of substituted pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines and pentamidine-like compounds with biological activity in myotonic dystrophy models. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0178931 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, it contributes valuable knowledge regarding two compounds with desirable biological activity in DM1 models. ..
  49. Bai Z, Chai X, Yoon M, Kim H, Lo K, Zhang Z, et al. Dynamic transcriptome changes during adipose tissue energy expenditure reveal critical roles for long noncoding RNA regulators. PLoS Biol. 2017;15:e2002176 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these studies provide a comprehensive data framework to interrogate the transcriptomic changes accompanying energy homeostasis transition in adipose tissue. ..
  50. Zhou P, Liu Z, Li X, Zhang B, Wang X, Lan J, et al. Migration ability and Toll-like receptor expression of human mesenchymal stem cells improves significantly after three-dimensional culture. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;491:323-328 pubmed publisher
  51. Chen S, Wang Y, Yang Y, Xiang T, Liu J, Zhou H, et al. Psoralen Inhibited Apoptosis of Osteoporotic Osteoblasts by Modulating IRE1-ASK1-JNK Pathway. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:3524307 pubmed publisher
    ..Pretreatment by IRE1 agonist tunicamycin or JNK agonist anisomycin attenuated the effect of psoralen on osteoporotic osteoblasts. Psoralen inhibited apoptosis of osteoporotic osteoblasts by regulating IRE1-ASK1-JNK pathway. ..
  52. Dale M, Fitzgerald M, Liu Z, Meisinger T, Karpisek A, Purcell L, et al. Premature aortic smooth muscle cell differentiation contributes to matrix dysregulation in Marfan Syndrome. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0186603 pubmed publisher
    ..This study indicates that an early phenotypic switch appears to be associated with initiation of important metabolic changes in SMCs that contribute to subsequent pathology in MFS. ..
  53. O Neill K, Kwon M, Donohue K, Firestein B. Distinct effects on the dendritic arbor occur by microbead versus bath administration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2017;74:4369-4385 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, this current work illustrates how dendritic branching is regulated differently by the same growth factor depending on its spatial localization, suggesting a novel pathway for modulation of dendritic branching locally. ..