direct fluorescent antibody technique


Summary: A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)

Top Publications

  1. Turell M, O Guinn M, Jones J, Sardelis M, Dohm D, Watts D, et al. Isolation of viruses from mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in the Amazon Basin region of Peru. J Med Entomol. 2005;42:891-8 pubmed
  2. Guerra L, Condorelli A, Fortugno P, Calabresi V, Pedicelli C, Di Zenzo G, et al. Epidermolysis Bullosa Acquisita in an Adult Patient with Previously Unrecognized Mild Dystrophic EB and Biallelic COL7A1 Mutations. Acta Derm Venereol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..These data support a pathogenic role of circulating autoantibodies to collagen VII in inducing EBA in selected patients with DEB. Unforeseen worsening of skin symptoms in DEB should prompt laboratory investigations for EBA...
  3. Lamberts A, Meijer J, Jonkman M. Nonbullous pemphigoid: A systematic review. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2018;78:989-995.e2 pubmed publisher
    ..Nonbullous pemphigoid is an underdiagnosed variant of pemphigoid that most often does not evolve to bullous lesions and mimics other pruritic skin diseases. Greater awareness among physicians is needed to avoid delay in diagnosis. ..
  4. Jauka T, Mutsvunguma L, Boshoff A, Edkins A, Knox C. Localisation of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus protein 2C to the Golgi apparatus using antibodies generated against a peptide region. J Virol Methods. 2010;168:162-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that TMEV behaves similarly to FMDV which also forms replication complexes in the perinuclear region. ..
  5. Rahman M, Kieke B, Vandermause M, Mitchell P, Greenlee R, Belongia E. Performance of Directigen flu A+B enzyme immunoassay and direct fluorescent assay for detection of influenza infection during the 2004-2005 season. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2007;58:413-8 pubmed
    ..Compared with culture, specificity of both EIA and DFA was 96%. During the 2004-2005 influenza season, both the EIA and DFA had low sensitivity and failed to detect influenza in many patients. ..
  6. Baroero L, Coppo P, Bertolino L, Maccario S, Savino F. Three case reports of post immunization and post viral Bullous Pemphigoid: looking for the right trigger. BMC Pediatr. 2017;17:60 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the mechanism of induction of BP is still unclear, the close relationship between trigger events (immunization or viral infection) and onset of the disease arises a possible association. ..
  7. Thongprasom K, Prapinjumrune C, Kanjanabuch P, Youngnak Piboonratanakit P, Preuksrisakul T. Correlation of serum ANA and direct immunofluorescence studies in elderly Thai patients with red and white oral lesions. J Oral Pathol Med. 2016;45:797-802 pubmed publisher
    ..Anti-dsDNA antibodies were not found in any group. Elderly patients with red and white oral lesions who were taking medications had a higher serum ANA frequency than group I and the control group. ..
  8. Mecham J, McHolland L. Measurement of bluetongue virus binding to a mammalian cell surface receptor by an in situ immune fluorescent staining technique. J Virol Methods. 2010;165:112-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The IFA protocol will find application, as a non-isotopic, quantifiable technique, to study virus-cell receptor interactions. Information gained from such studies will expand our understanding of the early steps in virus replication. ..
  9. Viegas M, Martins T, Seco F, Do carmo A. An improved and cost-effective methodology for the reduction of autofluorescence in direct immunofluorescence studies on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Eur J Histochem. 2007;51:59-66 pubmed
    ..In addition, we herein show that this methodology is highly effective in reducing autofluorescent background to levels that allow detection of specific signals by direct immunofluorescence. ..

More Information


  1. Liang X, Chavez A, Schapiro N, Loughran P, Thorne S, Amoscato A, et al. Ethyl pyruvate administration inhibits hepatic tumor growth. J Leukoc Biol. 2009;86:599-607 pubmed publisher
    ..EP administration may have a therapeutic role in the treatment of cancer in conjunction with other therapeutic agents. ..
  2. Pilichowska M, Pinkus J, Pinkus G. Histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis (Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease): lesional cells exhibit an immature dendritic cell phenotype. Am J Clin Pathol. 2009;131:174-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These cells were CD68+, strongly expressed the IFN-alpha inducible protein MxA, and were nonreactive for fascin, a mature DC marker. ..
  3. Guarner J, Paddock C, Bartlett J, Zaki S. Adrenal gland hemorrhage in patients with fatal bacterial infections. Mod Pathol. 2008;21:1113-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Although N. meningitidis is the most frequent bacteria associated with adrenal gland pathology, a broad collection of bacteria can also cause adrenal lesions. ..
  4. Sáenz A, Gonzalez F, Cirocco A, Tacaronte I, Fajardo J, Calebotta A. Childhood bullous pemphigoid: a case report and 10-year follow up. Int J Dermatol. 2007;46:508-10 pubmed
    ..The patient responded well to systemic steroids, with improvement of his condition. After a 10-year follow up the patient was no longer suffering from the disease. ..
  5. Baltazard T, Dhaille F, Duvert Lehembre S, Lok C, Chaby G. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-induced linear IgA bullous disease presenting as toxic epidermal necrolysis. Dermatol Online J. 2017;23: pubmed
    ..We report a case of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-induced LABD with a 160 kDa IgA desmoglein 1 found by immunoblotting analysis, probably by epitope spreading. ..
  6. Nachtigal P, Vecerova L, Pospisilova N, Micuda S, Brcakova E, Navarro Hernandez E, et al. Endoglin co-expression with eNOS, SMAD2 and phosphorylated SMAD2/3 in normocholesterolemic and hypercholesterolemic mice: an immunohistochemical study. Histol Histopathol. 2009;24:1499-506 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we suggest that endoglin, SMAD2, phosphorylated SMAD2/3 and eNOS may be important in vessel endothelium homeostasis underlying their role in atherogenesis. ..
  7. Lioger B, Machet M, Machet L. [Dermatitis herpetiformis]. Presse Med. 2010;39:1042-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Usually the treatment begin with dapsone for symptomatic skin lesions, it can be considered like a therapeutic test. A gluten-free diet is the treatment of choice and reduce the risk of lymphoma, the major complication. ..
  8. Albogami S, Alotaibi M, Alsahli S, Masuadi E, Alshaalan M. Seasonal variations of respiratory viruses detected from children with respiratory tract infections in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. J Infect Public Health. 2018;11:183-186 pubmed publisher
  9. Espinosa I, Lee C, Kim M, Rouse B, Subramanian S, Montgomery K, et al. A novel monoclonal antibody against DOG1 is a sensitive and specific marker for gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Am J Surg Pathol. 2008;32:210-8 pubmed publisher
    ..5%) synovial sarcomas among the 935 soft tissue tumors examined showed positive immunostaining for DOG1.1. In addition, DOG1.1 immunoreactivity was seen in fewer cases of carcinoma, melanoma, and seminoma as compared with KIT. ..
  10. Moussaud S, Lamodière E, Savage C, Draheim H. Characterisation of K+ currents in the C8-B4 microglial cell line and their regulation by microglia activating stimuli. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2009;24:141-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that despite some differences, they are a useful tool to study potassium currents in microglial activation mechanisms by means of electrophysiological methods without the need for preparation of cells as primary culture. ..
  11. Hashimoto T, Tsuruta D, Yasukochi A, Imanishi H, Sekine H, Fujita T, et al. Granular C3 Dermatosis. Acta Derm Venereol. 2016;96:748-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanism for granular C3 deposition in these patients is unknown, but it is possible that the condition is caused by autoantibodies to skin or aberrant C3 expression in epidermal keratinocytes. ..
  12. Alberti Violetti S, Berti E, Marzano A. Cutaneous and systemic vasculitides in dermatology: a histological perspective. G Ital Dermatol Venereol. 2018;153:185-193 pubmed publisher
  13. Billet S, Kortuem K, Gibson L, el Azhary R. A morbilliform variant of vancomycin-induced linear IgA bullous dermatosis. Arch Dermatol. 2008;144:774-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In light of these findings, direct immunofluorescence may be a useful diagnostic adjunct in determining the cause of drug eruptions. ..
  14. Li C, Shen K, Huang L, Huang H, Wang Y, Wu T. Annexin-I overexpression is associated with tumour progression and independently predicts inferior disease-specific and metastasis-free survival in urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma. Pathology. 2010;42:43-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The above results reinforced the comparative proteomics results and confirmed the prognostic role of ANXA1 in UBUC. ..
  15. Bresler S, Granter S. Utility of direct immunofluorescence testing for IgA in patients with high and low clinical suspicion for dermatitis herpetiformis. Am J Clin Pathol. 2015;144:880-4 pubmed publisher
  16. Joensuu K, Leidenius M, Andersson L, Heikkila P. High expression of maspin is associated with early tumor relapse in breast cancer. Hum Pathol. 2009;40:1143-51 pubmed publisher
    ..High cytoplasmic expression of maspin and low expression of B-cell lymphoma-2 in primary breast cancer predict early tumor relapse...
  17. Chen Y, Hwang E, Roy R, Devries S, Anderson J, Wa C, et al. Genetic and phenotypic characteristics of pleomorphic lobular carcinoma in situ of the breast. Am J Surg Pathol. 2009;33:1683-94 pubmed publisher
    ..However, clinical follow-up studies will be required to define the natural history and most appropriate management of these lesions...
  18. Kucinskaite I, Juozapaitis M, Serva A, Zvirbliene A, Johnson N, Staniulis J, et al. Antigenic characterisation of yeast-expressed lyssavirus nucleoproteins. Virus Genes. 2007;35:521-9 pubmed
    ..These recombinant proteins have the potential for use as components of serological assays for lyssaviruses. ..
  19. Mahony J, Chong S, Merante F, Yaghoubian S, Sinha T, Lisle C, et al. Development of a respiratory virus panel test for detection of twenty human respiratory viruses by use of multiplex PCR and a fluid microbead-based assay. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:2965-70 pubmed
  20. Sangoi A, Soslow R, Teng N, Longacre T. Ovarian clear cell carcinoma with papillary features: a potential mimic of serous tumor of low malignant potential. Am J Surg Pathol. 2008;32:269-74 pubmed publisher
    ..As CCC and S-LMP exhibit significantly different immunoreactivity for Wilms' Tumor 1 and estrogen receptor, these markers may also be useful adjunctive tests in problematic cases. ..
  21. Glauser S, Rutz M, Cazzaniga S, Hegyi I, Borradori L, Beltraminelli H. Diagnostic value of immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded skin biopsy specimens for bullous pemphigoid. Br J Dermatol. 2016;175:988-993 pubmed publisher
    ..IHCA represents a potential rescue diagnostic technique only if specialized laboratories and/or a second biopsy specimen for DIF are unavailable. ..
  22. Morrissey C, Lai J, Brown L, Wang Y, Roudier M, Coleman I, et al. The expression of osteoclastogenesis-associated factors and osteoblast response to osteolytic prostate cancer cells. Prostate. 2010;70:412-24 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-6 may have an important role in promoting osteoclastogenesis in PCa bone metastasis through its' interaction with sIL-6R. ..
  23. Hsiao P, Wu Y. Distinct pattern of direct immunofluorescence in livedoid vasculopathy. Am J Dermatopathol. 2010;32:240-3 pubmed publisher
    ..This pattern provides a useful clue to its diagnosis. ..
  24. Karube A, Suzuki J, Haraguchi G, Maejima Y, Saiki H, Kosuge H, et al. Suppression of neointimal hyperplasia after vascular injury by blocking 4-1BB/4-1BB ligand pathway. J Med Dent Sci. 2008;55:207-13 pubmed
    ..27, n=9). 4-1BB inhibits neointimal hyperplasia after vascular injury. Our findings suggest that 4-1BB is involved in injury-induced neointimal hyperplasia and may be an effective target for the treatment of neointimal hyperplasia. ..
  25. Netto G, Nakai Y, Nakayama M, Jadallah S, Toubaji A, Nonomura N, et al. Global DNA hypomethylation in intratubular germ cell neoplasia and seminoma, but not in nonseminomatous male germ cell tumors. Mod Pathol. 2008;21:1337-44 pubmed publisher
    ..That is, IGCNU cells and seminoma cells remain unmethylated, whereas all other histological types appear to arise after de novo methylation...
  26. Greer L, Abbassi Ghanavati M, Sheffield J, Casey B. Diagnostic dilemmas in a pregnant woman with influenza A (H1N1) infection. Obstet Gynecol. 2010;115:409-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We document these problems, urge initiation of antiviral therapy based on clinical suspicion, and recognize the potential laboratory abnormalities that may be associated with severe influenza illness. ..
  27. Onnockx S, De Schutter J, Blockmans M, Xie J, Jacobs C, Vanderwinden J, et al. The association between the SH2-containing inositol polyphosphate 5-Phosphatase 2 (SHIP2) and the adaptor protein APS has an impact on biochemical properties of both partners. J Cell Physiol. 2008;214:260-72 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the interaction between APS and SHIP2 provides to both proteins potential negative regulatory mechanisms to act on the insulin cascade. ..
  28. Shimura T, Torres M, Martin M, Rao V, Pommier Y, Katsura M, et al. Bloom's syndrome helicase and Mus81 are required to induce transient double-strand DNA breaks in response to DNA replication stress. J Mol Biol. 2008;375:1152-64 pubmed
  29. Kobayashi M, Takeuchi T, Ohtsuki Y. Differences in the immunolocalization of surfactant protein (SP)-A, SP-D, and KL-6 in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Pathol Int. 2008;58:203-7 pubmed publisher
    ..On western blot the specificity of mAb was shown. In conclusion, this is the first report demonstrating the striking difference in the distribution of SP-A and SP-D in the intra-alveolar substance of a patient with idiopathic PAP. ..
  30. Oliveira M, Amorim M, Souza A, Albuquerque L, Costa A. [Chlamydia infection in patients with and without cervical intra-epithelial lesions]. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992). 2008;54:506-12 pubmed
    ..47; 95% CI=13.93-289.09). Chlamydia trachomatis infection is associated with intraepithelial cervical lesions and history of STD should be considered for treatment and follow-up of these patients. ..
  31. Kim J, Kim Y, In S, Kim Y, Han J. The cutaneous lesions of Kikuchi's disease: a comprehensive analysis of 16 cases based on the clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and immunofluorescence studies with an emphasis on the differential diagnosis. Hum Pathol. 2010;41:1245-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the clinical and histopathologic findings are very heterogenous, the presence of a lymphohistiocytic infiltration with nonneutrophilic karyorrhexis helps to make the diagnosis of Kikuchi's disease with skin involvement. ..
  32. Tena Suck M, Moreno Jimenez S, Alonso M, Aguirre Crux L, Sanchez A. Oligodendrogliomas in relation to astrocytes differentiation. Clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2008;12:313-21 pubmed publisher
    ..For that reason, we suggest that the correlation between GFAP and HSP70 could have a relationship with the protection mechanism of the tumor itself. ..
  33. Yie S, Yang H, Ye S, Li K, Dong D, Lin X. Expression of HLA-G is associated with prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Am J Clin Pathol. 2007;128:1002-9 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that expression of HLA-G is a characteristic feature of ESCC and suggest that immunostaining by anti-HLA-G antibodies may be a potentially useful prognostic indicator. ..
  34. Calicó I, Lowak M, Bas A, Betbesé M, Fuentes F, Loaiza N. [A comparative study of direct immunofluorescence, enzyme immunoassay, and culture for diagnosing metapneumovirus infection]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2009;27:322-5 pubmed publisher
    ..It should be kept in mind that DFA analysis is a suitable test for this purpose only in the acute phase of the infection. ..
  35. Ulcay A, Gorenek L, Coskun O, Araz E, Acar A, Eyigun C. [Diagnosis of intestinal-protozoa in patients with immune deficiency]. Turkiye Parazitol Derg. 2008;32:328-33 pubmed
  36. Okamoto K, Mori Y, Komoda Y, Okamoto T, Okochi M, Takeda M, et al. Intramembrane processing by signal peptide peptidase regulates the membrane localization of hepatitis C virus core protein and viral propagation. J Virol. 2008;82:8349-61 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that intramembrane processing of HCV core protein by SPP is required for the localization of the HCV core protein in the DRM and for viral propagation. ..
  37. Conn K, Hendzel M, Schang L. Linker histones are mobilized during infection with herpes simplex virus type 1. J Virol. 2008;82:8629-46 pubmed publisher
  38. Lorenzi T, Marzioni D, Giannubilo S, Quaranta A, Crescimanno C, De Luca A, et al. Expression patterns of two serine protease HtrA1 forms in human placentas complicated by preeclampsia with and without intrauterine growth restriction. Placenta. 2009;30:35-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These HtrA1 alterations could be considered as possible markers to discriminate placental PE from maternal PE. ..
  39. Knudson R, Kalaaji A, Bruce A. The management of mucous membrane pemphigoid and pemphigus. Dermatol Ther. 2010;23:268-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum levels of specific autoantibodies and indirect immunofluorescence titers, in certain cases, can be used to monitor response to therapy. ..
  40. Takata H, Matsunaga S, Morimoto A, Ono Maniwa R, Uchiyama S, Fukui K. H1.X with different properties from other linker histones is required for mitotic progression. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:3783-8 pubmed
    ..X is required for chromosome alignment and segregation. Our results suggest that H1.X has important functions in mitotic progression, which are different from those of the other H1 subtypes. ..
  41. Bernard P, Reguiai Z, Tancrede Bohin E, Cordel N, Plantin P, Pauwels C, et al. Risk factors for relapse in patients with bullous pemphigoid in clinical remission: a multicenter, prospective, cohort study. Arch Dermatol. 2009;145:537-42 pubmed publisher
    ..76). High-titer anti-BP180 ELISA score and, to a lesser degree, a positive direct immunofluorescence finding are good indicators of further relapse of BP. At least 1 of these tests should be performed before therapy is discontinued. ..
  42. Lucy F, Graczyk T, Tamang L, Miraflor A, Minchin D. Biomonitoring of surface and coastal water for Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and human-virulent microsporidia using molluscan shellfish. Parasitol Res. 2008;103:1369-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the results demonstrate long-term human enteropathogen contamination of Irish waters with consequent public-health risk factors for drinking-water abstraction and water-based activities...
  43. Heron Milhavet L, Mamaeva D, Rochat A, Lamb N, Fernandez A. Akt2 is implicated in skeletal muscle differentiation and specifically binds Prohibitin2/REA. J Cell Physiol. 2008;214:158-65 pubmed
  44. McLemore M, Haigentz M, Smith R, Nuovo G, Alos L, Cardesa A, et al. Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas in HIV-positive patients: a preliminary investigation of viral associations. Head Neck Pathol. 2010;4:97-105 pubmed publisher
    ..MNTCG are significantly common in HIV+ HNSCC, but there is overlap in MNTCG counts with the control group and therefore this finding cannot be used as a biomarker of HIV infection. ..
  45. Kulthanan K, Jiamton S, Varothai S, Pinkaew S, Sutthipinittharm P. Direct immunofluorescence study in patients with lichen planus. Int J Dermatol. 2007;46:1237-41 pubmed publisher
    ..67). Forty-four per cent of cases had immunoreactants other than fibrin deposited along the DEJ, which resembled those of LE. ..
  46. Trinh L, Brignole Baudouin F, Raphael M, Dupont Monod S, Cassoux N, Lehoang P, et al. Th1 and Th2 responses on the ocular surface in uveitis identified by CCR4 and CCR5 conjunctival expression. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007;144:580-5 pubmed
    ..Exploration of the ocular surface in uveitis may represent a new way to understand better the immune pathways involved in this complex disease. ..
  47. Song Z, Guo W. [Isolation and genomic sequence analysis of porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus]. Bing Du Xue Bao. 2008;24:364-8 pubmed
    ..Phylogenetic analysis based on genome suggested that SC-Y might belong to same subgroup with Purdue strain. ..
  48. Takeda Y, Tsuta K, Shibuki Y, Hoshino T, Tochigi N, Maeshima A, et al. Analysis of expression patterns of breast cancer-specific markers (mammaglobin and gross cystic disease fluid protein 15) in lung and pleural tumors. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2008;132:239-43 pubmed publisher
    ..In terms of practical diagnosis, mammaglobin immunohistochemistry can serve as a differential marker of breast carcinoma and should be added to the immunohistochemical panel. ..
  49. Al Saif F, Elisa A, Al Homidy A, Al Ageel A, al Mubarak M. Retrospective analysis of pemphigoid gestationis in 32 Saudi patients - Clinicopathological features and a literature review. J Reprod Immunol. 2016;116:42-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally the timely diagnosis and appropriate management of PG may improve both maternal and neonatal outcome. ..
  50. Rai R, Harikumar M. Comparison of Direct Immunofluorescence of Plucked Hair and Skin for Evaluation of Immunological Remission in Pemphigus. Indian Dermatol Online J. 2017;8:319-322 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, DIF of plucked hair demonstrating intercellular deposition of IgG in the outer root sheath (ORS) has shown to be useful...
  51. Laughlin K, Luo D, Liu C, Shaw G, Warrington K, Law B, et al. Hematopoietic- and neurologic-expressed sequence 1 (Hn1) depletion in B16.F10 melanoma cells promotes a differentiated phenotype that includes increased melanogenesis and cell cycle arrest. Differentiation. 2009;78:35-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These data, coupled with reports on Hn1 expression in regeneration and development, suggest that Hn1 functions as a suppressor of differentiation in cells undergoing repair or proliferation. ..
  52. Kumar A, Singh S, Salhan S, Mittal A. Evaluation of a developed species-specific monoclonal antibody for detecting Chlamydia trachomatis infections in endocervical specimens from female patients. Hybridoma (Larchmt). 2007;26:333-7 pubmed
    ..22%) compared to DFA for detection of chlamydial infection in endocervical samples. It can be used as a reliable method in laboratories for the diagnosis of chlamydial infections. ..
  53. Ndiaye M, Lebrun Vignes B, Ortonne N, Fardet L. [Amiodarone-induced immune complex cutaneous vasculitis]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2017;144:788-792 pubmed publisher
    ..Fewer than 10 cases of amiodarone-induced vasculitis have been reported in the medical literature. It is not known whether this entity is rare, under-diagnosed or under-reported. ..