immunologic techniques


Summary: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.

Top Publications

  1. Rapin N, Lund O, Bernaschi M, Castiglione F. Computational immunology meets bioinformatics: the use of prediction tools for molecular binding in the simulation of the immune system. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9862 pubmed publisher
    ..We believe that the combination of genomic information and simulation of the dynamics of the immune system, in one single tool, can offer new perspectives for a better understanding of the immune system. ..
  2. Genser B, Cooper P, Yazdanbakhsh M, Barreto M, Rodrigues L. A guide to modern statistical analysis of immunological data. BMC Immunol. 2007;8:27 pubmed
    ..This paper will help the immunologist to choose the correct statistical approach for a particular research question. ..
  3. Givan A, Fisher J, Waugh M, Ernstoff M, Wallace P. A flow cytometric method to estimate the precursor frequencies of cells proliferating in response to specific antigens. J Immunol Methods. 1999;230:99-112 pubmed
    ..The flow method may find use as a simple, routine assay in the fields of allergy, transplant rejection, and autoimmunity and for quantitating responses to vaccination and cancer immunotherapy. ..
  4. De Groot A, Sbai H, Aubin C, McMurry J, Martin W. Immuno-informatics: Mining genomes for vaccine components. Immunol Cell Biol. 2002;80:255-69 pubmed
    ..The present article reviews the work of several groups engaged in the development of immuno-informatics tools and illustrates the application of these tools to the process of vaccine discovery. ..
  5. Chakraborty A, Dustin M, Shaw A. In silico models for cellular and molecular immunology: successes, promises and challenges. Nat Immunol. 2003;4:933-6 pubmed
  6. Romero P, Cerottini J, Waanders G. Novel methods to monitor antigen-specific cytotoxic T-cell responses in cancer immunotherapy. Mol Med Today. 1998;4:305-12 pubmed
    ..In this review, we describe several novel methods to track antigen-specific CTL responses. ..
  7. Yazdanbakhsh K. Applications of blood group antigen expression systems for antibody detection and identification. Transfusion. 2007;47:85S-8S pubmed
  8. Cooper H, Paterson Y. Production of polyclonal antisera. Curr Protoc Cell Biol. 2001;Chapter 16:Unit 16.2 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the unit presents a method for preparing serum from blood. Polyclonal antipeptide antisera can be produced by substituting carrier-conjugated peptides for the purified protein antigens. ..
  9. Exley M, Balk S, Wilson S. Isolation and functional use of human NK T cells. Curr Protoc Immunol. 2003;Chapter 14:Unit 14.11 pubmed publisher
    ..Support protocols for secondary stimulations and for rapid expansion of invariant NK T cell clones and functional analysis of these cells are also included. ..

More Information


  1. Major S, Nishizuka S, Morita D, Rowland R, Sunshine M, Shankavaram U, et al. AbMiner: a bioinformatic resource on available monoclonal antibodies and corresponding gene identifiers for genomic, proteomic, and immunologic studies. BMC Bioinformatics. 2006;7:192 pubmed
    ..The data will be made freely available at ..
  2. De Swerdt A, Van Den Keybus C, Kasran A, Cadot P, Neyens K, Coorevits L, et al. Detection of basophil-activating IgG autoantibodies in chronic idiopathic urticaria by induction of CD 63. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005;116:662-7 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrate the presence of basophil-activating autoantibodies in about 50% of patients with CIU. The data support the autoimmune cause of the disease and provide a simple test for detection of these autoantibodies. ..
  3. Zak D, Aderem A. Overcoming limitations in the systems vaccinology approach: a pathway for accelerated HIV vaccine development. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2012;7:58-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The goals of HIV systems vaccinology may be best met by judicious integration of in vitro, in vivo (murine and nonhuman primate), and human clinical analyses. ..
  4. Anderson J, Fuller T, Hawkins J, Brinkman M, Profaizer T, Shaddy R. Two-year reduction of panel reactive human leukocyte antigen antibodies in children receiving mycophenolate mofetil after valved allograft placement. Transplantation. 2005;80:414-6 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates the ability to persistently alter the HLA class I antibody response using 3 months of MMF following allograft implantation in children. ..
  5. Nilsson C, Lilja G, Nordlund M, Berthold M, Borres M. Phadiatop Infant(®) detects IgE-mediated diseases among pre-school children: a prospective study. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2012;23:159-65 pubmed publisher
    ..6 (95% CI 1.6-7.9) and 18.4 (95% CI 7.4-45.8), respectively. Phinf seems to be a reliable tool for predicting future sensitization as well as allergic symptoms in young children. ..
  6. Marengo M, Bonomi F, Iametti S, Prinz E, Hempelmann R, Boye M, et al. Recognition and uptake of free and nanoparticle-bound betalactoglobulin--a food allergen--by human monocytes. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2011;55:1708-16 pubmed publisher
  7. Moore E, McFarlane R, Olerud J. Concentric wood grain erythema on the trunk. Arch Dermatol. 2008;144:673-8 pubmed publisher
  8. McCudden C, Senior B, Hainsworth S, Oliveira W, Silverman L, Bruns D, et al. Evaluation of high resolution gel ?(2)-transferrin for detection of cerebrospinal fluid leak. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2013;51:311-5 pubmed
    ..Users of the ?(2)-transferrin immunofixation test should be cautioned against interpreting samples with blood contamination. ..
  9. Kandror K, Pilch P. Isolation of GLUT4 storage vesicles. Curr Protoc Cell Biol. 2006;Chapter 3:Unit 3.20 pubmed publisher
    ..The various protocols are applicable to cultured and primary adipocytes as well as skeletal muscle, the major insulin target cells expressing GLUT4. ..
  10. Steck A, Yuki N, Graus F. Antibody testing in peripheral nerve disorders. Handb Clin Neurol. 2013;115:189-212 pubmed publisher
    ..The corresponding electrophysiological and histological changes observed both in human and animal models are exemplified in order to get a better understanding of the immune mechanisms of these antibody-mediated neuropathies. ..
  11. Leisner C, Loeth N, Lamberth K, Justesen S, Sylvester Hvid C, Schmidt E, et al. One-pot, mix-and-read peptide-MHC tetramers. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e1678 pubmed publisher
  12. Endoh T, Kobayashi D, Tsuji N, Tanabe H, Koshida S, Yagihashi A, et al. Optimal prewarming conditions for Rh antibody testing. Transfusion. 2006;46:1521-5 pubmed
    ..PW at 30 degrees C minimizes problems in accurately detecting Rh system antibodies. ..
  13. Tung J, Fraser J, Wood P, Fung Y. Respiratory burst function of ovine neutrophils. BMC Immunol. 2009;10:25 pubmed publisher
    ..This improved understanding of ovine neutrophils will facilitate the validitation of ovine biomedical models of human pathologies in which neutrophils have been implicated. ..
  14. Peterson R. "Experiments of Nature" and the New Era of Immunology: an historical perspective. Immunol Res. 2007;38:55-63 pubmed
    ..Finally, the ongoing utility of this approach is emphasized. ..
  15. Quah B, Parish C. New and improved methods for measuring lymphocyte proliferation in vitro and in vivo using CFSE-like fluorescent dyes. J Immunol Methods. 2012;379:1-14 pubmed publisher
  16. Meissner F, Mann M. Quantitative shotgun proteomics: considerations for a high-quality workflow in immunology. Nat Immunol. 2014;15:112-7 pubmed publisher
  17. Kushwah R, Oliver J, Duan R, Zhang L, Keshavjee S, Hu J. Induction of immunological tolerance to adenoviral vectors by using a novel dendritic cell-based strategy. J Virol. 2012;86:3422-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these studies identify the use of DCs generated in the presence of IL-10 as a novel strategy to induce long-lasting immune tolerance to HD-Ad vectors. ..
  18. Al Masri A, Flemming P, Rodeck B, Melter M, Leonhardt J, Petersen C. Expression of the interferon-induced Mx proteins in biliary atresia. J Pediatr Surg. 2006;41:1139-43 pubmed
    ..Although positive findings of viruses in patients with BA are still inconsistent, the present study retraces the progressive inflammatory process in BA one more step toward its beginning. ..
  19. Hochel I, Skvor J. Characterization of rabbit antibodies for immunochemical detection of Yersinia enterocolitica. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2007;52:511-8 pubmed
    ..The prepared antibodies were used in the development of indirect competitive ELISA. At the optimum concentration of the immunoreactants the detection limits were within the range of 3-7 x 10(6) colony-forming units per mL. ..
  20. Suli C, Lorini M, Mistrello G, Tedeschi A. Diagnosis of latex hypersensitivity: comparison of different methods. Eur Ann Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;38:24-30 pubmed
    ..Patch testing with rubber chemicals should be reserved to selected cases. Basophil histamine release and immunoblotting can be performed for research purpose, but cannot be recommended for routine diagnostic use...
  21. Schumacher T, Gerlach C, van Heijst J. Mapping the life histories of T cells. Nat Rev Immunol. 2010;10:621-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we discuss the potential value of new technologies that would allow assessment of T cell migration patterns and prior signalling events. ..
  22. Luo Y, Dorf M. Delayed-type hypersensitivity. Curr Protoc Immunol. 2001;Chapter 4:Unit 4.5 pubmed publisher
    ..This unit details the protocol for stimulating DTH responses in mice to the O-succinimide ester of the hapten 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl acetyl (abbreviated NP-O-Su). ..
  23. Petering J, McManamny P, Honeyman J. Antibody therapeutics - the evolving patent landscape. N Biotechnol. 2011;28:538-44 pubmed publisher
    ..In some cases antibody techniques that were developed in the 1980s are still the subject of patent protection in the United States or Canada. ..
  24. Pappalardo F, Brusic V, Castiglione F, Schonbach C. Computational and bioinformatics techniques for immunology. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:263189 pubmed publisher
  25. Wang R. Molecular cloning and characterization of MHC class I- and II-restricted tumor antigens recognized by T cells. Curr Protoc Immunol. 2009;Chapter 20:Unit 20.10 pubmed publisher
    ..This unit describes a cDNA expression system and a genetic targeting expression system for the cloning of genes encoding for MHC class I- and II-restricted antigens recognized by antigen-specific CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells. ..
  26. Ranjan M, Nayak S, Rao B. Immunochemical detection of glycated beta- and gamma-crystallins in lens and their circulating autoantibodies (IgG) in streptozocin induced diabetic rat. Mol Vis. 2006;12:1077-85 pubmed
  27. Ho C, Lasho T, Butterfield J, Tefferi A. Global cytokine analysis in myeloproliferative disorders. Leuk Res. 2007;31:1389-92 pubmed
    ..013, 0.028 and 0.02, respectively). These results constitute an important conformation for the pathogenetic role of these cytokines in PMF. ..
  28. Wang Y, Fang L, Zhou L, Wang J, Ahn H. A survey of applications of biological products for drug interference of immunogenicity assays. Pharm Res. 2012;29:3384-92 pubmed publisher
  29. Volpi A, Bravaccini S, Medri L, Cerasoli S, Gaudio M, Amadori D. Usefulness of immunological detection of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase. Cell Oncol. 2005;27:347-53 pubmed
  30. Hajighasemi F, Khoshnoodi J, Shokri F. Development of two murine monoclonal antibodies recognizing human nG1m(a)-like isoallotypic markers. Hybridoma (Larchmt). 2008;27:473-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Both MAbs belonged to IgG1 subclass with affinity constants of 4.5 x 10(9) mol(-1) (4F18B12) and 3.46 x 10(9) mol(-1) (6F18D1), respectively. These MAbs might be used as a tool to detect nG1m(a) + IgG molecules. ..
  31. Nakamura K, Kohda T, Seto Y, Mukamoto M, Kozaki S. Improved detection methods by genetic and immunological techniques for botulinum C/D and D/C mosaic neurotoxins. Vet Microbiol. 2013;162:881-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the genetic and immunological detection methods are useful for the diagnosis of avian and bovine botulism. ..
  32. Girardi M, Duncan K, Tigelaar R, Imaeda S, Watsky K, McNiff J. Cross-comparison of patch test and lymphocyte proliferation responses in patients with a history of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis. Am J Dermatopathol. 2005;27:343-6 pubmed
    ..These findings provide additional evidence that the pathogenesis of AGEP involves a T cell-mediated immune response. ..
  33. Papagno L, Almeida J, Nemes E, Autran B, Appay V. Cell permeabilization for the assessment of T lymphocyte polyfunctional capacity. J Immunol Methods. 2007;328:182-8 pubmed
    ..It is important to be aware of this potential bias and to design specific application/experimental procedures in order to obtain optimal results. ..
  34. Hjelmeland L, Fujikawa A, Oltjen S, Smit McBride Z, Braunschweig D. Quantification of retinal pigment epithelial phenotypic variation using laser scanning cytometry. Mol Vis. 2010;16:1108-21 pubmed
    ..The changes of these variables with age suggest that the observed age-related variegation is primarily due to changes in the chromatin structure in individual cells. ..
  35. Huang C, Kuo L, Yang K, Lin P, Lu P, Lin C, et al. Laboratory diagnostics of dengue fever: an emphasis on the role of commercial dengue virus nonstructural protein 1 antigen rapid test. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2013;46:358-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Its use can increase the diagnostic sensitivity and decrease the need of convalescent samples. Seeking treatment late (days postonset > 4) and DENV IgG seropositivity independently decrease the sensitivity of the Dengue NS1 Ag STRIP. ..
  36. McNeely T, Luo S, Manger W, Herber W, Schofield T, Tan C, et al. Development of an opsonin inhibition assay for evaluation of complex polysaccharide protective epitopes. Vaccine. 2006;24:1941-8 pubmed
  37. Dantas Torres F. [Infection, seropositivity, and disease: what is the difference?]. Cad Saude Publica. 2005;21:1609; author reply 1610 pubmed
  38. Andrew S, Titus J. Purification of immunoglobulin G. Curr Protoc Cell Biol. 2001;Chapter 16:Unit 16.3 pubmed publisher
  39. Delogu G, Zumbo A, Fadda G. Microbiological and immunological diagnosis of tuberculous spondylodiscitis. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2012;16 Suppl 2:73-8 pubmed
    ..A modern diagnosis of TB spondylodiscitis should rely on the use of microbiological and immunological assays and the latter could potentially be of great help in monitoring therapy effectiveness. ..
  40. Wanja E, Parker Z, Odusami O, Rowland T, Dave K, Davé S, et al. Immuno-chromatographic wicking assay for the rapid detection of dengue viral antigens in mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol. 2014;51:220-5 pubmed
    ..Results from this assay will allow a rapid threat assessment and the focusing of vector control measures in high-risk areas. ..
  41. Carpenter C, Hall E, Randall R, McKenzie R, Cassels F, Diaz N, et al. Comparison of the antibody in lymphocyte supernatant (ALS) and ELISPOT assays for detection of mucosal immune responses to antigens of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in challenged and vaccinated volunteers. Vaccine. 2006;24:3709-18 pubmed
  42. Forsum U, Danielsson D. Developments in the recent past--immunology. APMIS. 2007;115:406-8 pubmed
  43. Vilela F, Antunes Rodrigues J, Elias L, Giusti Paiva A. Corticosterone synthesis inhibitor metyrapone preserves changes in maternal behavior and neuroendocrine responses during immunological challenge in lactating rats. Neuroendocrinology. 2013;97:322-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These changes may be due to corticosterone release, as evidenced by the reversal of behavioral and neuroendocrine responses after immunological challenge in lactating rats that had been pretreated with metyrapone. ..
  44. Kurtoglu E, Karakuş V, Deveci B. Refractory idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura treated with immunoadsorption using tryptophan column. Transfus Apher Sci. 2013;48:311-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report successful treatment of an adult ITP patient with immunoadsorption using tryptophan column who were refractory to steroids, splenectomy, eltrombopag and various immunosuppressive medications. ..
  45. Daniel C, Ploegh H, von Boehmer H. Antigen-specific induction of regulatory T cells in vivo and in vitro. Methods Mol Biol. 2011;707:173-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we also address methods in order to achieve TGF?-dependent Treg conversion in vitro, thereby mainly focusing on the role of retinoic acid (RA) to enhance TGF?-dependent conversion into Tregs. ..
  46. Brooking H, Powell M, Amoroso M, Betterle C, Pedini B, Coco G, et al. Preparation and testing of diabetes autoantibody controls. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1150:316-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Availability of an essentially unlimited supply of these reagents should be useful in establishing reproducible and comparable measurements of diabetes autoantibodies in different laboratories using different assays. ..
  47. Carneiro J, Duarte L, Padovan E. Limiting dilution analysis of antigen-specific T cells. Methods Mol Biol. 2009;514:95-105 pubmed publisher
  48. Takeichi M. [History and development of cell-cell adhesion studies]. Seikagaku. 2006;78:577-8 pubmed
  49. Jeng Y, Suarez V, Izban M, Wang H, Soloff M. Progesterone-induced sphingosine kinase-1 expression in the rat uterus during pregnancy and signaling consequences. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007;292:E1110-21 pubmed
    ..These studies suggest that the uterine expression of SphK1 mediates processes involved in growth and differentiation of uterine tissues during pregnancy. ..
  50. Andersson L, Eriksson H. De-aluminated zeolite Y as a tool to study endocytosis, a delivery system revealing differences between human peripheral dendritic cells. Scand J Immunol. 2007;66:52-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, zeolite particles provide a useful tool to study the endocytosing mechanisms, and an efficient carrier of bio-molecules into the endosomal pathways of viable cells. ..
  51. Sinha S, Das S, Li L, Lerner R, Barbas C. Preparation of integrin alpha(v)beta3-targeting Ab 38C2 constructs. Nat Protoc. 2007;2:449-56 pubmed
    ..The 38C2 constructs are retargeted to cells over-expressing integrins, and are potential candidates for immunotherapy. ..
  52. Sato Y, Sasaki S. Control of the bioluminescence starting time by inoculated cell density. Anal Sci. 2006;22:1237-9 pubmed
    ..Samples were prepared by varying cell density of inoculation. In the results, all the vials showed different luminescence profiles in the order of inoculated cell population. ..
  53. Dobrovolskaia M. Pre-clinical immunotoxicity studies of nanotechnology-formulated drugs: Challenges, considerations and strategy. J Control Release. 2015;220:571-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Special attention will be paid to the grand-challenge related to detection, quantification and removal of endotoxin from nanoformulations, and practical considerations related to this challenge. ..