ligase chain reaction


Summary: A DNA amplification technique based upon the ligation of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES. The probes are designed to exactly match two adjacent sequences of a specific target DNA. The chain reaction is repeated in three steps in the presence of excess probe: (1) heat denaturation of double-stranded DNA, (2) annealing of probes to target DNA, and (3) joining of the probes by thermostable DNA ligase. After the reaction is repeated for 20-30 cycles the production of ligated probe is measured.

Top Publications

  1. Peralta L, Durako S, Ma Y. Correlation between urine and cervical specimens for the detection of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae using ligase chain reaction in a cohort of HIV infected and uninfected adolescents. J Adolesc Health. 2001;29:87-92 pubmed
    a) To examine the concordance between ligase chain reaction (LCR) results from urine and cervical samples for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in HIV infected and uninfected adolescent women, and (b) to examine factors ..
  2. Pannekoek Y, Westenberg S, Eijk P, Repping S, van der Veen F, van der Ende A, et al. Assessment of Chlamydia trachomatis infection of semen specimens by ligase chain reaction. J Med Microbiol. 2003;52:777-9 pubmed
    Diagnostic potential of the Chlamydia trachomatis ligase chain reaction system (LCx) to assess the presence of C. trachomatis in urine and semen specimens was evaluated...
  3. Freise J, Gerard H, Bunke T, Whittum Hudson J, Zeidler H, Kohler L, et al. Optimised sample DNA preparation for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in synovial tissue by polymerase chain reaction and ligase chain reaction. Ann Rheum Dis. 2001;60:140-5 pubmed
    Molecular biology techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and ligase chain reaction (LCR) are routinely used in research for detection of C trachomatis DNA in synovial samples, and these methods are now in use in some clinical ..
  4. Girardet R, McClain N, Lahoti S, Cheung K, Hartwell B, McNeese M. Comparison of the urine-based ligase chain reaction test to culture for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in pediatric sexual abuse victims. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2001;20:144-7 pubmed
    The urine-based ligase chain reaction (LCR) assay for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an attractive alternative to culture because of the relative ease with which specimens may be collected, transported and processed...
  5. Shetty N, Shemko M, Holton J, Scott G. Is the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA by ligase chain reaction worth the cost: experiences from an inner London teaching hospital. J Clin Pathol. 2000;53:924-8 pubmed
    To evaluate the clinical usefulness and the costs of using a rapid, commercial ligase chain reaction test (LCx) to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis directly from clinical samples...
  6. Tian F, Wu Y, Zhou Y, Liu X, Visvikis Siest S, Xia Y. A new single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping method based on gap ligase chain reaction and a microsphere detection assay. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2008;46:486-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we present a new genotyping technique based on gap ligase chain reaction and a fluorescent polystyrene microsphere measurement platform...
  7. Kasehagen L, Mueller I, McNamara D, Bockarie M, Kiniboro B, Rare L, et al. Changing patterns of Plasmodium blood-stage infections in the Wosera region of Papua New Guinea monitored by light microscopy and high throughput PCR diagnosis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;75:588-96 pubmed
    ..This study shows that the application of LDR-FMA diagnosis in large epidemiologic studies or malaria control interventions is feasible and may contribute novel insights regarding the epidemiology of malaria. ..
  8. McCartney R, Walker J, Scoular A. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in genitourinary medicine clinic attendees: comparison of strand displacement amplification and the ligase chain reaction. Br J Biomed Sci. 2001;58:235-8 pubmed
    ..Here, we compare the diagnostic performance of ligase chain reaction with that of SDA in first-catch urine (FCU) samples from both male and female patients and in endocervical ..
  9. Ribeiro F, Dettoni V, Peres R, Vinhas S, Có T, Dietze R, et al. Evaluation of a commercial test based on ligase chain reaction for direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in respiratory specimens. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2004;37:431-5 pubmed
    A ligase chain reaction DNA amplification method for direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Abbott LCx MTB) in respiratory specimens was evaluated...

More Information


  1. Bachmann L, Desmond R, Stephens J, Hughes A, Hook E. Duration of persistence of gonococcal DNA detected by ligase chain reaction in men and women following recommended therapy for uncomplicated gonorrhea. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:3596-601 pubmed
    ..b>Ligase chain reaction (LCR) is both highly sensitive and specific for the detection of N...
  2. Mano J, Oguchi T, Akiyama H, Teshima R, Hino A, Furui S, et al. Simultaneous detection of recombinant DNA segments introduced into genetically modified crops with multiplex ligase chain reaction coupled with multiplex polymerase chain reaction. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:2640-6 pubmed publisher
    We developed a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-multiplex ligase chain reaction (LCR) (MPCR-MLCR) technique as a novel approach for the simultaneous detection of recombinant DNA segments (e.g...
  3. McNamara D, Kasehagen L, Grimberg B, Cole Tobian J, Collins W, Zimmerman P. Diagnosing infection levels of four human malaria parasite species by a polymerase chain reaction/ligase detection reaction fluorescent microsphere-based assay. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;74:413-21 pubmed
    ..Application of this multiplex Plasmodium species LDR-FMA diagnostic assay will increase the speed, accuracy, and reliability of diagnosing human Plasmodium species infections in epidemiologic studies of complex malaria-endemic settings. ..
  4. Castriciano S, Luinstra K, Jang D, Patel J, Mahony J, Kapala J, et al. Accuracy of results obtained by performing a second ligase chain reaction assay and PCR analysis on urine samples with positive or near-cutoff results in the LCx test for Chlamydia trachomatis. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:2632-4 pubmed
    Nucleic acid amplification assays such as the ligase chain reaction and PCR have encountered reproducibility problems...
  5. Gibriel A, Adel O. Advances in ligase chain reaction and ligation-based amplifications for genotyping assays: Detection and applications. Mutat Res. 2017;773:66-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the discovery of ligase chain reaction (LCR) in the late nineties, it became one of the most favored platforms for detecting these variants and ..
  6. Zhang P, Zhang J, Wang C, Liu C, Wang H, Li Z. Highly sensitive and specific multiplexed microRNA quantification using size-coded ligation chain reaction. Anal Chem. 2014;86:1076-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In our proof of principle work, we detect three miRNAs: let-7a, mir-92a, and mir-143, which can also be simultaneously detected in as small as 2 ng of total RNA sample. ..
  7. van Gijn M, Soler S, de la Chapelle C, Mulder M, Ritorre C, Kriek M, et al. Search for copy number alterations in the MEFV gene using multiplex ligation probe amplification, experience from three diagnostic centres. Eur J Hum Genet. 2008;16:1404-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This result suggests that single or multiexon MEFV gene copy number changes do not contribute substantially, if at all, to the MEFV mutation spectrum. ..
  8. Lechner B, Baker J, Chastain D, Cuda S, Lynch J. The prevalence of asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis in military dependent adolescents. Mil Med. 2002;167:600-1 pubmed
    ..Using a noninvasive urine ligase chain reaction assay, we determined the prevalence of asymptomatic C...
  9. Pospisil L, Stroblová H, Pejcoch M, Anton M, Pohanka M, Canderle J, et al. [Importance of regular screening for genital chlamydiosis in adolescents]. Ceska Gynekol. 2003;68:68-71 pubmed
    ..Noninvasive methods are suitable for screening of latent genital chlamydiosis and for estimation of its prevalence. The authors of the study recommend the ligase chain reaction (LCR) as a most suitable screening method.
  10. Gerdes T, Kirchhoff M, Lind A, Larsen G, Schwartz M, Lundsteen C. Computer-assisted prenatal aneuploidy screening for chromosome 13, 18, 21, X and Y based on multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Eur J Hum Genet. 2005;13:171-5 pubmed
    ..In total, 3.2% of the samples were inconclusive. We conclude that automatic computer assisted MLPA is a rapid, simple and reliable method for detection of aneuploidies in prenatal diagnostics. ..
  11. Toubanaki D, Christopoulos T, Ioannou P, Flordellis C. Identification of single-nucleotide polymorphisms by the oligonucleotide ligation reaction: a DNA biosensor for simultaneous visual detection of both alleles. Anal Chem. 2009;81:218-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The genotype is assigned by the characteristic red lines that appear at the two test zones. The proposed DNA biosensor constitutes a significant step toward point-of-care SNP genotyping. ..
  12. Cecil J, Howell M, Tawes J, Gaydos J, McKee K, Quinn T, et al. Features of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in male Army recruits. J Infect Dis. 2001;184:1216-9 pubmed
    ..recruits were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis (n=2245) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (n=884), using a urine ligase chain reaction test to determine prevalence and potential risk factors for infection...
  13. Krawczyk B, Leibner Ciszak J, Stojowska K, Kur J. The new LM-PCR/shifter method for the genotyping of microorganisms based on the use of a class IIS restriction enzyme and ligation mediated PCR. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;21:1336-44 pubmed
    ..We found that the LM-PCR/Shifter is rapid, and offers good discriminatory power and excellent reproducibility, making it a method that may be effectively applied in epidemiological studies. ..
  14. Fushan A, Drayna D. MALS: an efficient strategy for multiple site-directed mutagenesis employing a combination of DNA amplification, ligation and suppression PCR. BMC Biotechnol. 2009;9:83 pubmed publisher
    ..The procedure is rapid, highly efficient and does not require special chemical reagents. Thus, MALS represents a powerful alternative to the existing methods for multiple SDM. ..
  15. León Muiños E, Perez del Molino M, Lado Lado F, Pazo Núñez M, Pardo F. Use of ligase chain reaction for the rapid diagnosis of lymph node tuberculosis. Scand J Infect Dis. 2004;36:724-6 pubmed
    b>Ligase chain reaction amplification (LCx Abbott Laboratories) was used to detect the presence of M. tuberculosis in 101 adenopathy specimens obtained from 98 patients...
  16. Ahvenainen T, Lehtonen H, Lehtonen R, Vahteristo P, Aittomaki K, Baynam G, et al. Mutation screening of fumarate hydratase by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification: detection of exonic deletion in a patient with leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2008;183:83-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our finding, together with the two patients with whole FH gene deletion who had been detected previously, suggests that exonic or whole-gene FH deletions are not a frequent cause of HLRCC syndrome...
  17. Toubanaki D, Christopoulos T, Ioannou P, Gravanis A. Dry-reagent disposable biosensor for visual genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms by oligonucleotide ligation reaction: application to pharmacogenetic analysis. Hum Mutat. 2008;29:1071-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We have applied successfully the proposed OLR-dipstick assay to the genotyping of four SNPs in the drug-metabolizing enzyme genes CYP2D6 ((*)3 and (*)4) and CYP2C19 ((*)2 and (*)3). The results were in agreement with direct sequencing. ..
  18. Drew H, Lockett L, Both G. Increased complexity of wild-type adeno-associated virus-chromosomal junctions as determined by analysis of unselected cellular genomes. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:1722-32 pubmed
    ..These data may have implications for the design of new-generation AAV vectors. ..
  19. Tao G, Gift T, Walsh C, Irwin K, Kassler W. Optimal resource allocation for curing Chlamydia trachomatis infection among asymptomatic women at clinics operating on a fixed budget. Sex Transm Dis. 2002;29:703-9 pubmed
    ..6%, 6.9%, and 2.3%, respectively. We modeled two screening test assays (DNA probe and ligase chain reaction [LCR] for cervical specimens) and two treatments (doxycycline and azithromycin)...
  20. Albrecht J, Kotani A, Lin J, Soper S, Barron A. Simultaneous detection of 19 K-ras mutations by free-solution conjugate electrophoresis of ligase detection reaction products on glass microchips. Electrophoresis. 2013;34:590-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results will aid the goal of screening K-ras mutations on integrated "sample-in/answer-out" devices with amplification, LDR, and detection all on one platform. ..
  21. Yang X, Xu Z. [Establishment of the multiplex quantitative ligase chain reaction for detecting mutations of deafness genes]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi. 2010;27:530-4 pubmed publisher
    To establish a low-cost, convenient and accurate multiplex quantitative ligase chain reaction (MQ-LCR) technique to detect the five common mutations in Chinese patients with deafness...
  22. Peng Y, Meng Y, Qiu Z, Wang O, Huang S. [Detection of microdeletion in Williams syndrome by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi. 2009;26:369-73 pubmed
    ..MLPA is a quick and convenient method for detecting deletion or duplication mutations. It can provide reliable and helpful information for clinical diagnose of Williams syndrome. ..
  23. Postma M, Welte R, van den Hoek J, van Doornum G, Jager H, Coutinho R. Cost-effectiveness of partner pharmacotherapy in screening women for asymptomatic infection with Chlamydia Trachomatis. Value Health. 2001;4:266-75 pubmed
    ..For diagnosis of asymptomatic CT infection a Ligase Chain Reaction (LCR) test on urine was used; for pharmacotherapy of women and partners azithromycin was used...
  24. Golden M, Astete S, Galvan R, Lucchetti A, Sanchez J, Celum C, et al. Pilot study of COBAS PCR and ligase chain reaction for detection of rectal infections due to Chlamydia trachomatis. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:2174-5 pubmed
    ..from men who have sex with men for Chlamydia trachomatis by using COBAS PCR (Roche Diagnostics) and ligase chain reaction LCR (Abbott laboratories) and compared three PCR specimen-processing procedures...
  25. Collins M, Govey S, Alexander D. Rapid in vitro assessment of the virulence of Newcastle disease virus isolates using the ligase chain reaction. Arch Virol. 2003;148:1851-62 pubmed
    The ligase chain reaction was used to assess the virulence of isolates of Newcastle disease virus...
  26. Krasny J, Tomasova Borovanska J, Hruba D. The Relationship between chlamydia trachomatis and chlamydia pneumoniae as the cause of neonatal conjunctivitis (ophthalmia neonatorum). Ophthalmologica. 2005;219:232-6 pubmed
    ..Chlamydia trachomatis was confirmed in 20 (15.3%) using ligase chain reaction and C. pneumoniae in 16 (12.3%) children using an indirect immunofluorescent method...
  27. Winter A, Gilleran G, Eastick K, Ross J. Comparison of a ligase chain reaction-based assay and cell culture for detection of pharyngeal carriage of Chlamydia trachomatis. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:3502-4 pubmed
    ..5% in 194 women and zero in 70 men. The ligase chain reaction (Abbott LCx) had a specificity of 99.2% and a positive predictive value of 60%.
  28. Kausar A, Mitran C, Li Y, Gibbs Davis J. Rapid, isothermal DNA self-replication induced by a destabilizing lesion. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2013;52:10577-81 pubmed publisher
    ..a destabilizing abasic site and high concentration of ligase, rapid DNA self-replication in an isothermal ligase chain reaction (LCR) was produced. Both destabilization and rapid ligation are essential for proper LCR replication...
  29. Kent C, Branzuela A, Fischer L, Bascom T, Klausner J. Chlamydia and gonorrhea screening in San Francisco high schools. Sex Transm Dis. 2002;29:373-5 pubmed
    ..Students provided basic demographic information and urine specimens for chlamydia and gonorrhea ligase chain reaction testing. Among 283 asymptomatic females screened, 3.9% had chlamydia and 0.7% had gonorrhea...
  30. Cohen Stuart J, Dierikx C, al Naiemi N, Karczmarek A, Van Hoek A, Vos P, et al. Rapid detection of TEM, SHV and CTX-M extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae using ligation-mediated amplification with microarray analysis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010;65:1377-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a novel ESBL assay using ligation-mediated amplification combined with microarray analysis to detect the most prevalent ESBLs in Enterobacteriaceae: TEM, SHV and CTX-M...
  31. Lallemant M, Ngo Giang Huong N, Jourdain G, Traisaithit P, Cressey T, Collins I, et al. Efficacy and safety of 1-month postpartum zidovudine-didanosine to prevent HIV-resistance mutations after intrapartum single-dose nevirapine. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50:898-908 pubmed publisher
    ..8% of PHPT-4 subjects and 20.7% of controls (P < .001). A 1-month postpartum course of zidovudine plus didanosine prevented the selection of the vast majority of NNRTI resistance mutations. ..
  32. Nissen P, Christensen S, Wallace A, Heickendorff L, Brixen K, Mosekilde L. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) screening for exon copy number variation in the calcium sensing receptor gene: no large rearrangements identified in patients with calcium metabolic disorders. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2010;72:758-62 pubmed publisher
  33. Deak J, Nagy E, Veréb I, Weszelowszky E, Somfay A, Kraszkó P. Molecular genetic and traditional methods for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (discrepancy analysis). Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung. 2001;48:449-55 pubmed
    ..fluid and skin samples] were tested by Gen-probe amplified Mycobacterium tuberculosis direct test (MTD) or ligase chain reaction (LCR) or polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
  34. Ostaszewska Puchalska I, Wilkowska Trojniel M, Zdrodowska Stefanow B, Knapp P. Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women with adverse pregnancy outcome. Med Wieku Rozwoj. 2005;9:49-56 pubmed
    ..C. trachomatis was investigated in cervical and urethral smears using direct immunofluorescence or Ligase chain reaction (LCR) for direct testing and immunoenzymatic assay (EIA) for serological testing and detection of specific ..
  35. Panelli S, Damiani G, Espen L, Sgaramella V. Ligation overcomes terminal underrepresentation in multiple displacement amplification of linear DNA. Biotechniques. 2005;39:174, 176, 178 passim pubmed
  36. Li M, Bode M, Huang M, Cheong W, Lim L. De novo gene synthesis design using TmPrime software. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;852:225-34 pubmed publisher
    This chapter presents TmPrime, a computer program to design oligonucleotide for both ligase chain reaction (LCR)- and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based de novo gene synthesis...
  37. Jilani I, Keating M, Day A, William W, Kantarjian H, O BRIEN S, et al. Simplified sensitive method for the detection of B-cell clonality in lymphoid malignancies. Clin Lab Haematol. 2006;28:325-31 pubmed
    ..The new assay uses ligase chain reaction (LCR) to detect clonality...
  38. Jourdain G, Wagner T, Ngo Giang Huong N, Sirirungsi W, Klinbuayaem V, Fregonese F, et al. Association between detection of HIV-1 DNA resistance mutations by a sensitive assay at initiation of antiretroviral therapy and virologic failure. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50:1397-404 pubmed publisher
    ..Access to simple and inexpensive assays to detect low concentrations of NVP-resistant HIV-1 DNA before the initiation of ART could help improve the outcome of first-line ART. ..
  39. Noguchi Y, Yabushita H, Noguchi M, Fujita M, Asai M, Del Carpio C. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis infection with DNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2002;43:1-6 pubmed
    ..Two detection methods, a ligase chain reaction (LCR) method and an immuno-histochemical staining which detects an antigen of C...
  40. Todd C, Haase C, Stoner B. Emergency department screening for asymptomatic sexually transmitted infections. Am J Public Health. 2001;91:461-4 pubmed
    ..for nongenitourinary complaints provided urine samples for N gonorrhoeae and C trachomatis testing by ligase chain reaction and completed a sociodemographic and behavioral questionnaire...
  41. Renton A, Thomas B, Gill S, Lowndes C, Taylor Robinson D, Patterson K. Chlamydia trachomatis in cervical and vaginal swabs and urine specimens from women undergoing termination of pregnancy. Int J STD AIDS. 2006;17:443-7 pubmed
    ..for termination of pregnancy (TOP) and to evaluate the performance of the tests used, namely the ligase chain reaction (LCR) and the direct fluorescence antibody (DFA) test...
  42. Kozak L, Hrabincova E, Kintr J, Horky O, Zapletalova P, Blahakova I, et al. Identification and characterization of large deletions in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene by MLPA: evidence for both homologous and non-homologous mechanisms of rearrangement. Mol Genet Metab. 2006;89:300-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that MLPA is a convenient, rapid and reliable method for detection of intragenic deletions in the PAH gene and that a relatively high number of alleles with large deletions are present in the Slavic PKU population. ..
  43. Ghanem K, Johnson R, Koumans E, Marrazzo J, Markowitz L. Cervical specimen order and performance measures of Chlamydia trachomatis diagnostic testing. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:5295-7 pubmed
    ..Specimen collection order did not appear to affect the diagnostic accuracy of these tests. ..
  44. Manavi K, McMillan A, Young H. The prevalence of rectal chlamydial infection amongst men who have sex with men attending the genitourinary medicine clinic in Edinburgh. Int J STD AIDS. 2004;15:162-4 pubmed
    ..Rectal chlamydiae were detected by ligase chain reaction (LCR) utilizing the Abbott LCX Amplicor with confirmation by COBASE amplicor for the majority of cases...
  45. Huppert J, Biro F, Mehrabi J, Slap G. Urinary tract infection and Chlamydia infection in adolescent females. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2003;16:133-7 pubmed
    ..database at an urban teen health center was reviewed to identify females who had both urine culture and ligase chain reaction (LCR) test for CT ordered at the same visit...
  46. Wagner T, Kress C, Beck I, Techapornroong M, Wittayapraparat P, Tansuphasawasdikul S, et al. Detection of HIV-1 drug resistance in women following administration of a single dose of nevirapine: comparison of plasma RNA to cellular DNA by consensus sequencing and by oligonucleotide ligation assay. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:1555-61 pubmed publisher
  47. Fenton K, Copas A, Mitchell K, Elam G, Carder C, Ridgway G, et al. The acceptability of urinary LCR testing for Chlamydia trachomatis among participants in a probability sample survey of sexual attitudes and lifestyles. Sex Transm Infect. 2001;77:194-8 pubmed
    ..attitudes and lifestyles, were invited to provide a urine sample for chlamydial infection testing using ligase chain reaction (LCR) techniques...
  48. Zhu W, Su X, Gao X, Dai Z, Zou X. A label-free and PCR-free electrochemical assay for multiplexed microRNA profiles by ligase chain reaction coupling with quantum dots barcodes. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014;53:414-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The method is based on the combination of the high base-mismatch selectivity of ligase chain reaction (LCR) and the remarkable voltammetric signature of electrochemical QDs barcodes...
  49. Coffa J, van de Wiel M, Diosdado B, Carvalho B, Schouten J, Meijer G. MLPAnalyzer: data analysis tool for reliable automated normalization of MLPA fragment data. Cell Oncol. 2008;30:323-35 pubmed
    ..It remains, however, important to recognize that automated MLPA data processing may only be successful when a dedicated experimental setup is also considered. ..
  50. Scoular A, McCartney R, Kinn S, Carr S, Walker A. The 'real-world' impact of improved diagnostic techniques for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Glasgow. Commun Dis Public Health. 2001;4:200-4 pubmed
    In April 1997, the main chlamydia laboratory in Glasgow introduced ligase chain reaction (LCR) as its standard diagnostic test. The diagnostic effectiveness and health economic impact of introduction of LCR testing was assessed...
  51. Cai Y, Ding H, Gu Z, Ma J, Chan P. Genetic variants of the PITX3 gene are not associated with late-onset sporadic Parkinson's disease in a Chinese population. Neurosci Lett. 2011;498:124-6 pubmed publisher
  52. Song Y, Zhang Y, Wang T. Single quantum dot analysis enables multiplexed point mutation detection by gap ligase chain reaction. Small. 2013;9:1096-105 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report, an assay technology is proposed which combines the outstanding specificity of gap ligase chain reaction (Gap-LCR), the high sensitivity of single-molecule coincidence detection, and the superior optical ..
  53. Grio R, Bello L, Smirne C, D Addato F, Latino M, Corvetto L, et al. Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence in North-West Italy. Minerva Ginecol. 2004;56:401-6 pubmed
    ..In our study 31,419 sexually active women aged 12-55 were screened for C. trachomatis by Abbott's ligase chain reaction (LCR) using cervical swabs during the period 1997-2001 at St. Anna Obstetric-Gynecological Hospital, Turin...