sex preselection


Summary: Methods for controlling genetic SEX of offspring.

Top Publications

  1. O Brien J, Robeck T. Development of sperm sexing and associated assisted reproductive technology for sex preselection of captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Reprod Fertil Dev. 2006;18:319-29 pubmed
    ..High-purity sorting of dolphin spermatozoa, derived from liquid-stored semen, can be achieved with minimal loss of in vitro sperm quality and samples are functional in vivo. ..
  2. Boake C. Sexual selection and speciation in hawaiian Drosophila. Behav Genet. 2005;35:297-303 pubmed
    ..This paper describes high points of some of the models and reviews data that are relevant to understanding sexual selection and speciation in this species group. ..
  3. Robertson J. Extending preimplantation genetic diagnosis: the ethical debate. Ethical issues in new uses of preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Hum Reprod. 2003;18:465-71 pubmed
  4. Himmel W, Dahl E, Michelmann H. Preconception sex selection: a survey of visitors to an internet-based health forum. Reprod Biomed Online. 2008;16 Suppl 1:18-26 pubmed
  5. Levy N. Against sex selection. South Med J. 2007;100:107-9; discussion 110-1 pubmed
  6. Záchia S, Knauth D, Goldim J, Chachamovich J, Chachamovich E, Paz A, et al. Assisted reproduction: what factors interfere in the professional's decisions? Are single women an issue?. BMC Womens Health. 2011;11:21 pubmed publisher
    ..It also discloses the undervaluation of bioethics committees and the need for a greater participation of healthcare professionals in debates on assisted reproduction laws. ..
  7. van Balen F. The choice for sons or daughters. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. 2005;26:229-30 pubmed
  8. . ACOG Committee Opinion No. 360: Sex selection. Obstet Gynecol. 2007;109:475-8 pubmed
    ..Because a patient is entitled to obtain personal medical information, including information about the sex of her fetus, it will sometimes be impossible for health care professionals to avoid unwitting participation in sex selection. ..
  9. Jylhä M, Kirkinen P, Puura K, Tomas E. Fetal sex determination: obstetricians' attitudes in antenatal screening units in Finland. Scand J Public Health. 2010;38:756-60 pubmed publisher
    ..A false diagnosis resulted extremely seldom in any litigation process. More precise guidelines are needed for fetal sex determination in healthcare organisation. ..

More Information


  1. Gleicher N, Barad D. The choice of gender: is elective gender selection, indeed, sexist?. Hum Reprod. 2007;22:3038-41 pubmed
    ..Ethics opinions should be considerate of minority opinions, but should be based on prevalent sentiments in a majority of the population. ..
  2. Gleicher N, Weghofer A, Barad D. Preimplantation genetic screening: "established" and ready for prime time?. Fertil Steril. 2008;89:780-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Because specific PGS indications have remained undefined, PGS should be considered an experimental procedure. ..
  3. Liao S. The ethics of using genetic engineering for sex selection. J Med Ethics. 2005;31:116-8 pubmed
    ..This paper argues that those who object to present technologies on the grounds that the embryo is a person are unlikely to be persuaded by this proposal, though for different reasons. ..
  4. Schulman J, Karabinus D. Scientific aspects of preconception gender selection. Reprod Biomed Online. 2005;10 Suppl 1:111-5 pubmed
  5. Dickens B, Serour G, Cook R, Qiu R. Sex selection: treating different cases differently. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2005;90:171-7 pubmed
    ..Where there is no general selection against girl children, sex selection can be allowed to assist families that want children of both sexes. ..
  6. Garner D. Flow cytometric sexing of mammalian sperm. Theriogenology. 2006;65:943-57 pubmed
  7. Schenk J, Seidel G. Pregnancy rates in cattle with cryopreserved sexed spermatozoa: effects of laser intensity, staining conditions and catalase. Soc Reprod Fertil Suppl. 2007;64:165-77 pubmed
    ..The information obtained in these trials, along with other improvements, notably lowering pressure in the sorting system from 50 to 40 psi, has been used to improve procedures for sexing spermatozoa commercially. ..
  8. Parrilla I, Vazquez J, Oliver Bonet M, Navarro J, Yelamos J, Roca J, et al. Fluorescence in situ hybridization in diluted and flow cytometrically sorted boar spermatozoa using specific DNA direct probes labelled by nick translation. Reproduction. 2003;126:317-25 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the ease of nick translation and the quality of the fluorescent signal obtained using this method makes this procedure the most appropriate method for labelling pig DNA probes to be used for direct FISH on pig spermatozoa. ..
  9. Dahl E, Hinsch K, Brosig B, Beutel M. Attitudes towards preconception sex selection: a representative survey from Germany. Reprod Biomed Online. 2004;9:600-3 pubmed
  10. Hollingsworth L. Ethical considerations in prenatal sex selection. Health Soc Work. 2005;30:126-34 pubmed
    ..Implications are discussed for social work practice, policy articulation and advocacy, research, and education. ..
  11. Scully J, Banks S, Shakespeare T. Chance, choice and control: lay debate on prenatal social sex selection. Soc Sci Med. 2006;63:21-31 pubmed
    ..Our study also shows that in appropriately structured discussion of bioethical issues, lay people can articulate reasons for their opinions that are grounded in sophisticated and morally relevant concepts. ..
  12. Sauer M. Gender selection: pressure from patients and industry should not alter our adherence to ethical guidelines. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004;191:1543-5 pubmed
    ..More studies are needed with respect to the impact of gender selection on families before this method is introduced into routine practice. ..
  13. Dahl E. Preconception gender selection: a threat to the natural sex ratio?. Reprod Biomed Online. 2005;10 Suppl 1:116-8 pubmed versus women, differing ages, and families with imbalanced sex ratios. More favourable responses arose, for example in pregnant women. Overall, all four nations had large majorities against the use of sex selection. ..
  14. Savulescu J, Dahl E. Sex selection and preimplantation diagnosis: a response to the Ethics Committee of the American Society of Reproductive Medicine. Hum Reprod. 2000;15:1879-80 pubmed
    ..We critically examine the arguments presented against sex selection using preimplantation genetic diagnosis. We argue that sex selection should be available, at least within privately funded health care. ..
  15. De Jonge C, Flaherty S, Barnes A, Swann N, Matthews C. Failure of multitube sperm swim-up for sex preselection. Fertil Steril. 1997;67:1109-14 pubmed
    ..No clinically significant change in the ratio of X- to Y-bearing spermatozoa was detected independent of time. Therefore, clinical application of this procedure should be strongly discouraged. ..
  16. De Ridder D, Vanneste S. The artful mind: sexual selection and an evolutionary neurobiological approach to aesthetic appreciation. Perspect Biol Med. 2013;56:327-40 pubmed publisher
  17. Gibb Z, Butler T, Morris L, Maxwell W, Grupen C. Quercetin improves the postthaw characteristics of cryopreserved sex-sorted and nonsorted stallion sperm. Theriogenology. 2013;79:1001-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, quercetin significantly improved the motility and zona binding ability of cryopreserved stallion sperm, and reduced DNA fragmentation in sex-sorted, cryopreserved stallion sperm...
  18. Li X, Yang X, Lu Y, Lu S, Zhang M, Yao H, et al. Protective effects of melatonin against oxidative stress in flow cytometry-sorted buffalo sperm. Reprod Domest Anim. 2012;47:299-307 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the results indicate the high potential of the laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy technique for rapid, effective and non-invasive assessment of the quality of sperm cells. ..
  19. Uchoa D, da Silva T, Cardoso J, Mota Filho A, Jucá R, Silva A, et al. Favoring the birth of female puppies after artificial insemination using chilled semen diluted with powdered coconut water (ACP-106c). Theriogenology. 2012;77:1959-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, this extender yielded acceptable litter size and rates of pregnancy and whelping. ..
  20. Afnan M, Hunt J. Sex selection: the response of the British Fertility Society to the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority consultation document. Hum Fertil (Camb). 2003;6:3-5 pubmed
  21. Stenseth N, Saetre G. Sexual selection forms the structure and dynamics of ecological communities. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:5576-7 pubmed
  22. Heikkilä A, Peippo J. Optimal utilization of modern reproductive technologies to maximize the gross margin of milk production. Anim Reprod Sci. 2012;132:129-38 pubmed publisher
    ..This single-year linear programming model adequately differentiates between breeding technologies within a herd, but further research is needed to develop dynamic models to consider genetic improvement and herd expansion. ..
  23. Gosset P. [Preimplantation genetic diagnosis--developments to expect?]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil. 2012;40:675-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Other objectives were considered but presenting difficulties in their application, not only for regulatory and technical reasons, but also from an ethical point of view. ..
  24. Shenfield F, Pennings G, Devroey P, Sureau C, Tarlatzis B, Cohen J. Taskforce 5: preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Hum Reprod. 2003;18:649-51 pubmed
    ..The statement includes consideration of fundamental ethical principles, specific problems in cases of high genetic risk, and PGD for aneuploidy screening, HLA typing and sex selection for non-medical reasons. ..
  25. Balao da Silva C, Macias Garcia B, Morillo Rodríguez A, Gallardo Bolaños J, Tapia J, Aparicio I, et al. Effect of Hoechst 33342 on stallion spermatozoa incubated in KMT or Tyrodes modified INRA96. Anim Reprod Sci. 2012;131:165-71 pubmed publisher
    ..5 ?M. Apparently, the detrimental effect of Hoechst to stallion spermatozoa varies depending on the media, and INRA modified extender may be an alternative to KMT. ..
  26. Ehrich K, Williams C, Farsides B, Sandall J, Scott R. Choosing embryos: ethical complexity and relational autonomy in staff accounts of PGD. Sociol Health Illn. 2007;29:1091-106 pubmed
  27. Scott H. Nurses should participate in ethical debates in health care. Br J Nurs. 2004;13:124 pubmed
  28. Fikree F, Pasha O. Role of gender in health disparity: the South Asian context. BMJ. 2004;328:823-6 pubmed
  29. Möller A, Ofverstedt S, Siwe K. Proud, not yet satisfied: the experiences of abortion service providers in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Sex Reprod Healthc. 2012;3:135-40 pubmed publisher
    ..They stated they have the opportunity to secure women's rights and health; however, changes are needed to bring the quality of abortion care to a satisfactory level. ..
  30. Lane M. Bioethics, health, and inequality. Lancet. 2004;364:1017-9 pubmed
  31. McDougall R. Acting parentally: an argument against sex selection. J Med Ethics. 2005;31:601-5 pubmed
  32. Ghys E, Dallemagne M, De Troy D, Sauvegarde C, Errachid A, Donnay I. Female bovine blastocysts are more prone to apoptosis than male ones. Theriogenology. 2016;85:591-600 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, this study reported that female bovine blastocysts are more prone to apoptosis than male ones but that culture in FCS exacerbates the differences in apoptosis between sexes, especially in small blastocysts. ..
  33. Seidel G. Sexing mammalian sperm - Where do we go from here?. J Reprod Dev. 2012;58:505-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, monitoring fertility of sexed sperm such as in vitro fertilization should be integral to the development process. Intellectual property issues could be substantive. ..
  34. Meyer L. Reproductive rights. Ethical Perspect. 2003;10:173-5 pubmed
  35. Sleeboom Faulkner M. Reproductive technologies and the quality of offspring in Asia: reproductive pioneering and moral pragmatism?. Cult Health Sex. 2010;12:139-52 pubmed publisher
  36. Harris J. Before birth--after death. J Med Ethics. 2004;30:425 pubmed
  37. Bathgate R, Grossfeld R, Susetio D, Ruckholdt M, Heasman K, Rath D, et al. Early pregnancy loss in sows after low dose, deep uterine artificial insemination with sex-sorted, frozen-thawed sperm. Anim Reprod Sci. 2008;104:440-4 pubmed
    ..5%; P=0.031). A combination of low sperm numbers and potentially compromised developmental capability of embryos derived from sex-sorted sperm may have resulted in this early stage loss of pregnancy. ..
  38. Sparrow R. Better than men? Sex and the therapy/enhancement distinction. Kennedy Inst Ethics J. 2010;20:115-44 pubmed
    ..The therapy/enhancement distinction therefore plays a crucial role in determining the ethics of interventions into the genetics of future generations. ..
  39. Blondin P, Beaulieu M, Fournier V, Morin N, Crawford L, Madan P, et al. Analysis of bovine sexed sperm for IVF from sorting to the embryo. Theriogenology. 2009;71:30-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study describes tools that can monitor semen parameters to optimize IVF conditions and thus obtain maximal blastocyst rates. ..
  40. Plummer K. Ending parents' unlimited power to choose: legislation is necessary to prohibit parents' selection of their children's sex and characteristics. St Louis Univ Law J. 2003;47:517-60 pubmed
  41. Guo J, Zhu H, Wang D, Zhang L, Hao H, DU W. [Progress on methods for purity assessment of separated chromosome X- or Y-bearing sperm]. Yi Chuan. 2008;30:1115-20 pubmed
  42. Landau R. Sex selection for social purposes in Israel: quest for the "perfect child" of a particular gender or centuries old prejudice against women?. J Med Ethics. 2008;34:e10 pubmed publisher
  43. Thogerson C, Brady C, Howard R, Mason G, Pajor E, Vicino G, et al. Winning the genetic lottery: biasing birth sex ratio results in more grandchildren. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e67867 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings also have practical implications: parental control of birth SR has the potential to accelerate genetic loss and risk of extinction within captive populations of endangered species. ..
  44. Spinaci M, Bucci D, Chlapanidas T, Vallorani C, Perteghella S, Communod R, et al. Boar sperm changes after sorting and encapsulation in barium alginate membranes. Theriogenology. 2013;80:526-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest the possibility of a future utilization of the encapsulation technology in order to store sorted spermatozoa and permit their controlled release in the female genital tract. ..
  45. Zavier A, Jejeebhoy S, Kalyanwala S. Factors associated with second trimester abortion in rural Maharashtra and Rajasthan, India. Glob Public Health. 2012;7:897-908 pubmed publisher
  46. O Brien J, Hollinshead F, Evans K, Evans G, Maxwell W. Flow cytometric sorting of frozen-thawed spermatozoa in sheep and non-human primates. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2003;15:367-75 pubmed
    ..In summary, high-purity sorting of frozen-thawed ram and non-human primate spermatozoa with recovery of progressively motile, acrosome-intact spermatozoa was possible after processing to remove cryodiluent. ..
  47. Rahman T, Siddiqui A. Discrepancies in the laws on identifying foetal sex and terminating a pregnancy in India. Indian J Med Ethics. 2007;4:119-20 pubmed
  48. Wasserman D. A choice of evils in prenatal testing. Fla State Univ Law Rev. 2003;30:295-313 pubmed
  49. Salmon C. Big brothers and little sisters? Sex selection and birth order. Reprod Biomed Online. 2007;15 Suppl 1:12-7 pubmed
    ..Do other countries express strong preferences for male or female offspring? This article will address the possible birth order implications. Will we live in a world of first-born boys and second-born girls? ..
  50. Garner D. Hoechst 33342: the dye that enabled differentiation of living X-and Y-chromosome bearing mammalian sperm. Theriogenology. 2009;71:11-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Little is known about the fate of sperm-delivered Hoechst dye in the female reproductive tract or on progeny of resultant offspring. ..
  51. Hossain M, Johannisson A, Wallgren M, Nagy S, Siqueira A, Rodriguez Martinez H. Flow cytometry for the assessment of animal sperm integrity and functionality: state of the art. Asian J Androl. 2011;13:406-19 pubmed publisher
    ..However, continuous follow-up of the methods is a necessity owing to technical developments and the complexity of mapping spermatozoa. ..
  52. Soares J, Martins C, Carvalho N, Nicacio A, Abreu Silva A, Campos Filho E, et al. Timing of insemination using sex-sorted sperm in embryo production with Bos indicus and Bos taurus superovulated donors. Anim Reprod Sci. 2011;127:148-53 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the embryo production for timed artificial insemination (TAI) with sex-sorted sperm was still less than the production with non-sorted sperm. ..
  53. Sun L, Wang D, Liu J. [Preliminary study on prenatal diagnosis from coelomic cells using polymerase chain reaction]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 2005;40:812-4 pubmed
    ..Sex determination using cells in coelomic fluid and PCR is reliable, which can be used as a prenatal diagnostic test for sex-linked disorders and has the advantages of high sensitivity and rapidity. ..