genetic enhancement


Summary: The use of genetic methodologies to improve functional capacities of an organism rather than to treat disease.

Top Publications

  1. Baylis F, Robert J. The inevitability of genetic enhancement technologies. Bioethics. 2004;18:1-26 pubmed
    ..the persuasiveness of some of these objections, they are insufficient to stop the development and use of genetic enhancement technologies...
  2. Qin Y, Wang M, Tian Y, He W, Han L, Xia G. Over-expression of TaMYB33 encoding a novel wheat MYB transcription factor increases salt and drought tolerance in Arabidopsis. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:7183-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that TaMYB33 enhances salt and drought tolerance partially through superior ability for osmotic balance reconstruction and ROS detoxification...
  3. Wu L, Zhang X, Fukushima H, Zhang F, Wang H, Toyoda H, et al. Genetic enhancement of trace fear memory and cingulate potentiation in mice overexpressing Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;27:1923-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide strong evidence that forebrain CaMKIV contributes to trace fear memory by enhancing synaptic potentiation in the ACC. ..
  4. Fenton E. Genetic enhancement--a threat to human rights?. Bioethics. 2008;22:1-7 pubmed
    b>Genetic enhancement is the modification of the human genome for the purpose of improving capacities or 'adding in' desired characteristics...
  5. Radakovits R, Eduafo P, Posewitz M. Genetic engineering of fatty acid chain length in Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Metab Eng. 2011;13:89-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that overexpression of thioesterases is a valid way to improve the biofuel production phenotype of eukaryotic microalgae. ..
  6. Lee B, Descalzi G, Baek J, Kim J, Lee H, Lee K, et al. Genetic enhancement of behavioral itch responses in mice lacking phosphoinositide 3-kinase-? (PI3K?). Mol Pain. 2011;7:96 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that PI3K? selectively contributes to behavioral itching induced by histamine and PAR-2 agonist, but not chloroquine agonist. ..
  7. Descalzi G, Fukushima H, Suzuki A, Kida S, Zhuo M. Genetic enhancement of neuropathic and inflammatory pain by forebrain upregulation of CREB-mediated transcription. Mol Pain. 2012;8:90 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that genetic enhancement of CREB-mediated transcription selectively in forebrain areas enhanced behavioral responses to non-noxious ..
  8. Mwase I. Genetic enhancement and the fate of the worse off. Kennedy Inst Ethics J. 2005;15:83-9 pubmed
    ..S., such concern ultimately must be balanced against the urgent imperative to address the plight of those in poor countries. It is a matter of fairness that care and concern be directed to those who are truly worse off in global terms. ..
  9. Sisodiya S, Thompson P, Need A, Harris S, Weale M, Wilkie S, et al. Genetic enhancement of cognition in a kindred with cone-rod dystrophy due to RIMS1 mutation. J Med Genet. 2007;44:373-80 pubmed
    ..Although further work is clearly required to explore these findings before a role for RIMS1 in human cognition can be formally accepted, the findings suggest that genetic mutation may enhance human cognition in some cases. ..

More Information


  1. Allhoff F. Germ-line genetic enhancement and Rawlsian primary goods. Kennedy Inst Ethics J. 2005;15:39-56 pubmed
    Genetic interventions raise a host of moral issues and, of its various species, germ-line genetic enhancement is the most morally contentious...
  2. Wurm F. Production of recombinant protein therapeutics in cultivated mammalian cells. Nat Biotechnol. 2004;22:1393-8 pubmed
    ..Opportunities still exist for improving mammalian cell systems through further advancements in production systems as well as through vector and host cell engineering. ..
  3. Cooke S, Bliss T. The genetic enhancement of memory. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2003;60:1-5 pubmed
  4. Du X, Fang L, Gao X, Kiriazis H, Feng X, Hotchkin E, et al. Genetic enhancement of ventricular contractility protects against pressure-overload-induced cardiac dysfunction. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2004;37:979-87 pubmed
    ..Here we questioned if genetic enhancement of left ventricular (LV) contractility protects against pressure-overload...
  5. Mori K, Kuni Kamochi R, Yamane Ohnuki N, Wakitani M, Yamano K, Imai H, et al. Engineering Chinese hamster ovary cells to maximize effector function of produced antibodies using FUT8 siRNA. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2004;88:901-8 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that constitutive FUT8 siRNA expression can control the oligosaccharide structure of recombinant antibody produced by CHO cells to yield antibodies with dramatically enhanced ADCC. ..
  6. Olofsson K, Wiman M, Liden G. Controlled feeding of cellulases improves conversion of xylose in simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation for bioethanol production. J Biotechnol. 2010;145:168-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed that the total xylose uptake could be increased from 40% to as much as 80% by controlling the enzyme feed. ..
  7. Wu S, Huang R, Xu L, Yan G, Wang Q. Improved hydrogen production with expression of hemH and lba genes in chloroplast of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. J Biotechnol. 2010;146:120-5 pubmed publisher
    ..reinhardtii improved their H(2) yield by decreasing O(2) content in the medium, thereby representing the potential for H(2) production in green algae to be improved. ..
  8. Roth R, Moodley V, van Zyl P. Heterologous expression and optimized production of an Aspergillus aculeatus endo-1,4-beta-mannanase in Yarrowia lipolytica. Mol Biotechnol. 2009;43:112-20 pubmed publisher
  9. O Dwyer R, Razzaque R, Hu X, Hollingshead S, Wall J. Engineering of cysteine residues leads to improved production of a human dipeptidase enzyme in E. coli. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2009;159:178-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The removal of unpaired or structurally inessential cysteine residues in this manner may allow functional production of many multiply disulfide-linked recombinant proteins in E. coli. ..
  10. Jaluria P, Chu C, Betenbaugh M, Shiloach J. Cells by design: a mini-review of targeting cell engineering using DNA microarrays. Mol Biotechnol. 2008;39:105-11 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present work, these and related studies in microorganisms (prokaryote and eukaryote) are examined in greater detail focusing on the approach of using DNA microarrays to direct cellular behavior by targeting select genes. ..
  11. Rodríguez Villalón A, Perez Gil J, Rodríguez Concepción M. Carotenoid accumulation in bacteria with enhanced supply of isoprenoid precursors by upregulation of exogenous or endogenous pathways. J Biotechnol. 2008;135:78-84 pubmed publisher
    ..coli but that factors other than precursor supply should be considered for high pigment accumulation levels. ..
  12. Belknap W, Rockhold D, McCue K. pBINPLUS/ARS: an improved plant transformation vector based on pBINPLUS. Biotechniques. 2008;44:753-6 pubmed publisher
    ..pBINPLUS/ARS has been used to introduce transgenes into potato and other crop species and is available to all researchers in academic, government, and industrial laboratories for proof-of-principle and commercial applications. ..
  13. Buchanan A. Still unconvinced, but still tentative: a reply to DeGrazia. J Med Ethics. 2012;38:140-1 pubmed publisher
  14. Hultberg A, Tremblay D, de Haard H, Verrips T, Moineau S, Hammarstrom L, et al. Lactobacillli expressing llama VHH fragments neutralise Lactococcus phages. BMC Biotechnol. 2007;7:58 pubmed
  15. Kaneko Y, Sato R, Aoyagi H. Changes in the quality of antibodies produced by Chinese hamster ovary cells during the death phase of cell culture. J Biosci Bioeng. 2010;109:281-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The results presented here provide useful information that will help in determining the time to end each batch culture. ..
  16. Poblete Castro I, Binger D, Rodrigues A, Becker J, Martins Dos Santos V, Wittmann C. In-silico-driven metabolic engineering of Pseudomonas putida for enhanced production of poly-hydroxyalkanoates. Metab Eng. 2013;15:113-23 pubmed publisher
  17. Van Vleet J, Jeffries T, Olsson L. Deleting the para-nitrophenyl phosphatase (pNPPase), PHO13, in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae improves growth and ethanol production on D-xylose. Metab Eng. 2008;10:360-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to showing higher acetate levels, pho13Delta mutants also produced less glycerol on xylose, suggesting that deletion of Pho13p could improve growth by altering redox levels when cells are grown on xylose. ..
  18. He L, Yang X, Wang L, Zhu L, Zhou T, Deng J, et al. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a novel cotton CBL-interacting protein kinase gene (GhCIPK6) reveals its involvement in multiple abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic plants. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;435:209-15 pubmed publisher
  19. Xu Y, Xu T, Zhao X, Zou Y, Li Z, Xiang J, et al. Co-expression of VpROMT gene from Chinese wild Vitis pseudoreticulata with VpSTS in tobacco plants and its effects on the accumulation of pterostilbene. Protoplasma. 2012;249:819-33 pubmed publisher
  20. Ma P, Liu J, Zhang C, Liang Z. Regulation of water-soluble phenolic acid biosynthesis in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2013;170:1253-62 pubmed publisher
  21. Dokku P, Das K, Rao G. Genetic enhancement of host plant-resistance of the Lalat cultivar of rice against bacterial blight employing marker-assisted selection. Biotechnol Lett. 2013;35:1339-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The success of the study demonstrates the vast potential of marker-assisted selection for gene stacking and recovery of the parental genome with high precision. ..
  22. Shin H, Nijland J, de Waal P, Driessen A. The amino-terminal tail of Hxt11 confers membrane stability to the Hxt2 sugar transporter and improves xylose fermentation in the presence of acetic acid. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2017;114:1937-1945 pubmed publisher
    ..Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1937-1945. © 2017 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc...
  23. Chiang C, Chen P, Chao Y. Replicon-free and markerless methods for genomic insertion of DNAs in phage attachment sites and controlled expression of chromosomal genes in Escherichia coli. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2008;101:985-95 pubmed publisher
    ..This result indicates the promise of developed methods for genome engineering in E. coli. ..
  24. Schwartz C, Frogue K, Ramesh A, Misa J, Wheeldon I. CRISPRi repression of nonhomologous end-joining for enhanced genome engineering via homologous recombination in Yarrowia lipolytica. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2017;114:2896-2906 pubmed publisher
    ..The developed CRISPRi system enables enhanced HR in Y. lipolytica without permanent genetic knockouts and promises to be a potent tool for other metabolic engineering, synthetic biology, and functional genomics studies. ..
  25. Browning D, Richards K, Peswani A, Roobol J, Busby S, Robinson C. Escherichia coli "TatExpress" strains super-secrete human growth hormone into the bacterial periplasm by the Tat pathway. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2017;114:2828-2836 pubmed publisher
    ..TatExpress strains accumulate in excess of 30?mg?L-1 periplasmic recombinant hGH, even in shake flask cultures. A second target protein, an scFv, is also shown to be exported at much higher rates in TatExpress strains. ..
  26. Ruiz López N, Haslam R, Usher S, Napier J, Sayanova O. Reconstitution of EPA and DHA biosynthesis in arabidopsis: iterative metabolic engineering for the synthesis of n-3 LC-PUFAs in transgenic plants. Metab Eng. 2013;17:30-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies identify the minimal gene set required to direct the efficient synthesis of these fatty acids in transgenic seed oil. ..
  27. Deng Y, Olson D, Zhou J, Herring C, Joe Shaw A, Lynd L. Redirecting carbon flux through exogenous pyruvate kinase to achieve high ethanol yields in Clostridium thermocellum. Metab Eng. 2013;15:151-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A second strain, YD02 with exogenous pyruvate kinase, in which the gene for malic enzyme and part of malate dehydrogenase were deleted, had over 3-fold higher ethanol yield than the wild-type strain...
  28. Kirkton R, Bursac N. Genetic engineering of somatic cells to study and improve cardiac function. Europace. 2012;14 Suppl 5:v40-v49 pubmed publisher
  29. Zhang W, Xiao D, Shan L, Zhao J, Mao Q, Xia H. Generation of apoptosis-resistant HEK293 cells with CRISPR/Cas mediated quadruple gene knockout for improved protein and virus production. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2017;114:2539-2549 pubmed publisher
    ..This study not only produced an apoptosis-resistant cell line that is useful in producing apoptosis-inducing proteins or viruses expressing these proteins, but also provides a methodology to build other apoptosis-resistant cell lines. ..
  30. Ahmad I, Shim W, Jeon W, Yoon B, Kim J. Enhancement of xylitol production in Candida tropicalis by co-expression of two genes involved in pentose phosphate pathway. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng. 2012;35:199-204 pubmed publisher
    ..25 g l(-1) h(-1), 21% higher than the rate (1.04 g l(-1) h(-1)) in BSXDH-3. This is the first report of increased metabolic flux toward PPP in C. tropicalis for NADPH regeneration and enhanced xylitol production...
  31. Glick S. Some Jewish thoughts on genetic enhancement. J Med Ethics. 2011;37:415-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The Jewish tradition is examined and from the various sources cited it would seem that the benefits of certain kinds of genetic enhancements might well outweigh the objections to such manipulations. ..
  32. Engels B, Dahm P, Jennewein S. Metabolic engineering of taxadiene biosynthesis in yeast as a first step towards Taxol (Paclitaxel) production. Metab Eng. 2008;10:201-6 pubmed publisher
    ..1+/-5.6mg/l), suggesting taxadiene levels could be increased even further. This is the first demonstration of such enhanced taxadiene levels in yeast and offers the prospect for Taxol production in recombinant microbes. ..
  33. Buchanan A. Enhancement and the ethics of development. Kennedy Inst Ethics J. 2008;18:1-34 pubmed
    ..Appreciating the productivity-increasing potential of enhancements also makes it possible to view the enhancement debate in a new light, through the lens of the ethics of development. ..
  34. Wang G, Cui Q, Cheng K, Zhang X, Xing G, Wu S. Prediction of fetal sex by amplification of fetal DNA present in cow plasma. J Reprod Dev. 2010;56:639-42 pubmed
    ..5% (49/53) for females at more than 2 months of gestation, respectively. This suggests that the molecular method developed here could be used in sex prediction for fetuses. ..
  35. Zhou M, Shao J, Tang Y. Production and metabolic engineering of terpenoid indole alkaloids in cell cultures of the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don (Madagascar periwinkle). Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 2009;52:313-23 pubmed publisher
    ..roseus. We hope that this will contribute to a better understanding of the ways in which TIA production can be achieved in different C. roseus culture systems. ..
  36. Kim T, Sohn S, Kim H, Lee S. Strategies for systems-level metabolic engineering. Biotechnol J. 2008;3:612-23 pubmed publisher
  37. Karumuri N, Gangireddy S, Narala V, Majee S, Gunwar S, Reddy R. Simple, rapid, high-purity preparation of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB. Biotechnol Lett. 2007;29:1333-9 pubmed
    ..This product was composed of two polypeptide chains, each approx. 12 kDa. The final product exhibited specific activity in a fibroblast proliferation assay indistinguishable from that of the WHO reference standard. ..
  38. Tang J, Chu C. MicroRNAs in crop improvement: fine-tuners for complex traits. Nat Plants. 2017;3:17077 pubmed publisher
    ..The integration of current miRNA knowledge with conventional and modern crop improvement strategies is also discussed. ..
  39. Twine R. Thinking across species--a critical bioethics approach to enhancement. Theor Med Bioeth. 2007;28:509-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The paper concludes in a plea for an 'enhancement' to our critical abilities to examine some of the underlying social, moral and ethical assumptions bound up in varied anticipated 'enhanced' futures. ..
  40. Yong Y, Yu Y, Li C, Zhong J, Song H. Bioelectricity enhancement via overexpression of quorum sensing system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa-inoculated microbial fuel cells. Biosens Bioelectron. 2011;30:87-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Our result implied that manipulating electron transfer pathways to improve MFCs' efficiency could be achieved by rewiring gene regulatory circuits, thus synthetic biology strategies would be adopted. ..
  41. Mizukami M, Hanagata H, Miyauchi A. Brevibacillus expression system: host-vector system for efficient production of secretory proteins. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2010;11:251-8 pubmed
    ..A host-vector system that utilizes such high expression capacity has been constructed for the production of secretory proteins and tested for various heterologous proteins, including cytokines, enzymes, antigens, and adjuvants. ..
  42. Wilson A, Latham J, Steinbrecher R. Transformation-induced mutations in transgenic plants: analysis and biosafety implications. Biotechnol Genet Eng Rev. 2006;23:209-37 pubmed
  43. Zheng W, Ye X, Friedman A, Bailey Kellogg C. Algorithms for selecting breakpoint locations to optimize diversity in protein engineering by site-directed protein recombination. Comput Syst Bioinformatics Conf. 2007;6:31-40 pubmed
    ..Application of our method to optimizing breakpoints for an example biosynthetic enzyme, purE, demonstrates the significance of diversity optimization and the effectiveness of our algorithms. ..
  44. Etieyibo E. Genetic enhancement, social justice, and welfare-oriented patterns of distribution. Bioethics. 2012;26:296-304 pubmed publisher
    The debate over the host of moral issues that genetic enhancement technology (GET) raises has been significant...
  45. Solomon L, Noll R. Reshaped destinies: confronting our human future the need for and promise of an interdisciplinary colloquium. Gend Med. 2008;5:354-60 pubmed publisher
    ..This article discusses the background to the Redefined Destinies Colloquium (RDC) and summarizes 4 of the topics the RDC is studying. ..
  46. Ow D, Lee R, Nissom P, Philp R, Oh S, Yap M. Inactivating FruR global regulator in plasmid-bearing Escherichia coli alters metabolic gene expression and improves growth rate. J Biotechnol. 2007;131:261-9 pubmed
    ..This study represents the first attempt to explore the role of a global regulatory gene on plasmid metabolic burden. ..
  47. Yi E, Oh J, Giao N, Oh S, Park S. Enhanced production of enveloped viruses in BST-2-deficient cell lines. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2017;114:2289-2297 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the elimination of BST-2 expression in virus-producing cell lines can enhance the production of viral vaccines. Biotechnol. Bioeng.2017;114: 2289-2297. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ..
  48. Oliveira R, Collares T, Smith K, Collares T, Seixas F. The use of genes for performance enhancement: doping or therapy?. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2011;44:1194-201 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, some bioethicists have argued for a liberal approach to gene doping. ..
  49. Basnet D, Park J, Yoon Y. Combinatorial biosynthesis of 5-O-desosaminyl erythronolide A as a potent precursor of ketolide antibiotics. J Biotechnol. 2008;135:92-6 pubmed publisher
    ..erythraea led to 5-O-desosaminyl erythronolide A production. ..
  50. Fierfort N, Samain E. Genetic engineering of Escherichia coli for the economical production of sialylated oligosaccharides. J Biotechnol. 2008;134:261-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This high concentration and low cost of fermentation medium should make possible to use sialylated oligosaccharides in new fields such as the food industry...
  51. Patnaik R, Zolandz R, Green D, Kraynie D. L-tyrosine production by recombinant Escherichia coli: fermentation optimization and recovery. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2008;99:741-52 pubmed
    ..5 and then acid precipitated from clarified supernatants following removal of biomass using membrane filtration. L-tyr product purity of 98% with yields ranging from 90% to 95% is demonstrated. ..
  52. Harris D, Westerlaken I, Schipper D, van der Krogt Z, Gombert A, Sutherland J, et al. Engineering of Penicillium chrysogenum for fermentative production of a novel carbamoylated cephem antibiotic precursor. Metab Eng. 2009;11:125-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Several of the genes that showed a specifically altered transcript level in ad7-ACCCA-producing cultures were previously implicated in oxidative stress responses. ..
  53. Orellana C, Marcellin E, Gray P, Nielsen L. Overexpression of the regulatory subunit of glutamate-cysteine ligase enhances monoclonal antibody production in CHO cells. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2017;114:1825-1836 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that GSH cannot be linked to higher productivity and that Gclm may be controlling other cellular processes involved in mAb production yet to be elucidated. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1825-1836. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ..