paper electrophoresis


Summary: Electrophoresis in which paper is used as the diffusion medium. This technique is confined almost entirely to separations of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides, and relatively high voltages are nearly always used.

Top Publications

  1. Olson M, Sugano N, Yeoman L, Johnson B, Jordan J, Taylor C, et al. Homology of the amino terminal sequences of the AL and GAR calf thymus histones. Physiol Chem Phys. 1972;4:10-6 pubmed
  2. Lips D, Bross T, Majerus P. Isolation of 1-monomethylphosphoinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [a product of methanolysis of inositol 1,2-(cyclic)-4,5-trisphosphate] from Swiss mouse 3T3 cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:88-92 pubmed
    ..1-monomethylphosphoinositol 4-phosphate by comparison to a synthesized standard using HPLC chromatography, paper electrophoresis, and enzymatic dephosphorylation with inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphomonoesterase and intestinal alkaline ..
  3. Carlson J. From paper electrophoresis to computer-supported interpretation of capillary electrophoresis--clinical plasma protein analysis in Malmö, Sweden. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2001;39:1020-4 pubmed
    ..Rapid, cost-effective and standardized analysis of serum protein profiles should improve the diagnostic evaluation of many categories of patients. ..
  4. Naithani V. Studies on polypeptides, IV. The synthesis of C-peptide of human proinsulin. Hoppe Seylers Z Physiol Chem. 1973;354:659-72 pubmed
  5. Wallis M. The primary structure of bovine prolactin. FEBS Lett. 1974;44:205-8 pubmed
  6. Wuu T, Crumm S, Saffran M. Amino acid sequence of porcine neurophysin-I. J Biol Chem. 1971;246:6043-63 pubmed
  7. Cintra A, Vieira C, Giglio J. Primary structure and biological activity of bradykinin potentiating peptides from Bothrops insularis snake venom. J Protein Chem. 1990;9:221-7 pubmed
    ..Eight BPPs, containing 3-13 amino acid residues, were sequenced and their primary structures were shown to have a marked degree of homology with those of several BPPs from other venoms. ..
  8. Zhang J, Song Z, Wang X. Synthesis of a bis(2,3-dimethylcyclohexyl-dithiocarbamato)-nitrido 99mTc complex: a potential tracer for myocardial imaging. Appl Radiat Isot. 2009;67:577-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The heart/lung, heart/liver and heart/blood ratios of the complex were 1.06, 0.25 and 8.06 at 60 min post-injection, suggesting it has potential for use as a myocardial imaging agent. ..
  9. Xu H, Chu T, Wang X, Liu X. Facile synthesis of bis(hydroxamamide)-based tetradentate ligands for 99mTc-radiopharmaceutical. Appl Radiat Isot. 2005;62:919-22 pubmed
    ..The corresponding 99mTc complexes showed high yields and were found by paper electrophoresis to be electrically neutral under physiological conditions...

More Information


  1. Lin K, Deutsch H. Human carbonic anhydrases. 8. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic form of a C type isozyme. J Biol Chem. 1972;247:3761-6 pubmed
  2. Al Saleh S, Gore M, Akhtar M. On the disulphide bonds of rhodopsins. Biochem J. 1987;246:131-7 pubmed
  3. Fujiwara N, Maekawa T, Matsuda G. Hemoglobin Atago (alpha2-85Tyr beta-2) a new abnormal human hemoglobin found in Nagasaki. Biochemical studies on hemoglobins and myoglobins. VI. Int J Protein Res. 1971;3:35-9 pubmed
  4. Fujiwara S, Shinkai H, Deutzmann R, Paulsson M, Timpl R. Structure and distribution of N-linked oligosaccharide chains on various domains of mouse tumour laminin. Biochem J. 1988;252:453-61 pubmed
    ..Such differences in carbohydrate structure of topologically distinct laminin domains may have implications for their functions and in the regulation of post-translational modification events. ..
  5. Guo Y, Conrad H. The disaccharide composition of heparins and heparan sulfates. Anal Biochem. 1989;176:96-104 pubmed
    ..abstract truncated at 250 words) ..
  6. Druzhinina T, Kalinchuk N, Shibaev V. Biosynthesis of uridine diphosphate N-acetyl-L-fucosamine in a cell-free system from Salmonella arizonae O:59. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2005;70:85-91 pubmed
    ..L-Fucose dehydrogenase from porcine liver was shown to be applicable for determination of N-acetyl-L-fucosamine, this enzyme being used to confirm L-configuration of the amino sugar residue in the sugar nucleotide formed. ..
  7. Han K, Tetaert D, Moschetto Y, Dautrevaux M, Kopeyan C. The covalent structure of sheep-heart myoglobin. Eur J Biochem. 1972;27:585-92 pubmed
  8. Balian G, Click E, Bornstein P. Structure of rat skin collagen 1-CB8. Amino acid sequence of the hydroxylamine-produced fragment HA1. Biochemistry. 1971;10:4470-8 pubmed
  9. Ikenaka T, Ishiguro M, Emura J, Kaufmann H, Isemura S, Bauer W, et al. Isolation and partial characterization of the cyanogen bromide fragments of 1 -acid glycoprotein and the elucidation of the amino acid sequence of the carboxyl-terminal cyanogen bromide fragment. Biochemistry. 1972;11:3817-29 pubmed
  10. Bellisario R, Carlsen R, Bahl O. Human chorionic gonadotropin. Linear amino acid sequence of the alpha subunit. J Biol Chem. 1973;248:6796-809 pubmed
  11. Barua M, Haldar S, Majumder G. Occurrence of a coupled-enzyme system on the intact-sperm outer surface that phosphorylates and dephosphorylates ecto-proteins. Biochem Int. 1990;20:1089-96 pubmed
  12. Costa J, Ashford D, Ricardo C. Characterisation of a developmentally related polypeptide with glutelin solubility characteristics from Lupinus albus L. Planta. 1996;198:221-9 pubmed
  13. Mizuochi T, Spellman M, Larkin M, Solomon J, Basa L, Feizi T. Structural characterization by chromatographic profiling of the oligosaccharides of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) recombinant envelope glycoprotein gp120 produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Biomed Chromatogr. 1988;2:260-70 pubmed
    ..Oligosaccharides were released from peptide by hydrazinolysis, fractionated by paper electrophoresis, high performance lectin affinity chromatography and Bio-Gel P-4 column chromatography, and their ..
  14. Hiraizumi S, Takasaki S, Nishihira T, Mori S, Kobata A. Comparative study of the N-linked oligosaccharides released from normal human esophageal epithelium and esophageal squamous carcinoma. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1990;81:363-71 pubmed
    ..These data indicated that the altered glycosylation of proteins previously found in transformed rodent cells also occurs widely in human esophageal carcinoma. ..
  15. Maghuin Rogister G, Combarnous Y, Hennen G. The primary structure of the porcine luteinizing-hormone alpha-subunit. Eur J Biochem. 1973;39:255-63 pubmed
  16. Findlay J, Brew K. The complete amino-acid sequence of human -lactalbumin. Eur J Biochem. 1972;27:65-86 pubmed
  17. Vella F, Galbraith P, Wilson J, Wong S, Folger G, Huisman T. Hemoglobin St. Claude or alpha2-127(H10)Lys leads to Thr-beta2. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1974;365:318-22 pubmed
  18. Zamze S, Wooten E, Ashford D, Ferguson M, Dwek R, Rademacher T. Characterisation of the asparagine-linked oligosaccharides from Trypanosoma brucei type-I variant surface glycoproteins. Eur J Biochem. 1990;187:657-63 pubmed
    ..Both variants also contained the same structural isomers. The close similarity of the oligomannose series indicates identical processing at the conserved site in both variants. ..
  19. Sairam M, Samy T, Papkoff H, Li C. The primary structure of ovine interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. II. The -subunit. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1972;153:572-86 pubmed
  20. Corthésy B, Wallace C. The oxidation-state-dependent ATP-binding site of cytochrome c. Implication of an essential arginine residue and the effect of occupancy on the oxidation-reduction potential. Biochem J. 1988;252:349-55 pubmed
    ..We find that the redox potentials of both cytochrome c and analogue are little affected by changing ATP or Pi concentrations. ..
  21. Erokhina I. [Modified albumin in harp seal blood serum]. Ukr Biokhim Zh (1999). 1999;71:75-8 pubmed
    ..Am was determined by paper electrophoresis by means of re-precipitation in the trichloroacetic acid-ethanol system...
  22. Yamashita K, Totani K, Iwaki Y, Takamisawa I, Tateishi N, Higashi T, et al. Comparative study of the sugar chains of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidases purified from human hepatocellular carcinoma and from human liver. J Biochem. 1989;105:728-35 pubmed
  23. Tsunemitsu M, Ishikawa Y, Taniguchi T, Fukuzaki H. Heterogeneity of N-linked sugar chains of apolipoprotein B-100 in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic and fasting rabbits. Arteriosclerosis. 1990;10:386-93 pubmed
    ..of apo B-100 were liberated by hydrozinolysis, followed by NaB3H4 reduction, and were fractionated by paper electrophoresis and Bio-Gel P-4 column chromatography...
  24. Kinuta M, Kinuta K, Yamada H, Abe T, Yoshida Y, Araki K, et al. Formation of S-[2-carboxy-1-(1H-imidazol-4-yl) ethyl]glutathione, a new metabolite of L-histidine, from cis-urocanic acid and glutathione by the action of glutathione S-transferase. Electrophoresis. 2003;24:3212-8 pubmed
    ..Compounds were analyzed by high-voltage paper electrophoresis, capillary electrophoresis, and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry...
  25. Sautiere P, Tyrou D, Laine B, Mizon J, Ruffin P, Biserte G. Covalent structure of calf-thymus ALK-histone. Eur J Biochem. 1974;41:563-76 pubmed
  26. Yaguchi M, Matheson A, Visentin L. Procaryotic ribosomal proteins: N-terminal sequence homologies and structural correspondence of 30 S ribosomal proteins from Escherichia coli and Bacillus stearothermophilus. FEBS Lett. 1974;46:296-300 pubmed
  27. Markussen J, Sundby F. Rat-proinsulin C-peptides. Amino-acid sequences. Eur J Biochem. 1972;25:153-62 pubmed
  28. Bostom A, Gagnon D, Cupples L, Wilson P, Jenner J, Ordovas J, et al. A prospective investigation of elevated lipoprotein (a) detected by electrophoresis and cardiovascular disease in women. The Framingham Heart Study. Circulation. 1994;90:1688-95 pubmed
    ..From 1968 through 1975, sinking prebeta lipoprotein was determined by paper electrophoresis in 3103 women Framingham Heart Study participants who were free of prevalent cardiovascular disease...
  29. Hoja Łukowicz D, Butters T, Litynska A. Characterization of the oligosaccharide component of microsomal beta-glucuronidase from rat liver. Biochimie. 2004;86:363-72 pubmed
    ..The presence of O-linked glycans and branched N-linked glycans in a microsomal enzyme, in relation to the current view of glycosyltransferase compartmentalization in the Golgi is discussed. ..
  30. Mawhinney T, Adelstein E, Gayer D, Landrum D, Barbero G. Structural analysis of monosulfated side-chain oligosaccharides isolated from human tracheobronchial mucous glycoproteins. Carbohydr Res. 1992;223:187-207 pubmed
    ..Employing fractionation by Bio-Gel P-2 chromatography and high-voltage paper electrophoresis of the pool, eighteen branched and four straight-chained monosulfated oligosaccharides, each possessing at ..
  31. Chu T, Xu H, Yang Z, Wang X. Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of three 99mTc-labeled hydroxamamide-based ligands as markers for hypoxic cells. Appl Radiat Isot. 2009;67:590-3 pubmed publisher
  32. Ikkala E, Koskela J, Pikkarainen P, Rahiala E, el Hazmi M, Nagai K, et al. Hb Helsinki: a variant with a high oxygen affinity and a substitution at a 2,3-DPG binding site (beta82[EF6] Lys replaced by Met). Acta Haematol. 1976;56:257-75 pubmed
    ..Thus, the replacement of Lys by Met at position 82 dramatically changes the nature of the central cavity of the tetramer and the effect of 2,3-DPG on the respiratory function of the molecule. ..
  33. Blower P, Singh J, Clarke S. The chemical identity of pentavalent technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid. J Nucl Med. 1991;32:845-9 pubmed
    ..The carboxylate groups in the complex are almost completely ionized at pH 7, thus the average charge on the complex at this pH approaches -5. ..
  34. Mizuochi T, Matthews T, Kato M, Hamako J, Titani K, Solomon J, et al. Diversity of oligosaccharide structures on the envelope glycoprotein gp 120 of human immunodeficiency virus 1 from the lymphoblastoid cell line H9. Presence of complex-type oligosaccharides with bisecting N-acetylglucosamine residues. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:8519-24 pubmed
    ..Since the glycosylation is the product of host cell glycosyltransferases, an even greater number of glycosylation variants of gp120 are predicted to arise from the heterogeneous cell populations harboring the virus in in vivo infection. ..
  35. Virgolini I, Angelberger P, Lupattelli G, Pidlich J, Sinzinger H. [In vivo flow of autologous radioactively labeled low-density lipoproteins (LDL) in human blood vessels]. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 1989;101:798-805 pubmed
    ..01 - p less than 0.001) higher 125I-LDL retention as compared with endothelialized segments (after i.v.-injection). ..
  36. Matsui T, Titani K, Mizuochi T. Structures of the asparagine-linked oligosaccharide chains of human von Willebrand factor. Occurrence of blood group A, B, and H(O) structures. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:8723-31 pubmed
    ..After N-acetylation, these were fractionated by paper electrophoresis and sequential chromatography on lectin-affinity columns of concanavalin A, Phaseolus vulgaris ..
  37. Bünzli H, Glatthaar B, Kunz P, Mülhaupt E, Humbel R. Amino acid sequence of the two insulins from mouse (Maus musculus). Hoppe Seylers Z Physiol Chem. 1972;353:451-8 pubmed
  38. Ampe C, Markey F, Lindberg U, Vandekerckhove J. The primary structure of human platelet profilin: reinvestigation of the calf spleen profilin sequence. FEBS Lett. 1988;228:17-21 pubmed
    ..We therefore reinvestigated the sequences of the peptides from calf spleen profilin. We identified four incorrect charge assignments and a deletion of three residues. The similarity between the two vertebrate profilins amounts to 95%. ..
  39. Tomoda M, Hirabayashi K, Shimizu N, Gonda R, Ohara N. The core structure of ginsenan PA, a phagocytosis-activating polysaccharide from the root of Panax ginseng. Biol Pharm Bull. 1994;17:1287-91 pubmed
    ..alpha-L-Arabinose units are connected mainly to the core galactose moieties via position 6. Removal of most of the arabinose units had a considerable effect on immunological activity. ..
  40. Amano J, Nishimura R, Mochizuki M, Kobata A. Comparative study of the mucin-type sugar chains of human chorionic gonadotropin present in the urine of patients with trophoblastic diseases and healthy pregnant women. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:1157-65 pubmed
    ..The proportion in invasive mole hCG was also increased, but less than the proportion of choriocarcinoma hCG. ..
  41. Saidha T, Schiff J. Purification and properties of a phenol sulphotransferase from Euglena using L-tyrosine as substrate. Biochem J. 1994;298 ( Pt 1):45-50 pubmed
    ..This appears to be the first phenol sulphotransferase to accept tyrosine as substrate. This membrane-bound enzyme may be involved in tyrosine transport as well as detoxification. ..
  42. Matsui T, Hamako J, Kameyama K, Kurosawa Y, Titani K, Mizuochi T. The occurrence of mouse-type oligosaccharides in mouse-human chimeric immunoglobulin G. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1989;164:245-50 pubmed
    ..b>Paper electrophoresis in combination with sialidase digestion indicated that more than 70% of the oligosaccharides were neutral ..
  43. Mahley R, Weisgraber K, Innerarity T, Brewer H. Characterization of the plasma lipoproteins and apoproteins of the Erythrocebus patas monkey. Biochemistry. 1976;15:1928-33 pubmed
    ..The similarities between the plasma lipoproteins of the monkey and of man suggest that the Patas monkey would serve as a suitable model for metabolic studies...
  44. Chang C, Sieving P, Watson A, Dewey T, Karpishin T, Raymond K. Ionic versus nonionic MR imaging contrast media: operational definitions. J Magn Reson Imaging. 1992;2:95-8 pubmed
    ..The nomenclature nonionic and ionic is deemed appropriate for differentiating MR imaging contrast media. ..
  45. Kojima R, Ito M, Suzuki Y. Studies on the nephrotoxicity of aminoglycoside antibiotics and protection from these effects (8): Protective effect of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate against tobramycin nephrotoxicity. Jpn J Pharmacol. 1990;52:11-21 pubmed
  46. Budde A, Leong S. Characterization of siderophores from Ustilago maydis. Mycopathologia. 1989;108:125-33 pubmed
    ..Their authenticity was confirmed by thin layer chromatography, HPLC, UV-visible spectrometry, paper electrophoresis, amino acid analysis, NMR and fast atom bombardment mass spectroscopy...
  47. Tomoda M, Hirabayashi K, Shimizu N, Gonda R, Ohara N, Takada K. Characterization of two novel polysaccharides having immunological activities from the root of Panax ginseng. Biol Pharm Bull. 1993;16:1087-90 pubmed
    ..These substances are the first examples having a relatively high content of both alpha-3,5-branched L-arabinose and beta-1,4-linked D-galactose units among the acidic arabinogalactans with activities on phagocytosis and anti-complement. ..
  48. Rudd P, Fortune F, Patel T, Parekh R, Dwek R, Lehner T. A human T-cell receptor recognizes 'O'-linked sugars from the hinge region of human IgA1 and IgD. Immunology. 1994;83:99-106 pubmed hydrazinolysis at 65 degrees and the resulting oligosaccharide library analysed by high voltage paper electrophoresis (HVE) and P4 gel permeation chromatography...
  49. Hyde R, Kinderlerer J, Lehmann H, Hall M. Haemoglobin J Rajappen; 90 (FG2) Lys leads to Thr. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1971;243:515-9 pubmed
  50. Terhorst C, Moller W, Laursen R, Wittmann Liebold B. The primary structure of an acidic protein from 50-S ribosomes of Escherichia coli which is involved in GTP hydrolysis dependent on elongation factors G and T. Eur J Biochem. 1973;34:138-52 pubmed
  51. Wallis M. The primary structure of bovine growth hormone. FEBS Lett. 1973;35:11-4 pubmed
  52. Koide T, Ikenaka T. Studies on soybean trypsin inhibitors. 3. Amino-acid sequences of the carboxyl-terminal region and the complete amino-acid sequence of soybean trypsin inhibitor (Kunitz). Eur J Biochem. 1973;32:417-31 pubmed
  53. Ricco G, Pich P, Mazza U, Rossi G, Ajmar F, Arese P, et al. Hb J Sicilia: beta 65 (E9) Lys-Asn, a beta homologue of Hb Zambia. FEBS Lett. 1974;39:200-4 pubmed