virus inactivation


Summary: Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.

Top Publications

  1. Remington K, Trejo S, Buczynski G, Li H, Osheroff W, Brown J, et al. Inactivation of West Nile virus, vaccinia virus and viral surrogates for relevant and emergent viral pathogens in plasma-derived products. Vox Sang. 2004;87:10-8 pubmed
    ..Virus infectivity was measured before and after processing to determine virus inactivation. The results demonstrated effective inactivation of West Nile virus, vaccinia virus and a model virus, ..
  2. Kovac K, Diez Valcarce M, Raspor P, Hernandez M, Rodríguez Lázaro D. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure processing on norovirus infectivity and genome stability in strawberry puree and mineral water. Int J Food Microbiol. 2012;152:35-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we found no consistent correlation between RT-qPCR and virus infectivity results, and consequently RT-qPCR is not a satisfactory tool for predicting risks to human health. ..
  3. Wong T, Huang H, Wang Y, Lee Y, Huang C, Yu C. Methylene blue-mediated photodynamic inactivation as a novel disinfectant of enterovirus 71. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010;65:2176-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Methylene blue-mediated photodynamic inactivation may provide a novel way to eliminate environmentally contaminated sources of EV71 to prevent infection. ..
  4. Di Martino B, Ceci C, Di Profio F, Marsilio F. In vitro inactivation of feline calicivirus (FCV) by chemical disinfectants: resistance variation among field strains. Arch Virol. 2010;155:2047-51 pubmed publisher
  5. Laird D, Sun Y, Reineke K, Shieh Y. Effective hepatitis A virus inactivation during low-heat dehydration of contaminated green onions. Food Microbiol. 2011;28:998-1002 pubmed publisher
    ..4 °C reduced infectious HAV in onions by 1, 2, and 3 logs respectively, the Z value being 7.3 °C. It was concluded that low heat dehydration using 62.5 °C or above could effectively inactivate HAV on contaminated onions by >3 logs...
  6. Liga M, Bryant E, Colvin V, Li Q. Virus inactivation by silver doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles for drinking water treatment. Water Res. 2011;45:535-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The increased production of hydroxyl free radicals was found to be responsible for the enhanced viral inactivation. ..
  7. Sharma A, Gupta P, Glass P, Parker M, Maheshwari R. Safety and protective efficacy of INA-inactivated Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus: implication in vaccine development. Vaccine. 2011;29:953-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Results suggest that inactivation of enveloped viruses by INA may occur by two independent mechanisms and the INA-inactivated VEEV elicit a protective antibody response in mice. ..
  8. Morino H, Fukuda T, Miura T, Lee C, Shibata T, Sanekata T. Inactivation of feline calicivirus, a norovirus surrogate, by chlorine dioxide gas. Biocontrol Sci. 2009;14:147-53 pubmed
    ..3 ppm concentration of ClO2 gas and a humidifier in places without human activity may make it possible to inactivate NV in the dry state on any surface within a contaminated room without serious adverse effects. ..
  9. Grove S, Lee A, Stewart C, Ross T. Development of a high pressure processing inactivation model for hepatitis A virus. J Food Prot. 2009;72:1434-42 pubmed
    ..Additional inactivation data with greater reproducibility should be collected to enable expansion of the model and to increase the accuracy of its predictions. ..

More Information


  1. Wanaratana S, Tantilertcharoen R, Sasipreeyajan J, Pakpinyo S. The inactivation of avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 isolated from chickens in Thailand by chemical and physical treatments. Vet Microbiol. 2010;140:43-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, CUK-2/04 was more resistant to the disinfectants, temperatures, and pH compared to the other isolates. ..
  2. Magulski T, Paulmann D, Bischoff B, Becker B, Steinmann E, Steinmann J, et al. Inactivation of murine norovirus by chemical biocides on stainless steel. BMC Infect Dis. 2009;9:107 pubmed publisher
    ..Murine norovirus (MNV) as a surrogate for human NoV was used to study the efficacy of active ingredients of chemical disinfectants for virus inactivation on inanimate surfaces.
  3. Jeong E, Bae J, Kim I. Inactivation of influenza A virus H1N1 by disinfection process. Am J Infect Control. 2010;38:354-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Common disinfectants, heat, and EO tested in this study were effective at inactivating H1N1. These results would be helpful in implementing effective disinfecting measures to prevent hospital-acquired infections. ..
  4. Park G, Barclay L, Macinga D, Charbonneau D, Pettigrew C, Vinje J. Comparative efficacy of seven hand sanitizers against murine norovirus, feline calicivirus, and GII.4 norovirus. J Food Prot. 2010;73:2232-8 pubmed
    ..2 log units after exposure for 5 min. The susceptibility of FCV to low pH and the relative high susceptibility of MNV to alcohols suggest that both surrogate viruses should be considered for in vitro testing of hand sanitizers. ..
  5. Jean J, Morales Rayas R, Anoman M, Lamhoujeb S. Inactivation of hepatitis A virus and norovirus surrogate in suspension and on food-contact surfaces using pulsed UV light (pulsed light inactivation of food-borne viruses). Food Microbiol. 2011;28:568-72 pubmed publisher
    ..This study showed that short duration pulses represent an excellent alternative for inactivation of food-borne viruses. This technology could be used to inactivate viruses in drinking water or on food-handling surfaces. ..
  6. Belanger J, Raviv Y, Viard M, de la Cruz M, Nagashima K, Blumenthal R. Effects of UVA irradiation, aryl azides, and reactive oxygen species on the orthogonal inactivation of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). Virology. 2011;417:221-8 pubmed publisher detergent resistance and that this property may be useful towards the creation of a novel orthogonal virus inactivation strategy for use in preparing experimental vaccines...
  7. Li D, Baert L, Van Coillie E, Uyttendaele M. Critical studies on binding-based RT-PCR detection of infectious Noroviruses. J Virol Methods. 2011;177:153-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study indicates an improvement in the evaluation of the infectivity of non-cultivable human NoVs. This is also a comprehensive study on both specific and non-specific binding properties of NoVs. ..
  8. Kingsley D, Guan D, Hoover D. Pressure inactivation of hepatitis A virus in strawberry puree and sliced green onions. J Food Prot. 2005;68:1748-51 pubmed
    ..Although high-pressure processing may cause some organoleptic alterations to strawberries and onions, results show high-pressure processing will inactivate hepatitis A virus in these foods...
  9. Sow H, Desbiens M, Morales Rayas R, Ngazoa S, Jean J. Heat inactivation of hepatitis A virus and a norovirus surrogate in soft-shell clams (Mya arenaria). Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2011;8:387-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of the present study should contribute to the development of strategies for controlling the spread of enteric viral illness via shellfish. ..
  10. Lim M, Kim J, Lee J, Ko G. Characterization of ozone disinfection of murine norovirus. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:1120-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that NoV may be more resistant to ozone than has been previously reported. Nevertheless, proper ozone disinfection practices can be used to easily control its transmission in water. ..
  11. Sanchez G, Aznar R, Martinez A, Rodrigo D. Inactivation of human and murine norovirus by high-pressure processing. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2011;8:249-53 pubmed publisher
    ..5 log(10) units as determined by RT-qPCR. Additionally, RNA of human NoV was more resistant to certain HPP treatments than the RNA of MNV. ..
  12. Feng K, Divers E, Ma Y, Li J. Inactivation of a human norovirus surrogate, human norovirus virus-like particles, and vesicular stomatitis virus by gamma irradiation. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:3507-17 pubmed publisher
    ..gamma irradiation disrupted virion structure and degraded viral proteins and genomic RNA, which resulted in virus inactivation. Using human norovirus VLPs as a model, we provide the first evidence that the capsid of human norovirus has ..
  13. Tanaka M, Shimbo T, Kikuchi Y, Matsuda M, Kaneda Y. Sterile alpha motif containing domain 9 is involved in death signaling of malignant glioma treated with inactivated Sendai virus particle (HVJ-E) or type I interferon. Int J Cancer. 2010;126:1982-1991 pubmed publisher
    ..However, overexpression of the SAMD9 gene failed to induce significant cell death in U251MG cells. Thus, SAMD9 could be a key molecule to control cancer cell death by HVJ-E or IFN-beta treatment. ..
  14. Furuya Y, Regner M, Lobigs M, Koskinen A, Mullbacher A, Alsharifi M. Effect of inactivation method on the cross-protective immunity induced by whole 'killed' influenza A viruses and commercial vaccine preparations. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:1450-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, freeze-drying of gamma-A/PC did not affect the ability to induce cross-protective immunity. ..
  15. Shionoiri N, Sato T, Fujimori Y, Nakayama T, Nemoto M, Matsunaga T, et al. Investigation of the antiviral properties of copper iodide nanoparticles against feline calicivirus. J Biosci Bioeng. 2012;113:580-6 pubmed publisher
    ..CuI nanoparticles could be proposed as useful sources of a continuous supply of Cu(+) ions for efficient virus inactivation. Furthermore, this study brings new insights into toxic actions of copper iodide nanoparticles against ..
  16. Dancho B, Chen H, Kingsley D. Discrimination between infectious and non-infectious human norovirus using porcine gastric mucin. Int J Food Microbiol. 2012;155:222-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In total, these results suggest the loss of NoV binding to porcine mucin as a potential means to preferentially exclude non-infectious virus particles from subsequent RT-PCR detection. ..
  17. Jonges M, Liu W, Van Der Vries E, Jacobi R, Pronk I, Boog C, et al. Influenza virus inactivation for studies of antigenicity and phenotypic neuraminidase inhibitor resistance profiling. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:928-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Triton X-100 treatment proved to be the easiest-to-use influenza virus inactivation protocol for application in combination with phenotypic NA inhibitor susceptibility assays, while formalin ..
  18. Chang J, Chang C, Tsai H, Lee C, Lian W, Ih Jen Su -, et al. Selection and characterization of vaccine strain for Enterovirus 71 vaccine development. Vaccine. 2012;30:703-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, these results provide valuable information for cell-based EV71 vaccine development. ..
  19. Tsujimoto K, Uozaki M, Ikeda K, Yamazaki H, Utsunomiya H, Ichinose M, et al. Solvent-induced virus inactivation by acidic arginine solution. Int J Mol Med. 2010;25:433-7 pubmed
    ..Low pH, detergent/solvent wash, or heating, called pasteurization, has been the main process for virus inactivation. Detergent/solvent wash is also used to treat superficial infectious diseases, including herpes simplex ..
  20. Uittenbogaard J, Zomer B, Hoogerhout P, Metz B. Reactions of beta-propiolactone with nucleobase analogues, nucleosides, and peptides: implications for the inactivation of viruses. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:36198-214 pubmed publisher
    ..The study provides detailed knowledge on the chemistry of ?-propiolactone inactivation of viruses. ..
  21. Myatt T, Kaufman M, Allen J, MacIntosh D, Fabian M, McDevitt J. Modeling the airborne survival of influenza virus in a residential setting: the impacts of home humidification. Environ Health. 2010;9:55 pubmed publisher
    ..8-13.9% reductions in influenza virus survival. This modeling analysis demonstrates the potential benefit of portable residential humidifiers in reducing the survival of aerosolized influenza virus by controlling humidity indoors. ..
  22. Costa L, Tomé J, Neves M, Tomé A, Cavaleiro J, Faustino M, et al. Evaluation of resistance development and viability recovery by a non-enveloped virus after repeated cycles of aPDT. Antiviral Res. 2011;91:278-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that aPDT represents a valuable and promising alternative therapy to treat viral infections, overcoming the problem of microbial resistance. ..
  23. Zhang Q, Yuan W, Zhai G, Zhu S, Xue Z, Zhu H, et al. Inactivated Sendai virus suppresses murine melanoma growth by inducing host immune responses and down-regulating ?-catenin expression. Biomed Environ Sci. 2012;25:509-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, HVJ-E shows its prospect as a novel therapeutic for melanoma therapy. ..
  24. Sattar S, Ali M, Tetro J. In vivo comparison of two human norovirus surrogates for testing ethanol-based handrubs: the mouse chasing the cat!. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17340 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate the need for a review of the continuing use of FCV as a surrogate for HuNoV. ..
  25. Sang Y, Ruchala P, Lehrer R, Ross C, Rowland R, Blecha F. Antimicrobial host defense peptides in an arteriviral infection: differential peptide expression and virus inactivation. Viral Immunol. 2009;22:235-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, modulation of porcine innate immune mechanisms with AHDPs may be one means of limiting the impact of this costly pandemic viral disease. ..
  26. Butot S, Putallaz T, Amoroso R, Sanchez G. Inactivation of enteric viruses in minimally processed berries and herbs. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:4155-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Addition of a terminal dry heat treatment at 120 degrees C after freeze-drying enhanced virus inactivation by at least 2 log(10) units, except for HuNoV GII...
  27. Shimasaki N, Kiyohara T, Totsuka A, Nojima K, Okada Y, Yamaguchi K, et al. Inactivation of hepatitis A virus by heat and high hydrostatic pressure: variation among laboratory strains. Vox Sang. 2009;96:14-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Cell-adapted HAV strains are generally used to confirm virus inactivation in manufacturing blood products, but the strains may differ in their sensitivity to inactivation treatment...
  28. Tang Q, Li D, Xu J, Wang J, Zhao Y, Li Z, et al. Mechanism of inactivation of murine norovirus-1 by high pressure processing. Int J Food Microbiol. 2010;137:186-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The integrity of the capsid was not affect by HPP. Partial motif changes of the viral capsid caused by HPP were accessed by induced sensitivity to proteinase K. ..
  29. Hewitt J, Rivera Aban M, Greening G. Evaluation of murine norovirus as a surrogate for human norovirus and hepatitis A virus in heat inactivation studies. J Appl Microbiol. 2009;107:65-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Caution should be used when extrapolating surrogate virus data for HuNoV. Although not conclusive, our results suggest that HuNoV may be more resistant to heat than either HAV or MNV. ..
  30. Cho M, Lee J, Mackeyev Y, Wilson L, Alvarez P, Hughes J, et al. Visible light sensitized inactivation of MS-2 bacteriophage by a cationic amine-functionalized C60 derivative. Environ Sci Technol. 2010;44:6685-91 pubmed publisher
    ..and 1O2 CT (the product of 1O2 concentration and exposure time) required to achieve a target level of virus inactivation was quantitatively analyzed...
  31. Azar Daryany M, Hosseini S, Raie M, Fakharie J, Zareh A. Study on continuous (254 nm) and pulsed UV (266 and 355 nm) lights on BVD virus inactivation and its effects on biological properties of fetal bovine serum. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2009;94:120-4 pubmed publisher
    ..5 J/cm(2) and 266 nm pulsed UV laser and was used to grow Vero cells, in comparison with a control group. The viability of cells in two groups was identical and the statistical evaluation showed no significant difference in 12 passages. ..
  32. Burnouf T, Chou M, Cheng L, Li Z, Wu Y, El Ekiaby M, et al. Dengue virus inactivation by minipool TnBP/Triton X-45 treatment of plasma and cryoprecipitate. Vox Sang. 2013;104:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide a reassurance of the safety of such S/D-treated plasma and cryoprecipitate with regard to the risk of transmission of all DENV serotypes and other flaviviruses. ..
  33. Nishide M, Tsujimoto K, Uozaki M, Ikeda K, Yamasaki H, Koyama A, et al. Effects of electrolytes on virus inactivation by acidic solutions. Int J Mol Med. 2011;27:803-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously shown that arginine synergizes with low pH in enhancing virus inactivation. Considering a potential application of the acid inactivation of viruses for the prevention and treatment of ..
  34. Gogal R, Kerr R, Kingsley D, Granata L, LeRoith T, Holliman S, et al. High hydrostatic pressure processing of murine norovirus 1-contaminated oysters inhibits oral infection in STAT-1(-/-)-deficient female mice. J Food Prot. 2011;74:209-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, the data suggest that HPP may be an effective food processing intervention for norovirus-contaminated shellfish and thus may decrease risk to both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals who consume shellfish. ..
  35. Kingsley D, Chen H. Aqueous matrix compositions and pH influence feline calicivirus inactivation by high pressure processing. J Food Prot. 2008;71:1598-603 pubmed
    ..Aqueous matrix compositions, in particular different concentrations of NaCl and sucrose or different pH values, can substantially alter the efficiency of virus inactivation by high pressure processing.
  36. Sharma A, Raviv Y, Puri A, Viard M, Blumenthal R, Maheshwari R. Complete inactivation of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus by 1,5-iodonaphthylazide. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;358:392-8 pubmed
    ..This data suggest that such inactivation strategies can be used for developing vaccine candidates for VEEV and other enveloped viruses. ..
  37. Chen H, Hoover D, Kingsley D. Temperature and treatment time influence high hydrostatic pressure inactivation of feline calicivirus, a norovirus surrogate. J Food Prot. 2005;68:2389-94 pubmed
    ..human noroviruses, was used for detailed evaluation of the high pressure processing parameters necessary for virus inactivation. Pressure inactivation curves of FCV strain KCD in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium with 10% fetal bovine ..
  38. Park G, Boston D, Kase J, Sampson M, Sobsey M. Evaluation of liquid- and fog-based application of Sterilox hypochlorous acid solution for surface inactivation of human norovirus. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:4463-8 pubmed
    ..We conclude that HOCl solution as a liquid or fog is likely to be effective in disinfecting common settings to reduce NV exposures and thereby control virus spread via fomites. ..
  39. Raviv Y, Viard M, Bess J, Chertova E, Blumenthal R. Inactivation of retroviruses with preservation of structural integrity by targeting the hydrophobic domain of the viral envelope. J Virol. 2005;79:12394-400 pubmed
    ..Targeting the lipid domain of biological membranes with hydrophobic alkylating compounds could be used as a general approach for inactivation of enveloped viruses and other pathogenic microorganisms for vaccine application. ..
  40. Floyd R, Schneider J, Dittmer D. Methylene blue photoinactivation of RNA viruses. Antiviral Res. 2004;61:141-51 pubmed
    ..MB photoinactivation of viruses show significant promise because the technology not only offers significant potency but the history of safe MB use in human therapy makes it attractive also. ..
  41. Kingsley D, Chen H, Hoover D. Inactivation of selected picornaviruses by high hydrostatic pressure. Virus Res. 2004;102:221-4 pubmed
    ..These data establish that different picornaviruses have widely variable pressure inactivation thresholds in response to HPP. ..
  42. Graham D, Chertova E, Hilburn J, Arthur L, Hildreth J. Cholesterol depletion of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and simian immunodeficiency virus with beta-cyclodextrin inactivates and permeabilizes the virions: evidence for virion-associated lipid rafts. J Virol. 2003;77:8237-48 pubmed
  43. Kingsley D, Hoover D, Papafragkou E, Richards G. Inactivation of hepatitis A virus and a calicivirus by high hydrostatic pressure. J Food Prot. 2002;65:1605-9 pubmed
    Potential application of high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) as a method for virus inactivation was evaluated...
  44. Welch J, Bienek C, Gomperts E, Simmonds P. Resistance of porcine circovirus and chicken anemia virus to virus inactivation procedures used for blood products. Transfusion. 2006;46:1951-8 pubmed
    b>Virus inactivation procedures are used to prevent contamination of plasma-derived blood products with viruses...
  45. Kingsley D, Holliman D, Calci K, Chen H, Flick G. Inactivation of a norovirus by high-pressure processing. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:581-5 pubmed
    ..56 log(10) PFU. Evaluation of virus inactivation as a function of treatment times ranging from 0 to 150 s and 0 to 900 s at 5 degrees C and 20 degrees C, ..
  46. Hudson J, Sharma M, Petric M. Inactivation of Norovirus by ozone gas in conditions relevant to healthcare. J Hosp Infect. 2007;66:40-5 pubmed
    ..Our results show that Norovirus can be inactivated by exposure to ozone gas from a portable commercial generator in settings such as hotel rooms, cruise ship cabins and healthcare facilities. ..
  47. Abe M, Kaneko K, Ueda A, Otsuka H, Shiosaki K, Nozaki C, et al. Effects of several virucidal agents on inactivation of influenza, Newcastle disease, and avian infectious bronchitis viruses in the allantoic fluid of chicken eggs. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2007;60:342-6 pubmed
    ..BC is easily biodegradable by activated sludge and is not very harmful to humans. We strongly recommend BC as a useful virucidal agent, especially in the manufacture of vaccines for these viruses. ..
  48. Rice E, Adcock N, Sivaganesan M, Brown J, Stallknecht D, Swayne D. Chlorine inactivation of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1). Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:1568-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Free chlorine concentrations typically used in drinking water treatment are sufficient to inactivate the virus by >3 orders of magnitude. ..
  49. Katsuyama Y, Yamasaki H, Tsujimoto K, Koyama A, Ejima D, Arakawa T. Butyroyl-arginine as a potent virus inactivation agent. Int J Pharm. 2008;361:92-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Virus inactivation is a critical step in the manufacturing of recombinant therapeutic proteins, in particular antibodies, using mammalian expression systems...
  50. Guan D, Joerger R, Kniel K, Calci K, Hicks D, Pivarnik L, et al. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on four genotypes of F-specific RNA bacteriophages. J Appl Microbiol. 2007;102:51-6 pubmed
    ..The pressure responses of four genotypes of F-specific RNA bacteriophages, f2, GA, Qbeta and SP, were evaluated with respect to pressure magnitude, treatment temperature and suspending medium...
  51. Bielinska A, Chepurnov A, Landers J, Janczak K, Chepurnova T, Luker G, et al. A novel, killed-virus nasal vaccinia virus vaccine. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2008;15:348-58 pubmed
    ..VV/NE-based vaccines are highly immunogenic and induce protective mucosal and systemic immunity without the need for an inflammatory adjuvant or infection with live virus. ..
  52. Buckow R, Isbarn S, Knorr D, Heinz V, Lehmacher A. Predictive model for inactivation of feline calicivirus, a norovirus surrogate, by heat and high hydrostatic pressure. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:1030-8 pubmed
    ..Modeling by nth-order kinetics of the virus inactivation was successful in predicting the inactivation of the infective virus particles...
  53. Korneyeva M, Hotta J, Lebing W, Rosenthal R, Franks L, Petteway S. Enveloped virus inactivation by caprylate: a robust alternative to solvent-detergent treatment in plasma derived intermediates. Biologicals. 2002;30:153-62 pubmed
    ..Within the parameters examined, caprylate inactivation of enveloped viruses provided comparable activity or advantages relative to the current, standard solvent-detergent treatment. ..