virus cultivation


Summary: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.

Top Publications

  1. Takahashi H, Tanaka T, Jirintai S, Nagashima S, Takahashi M, Nishizawa T, et al. A549 and PLC/PRF/5 cells can support the efficient propagation of swine and wild boar hepatitis E virus (HEV) strains: demonstration of HEV infectivity of porcine liver sold as food. Arch Virol. 2012;157:235-46 pubmed publisher
    ..8 × 10(4) copies per well. The present study also demonstrates that swine liver sold as food can be infectious, supporting the risk of zoonotic food-borne HEV infection...
  2. Roiz D, Vazquez A, Rosso F, Arnoldi D, Girardi M, Cuevas L, et al. Detection of a new insect flavivirus and isolation of Aedes flavivirus in Northern Italy. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:223 pubmed publisher
    ..cinereus mosquitoes from Italy. These flavivirus may be common, ubiquitous and diverse in nature and we discuss the implications of the insect flavivirus group in virus evolution and transmission. ..
  3. Jin J, Han M, Xu L, An D, Kong W, Jiang C. Replication kinetics of coxsackievirus A16 in human rhabdomyosarcoma cells. Virol Sin. 2012;27:221-7 pubmed publisher
    ..i. at MOI 1 and at 9 h p.i. at MOI 0.1. Thus, our study provides important information for further investigation of CVA16 in order to better understand and ultimately control infections with this virus. ..
  4. Takeda M, Ikeda M, Ariumi Y, Wakita T, Kato N. Development of hepatitis C virus production reporter-assay systems using two different hepatoma cell lines. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:1422-31 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we developed HCV JFH-1 reporter-assay systems using two distinct hepatoma cell lines, HuH-7 and Li23. The mutations in NS5B resulted in different effects on strains O and JFH-1 HCV RNA replication. ..
  5. Broekema N, Imperiale M. Efficient propagation of archetype BK and JC polyomaviruses. Virology. 2012;422:235-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Significant replication was not observed for Merkel cell, KI, or WU polyomaviruses. 293TT cells provide a means of propagating archetype BKPyV and JCPyV for detailed study. ..
  6. Petiot E, Jacob D, Lanthier S, Lohr V, Ansorge S, Kamen A. Metabolic and kinetic analyses of influenza production in perfusion HEK293 cell culture. BMC Biotechnol. 2011;11:84 pubmed publisher
    ..Once accomplished, this cell line can be promoted as an industrial platform for cost-effective manufacturing of the influenza seasonal vaccine as well as for periods of peak demand during pandemics. ..
  7. Carr M, Kajon A, Lu X, Dunford L, O Reilly P, Holder P, et al. Deaths associated with human adenovirus-14p1 infections, Europe, 2009-2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:1402-8 pubmed publisher
  8. Okamoto H. Efficient cell culture systems for hepatitis E virus strains in feces and circulating blood. Rev Med Virol. 2011;21:18-31 pubmed publisher
    ..High-efficiency cell culture systems for infectious viruses, thus developed, are expected to open up a new era and resolve many mysteries in the epidemiology, molecular biology, and treatment of HEV. ..
  9. Pokrovskii M, Bush C, Beran R, Robinson M, Cheng G, Tirunagari N, et al. Novel mutations in a tissue culture-adapted hepatitis C virus strain improve infectious-virus stability and markedly enhance infection kinetics. J Virol. 2011;85:3978-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This adapted virus will facilitate further studies of the HCV life cycle, virus structure, and high-throughput drug screening. ..

More Information


  1. Thompson K, Yin J. Population dynamics of an RNA virus and its defective interfering particles in passage cultures. Virol J. 2010;7:257 pubmed publisher
    ..The levels of virus and DI particles in each population passage can be determined experimentally by plaque and yield-reduction assays, respectively...
  2. Lee K, Kim B, Je Y, Woo S, Sohn H, Jin B. A new technique for producing recombinant baculovirus directly in silkworm larvae. Biotechnol Lett. 2007;29:175-80 pubmed
    ..This resulted in a high-level production of foreign protein in the silkworm larvae. This technique produces easy and rapid recombinant protein production in silkworms. ..
  3. Harvey R, Wheeler J, Wallis C, Robertson J, Engelhardt O. Quantitation of haemagglutinin in H5N1 influenza viruses reveals low haemagglutinin content of vaccine virus NIBRG-14 (H5N1). Vaccine. 2008;26:6550-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This was also found to be the case for the parent wild type A/Viet Nam/1194/2004 virus. ..
  4. Hu A, Weng T, Tseng Y, Chen Y, Wu C, Hsiao S, et al. Microcarrier-based MDCK cell culture system for the production of influenza H5N1 vaccines. Vaccine. 2008;26:5736-40 pubmed publisher
  5. Falchi A, Arena C, Andreoletti L, Jacques J, Leveque N, Blanchon T, et al. Dual infections by influenza A/H3N2 and B viruses and by influenza A/H3N2 and A/H1N1 viruses during winter 2007, Corsica Island, France. J Clin Virol. 2008;41:148-51 pubmed
    ..However, the virological and epidemiological mechanisms that determine the occurrence of dual influenza infections remain to be fully investigated in further prospective multicentric studies. ..
  6. Nukuzuma S, Kameoka M, Sugiura S, Nakamichi K, Nukuzuma C, Miyoshi I, et al. Archetype JC virus efficiently propagates in kidney-derived cells stably expressing HIV-1 Tat. Microbiol Immunol. 2009;53:621-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose here that COS-tat cells are a useful tool for studying the role of Tat in archetype JCV replication in the development of PML. ..
  7. Genzel Y, Dietzsch C, Rapp E, Schwarzer J, Reichl U. MDCK and Vero cells for influenza virus vaccine production: a one-to-one comparison up to lab-scale bioreactor cultivation. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;88:461-75 pubmed publisher
    ..However, using these cultivation conditions in lab-scale bioreactors (stirred tank, wave bioreactor) resulted in lower productivities for Vero cells. ..
  8. Pietschmann T, Zayas M, Meuleman P, Long G, Appel N, Koutsoudakis G, et al. Production of infectious genotype 1b virus particles in cell culture and impairment by replication enhancing mutations. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000475 pubmed publisher
  9. Percivalle E, Rovida F, Piralla A, Rognoni V, Zavattoni M, Baldanti F, et al. Rapid typing, subtyping and RNA quantification of influenza virus type A strains in respiratory secretions. New Microbiol. 2008;31:319-27 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, typing and subtyping of influenza virus type A strains may benefit from both MAbs and RT-PCR, while viral RNA quantification may provide an indication of symptom onset. ..
  10. Pérez Vélez C, Anderson M, Robinson C, McFarland E, Nix W, Pallansch M, et al. Outbreak of neurologic enterovirus type 71 disease: a diagnostic challenge. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:950-7 pubmed
    ..Large epidemics of EV71 infection have been reported worldwide...
  11. Kaul A, Woerz I, Meuleman P, Leroux Roels G, Bartenschlager R. Cell culture adaptation of hepatitis C virus and in vivo viability of an adapted variant. J Virol. 2007;81:13168-79 pubmed
    ..These results argue for some level of impaired fitness of this mutant in vivo. ..
  12. van t Wout A, Schuitemaker H, Kootstra N. Isolation and propagation of HIV-1 on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Nat Protoc. 2008;3:363-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, methods for propagation and titration of HIV-1 are provided. ..
  13. Rourou S, van der Ark A, van der Velden T, Kallel H. A microcarrier cell culture process for propagating rabies virus in Vero cells grown in a stirred bioreactor under fully animal component free conditions. Vaccine. 2007;25:3879-89 pubmed
    ..38x10(8) FFU/mL. The potency of the pooled inactivated virus harvests showed an activity of 2.58 IU/mL which was comparable to that obtained in serum supplemented medium. ..
  14. Tanaka T, Takahashi M, Kusano E, Okamoto H. Development and evaluation of an efficient cell-culture system for Hepatitis E virus. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:903-11 pubmed
    ..7 or 24.0 years after the onset of HEV infection also prevented the propagation of HEV in PLC/PRF/5 cells, suggesting the presence of long-lasting HEV antibodies with neutralizing activity in individuals with past HEV infection. ..
  15. Graham D, Wilson C, Jewhurst H, Rowley H. Cultural characteristics of salmonid alphaviruses--influence of cell line and temperature. J Fish Dis. 2008;31:859-68 pubmed
    ..In TO and RTG-2 growth was optimal at 15 degrees C, whereas in CHSE-214 results at 10 and 15 degrees C were more similar. Little or no growth was detected at 4 or 20 degrees C. ..
  16. Moradpour D, Penin F, Rice C. Replication of hepatitis C virus. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2007;5:453-63 pubmed
    ..These efforts have already translated into the identification of novel antiviral targets and the development of new therapeutic strategies, some of which are currently undergoing clinical evaluation. ..
  17. Ashour M, Ragheb D, El Sheikh E, Gomaa E, Kamita S, Hammock B. Biosafety of recombinant and wild type nucleopolyhedroviruses as bioinsecticides. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2007;4:111-25 pubmed
    ..Macrophage phagocytic activity of fish head kidney cells increased with time, reaching maximum values at 180 min for both treated and control fish. ..
  18. Kong B, Foster L, Foster D. Species-specific deletion of the viral attachment glycoprotein of avian metapneumovirus. Virus Res. 2008;132:114-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The lack of viral gene deletions suggests that avian cell propagated AMPV will provide a better alternative host for live recombinant vaccine development based on a reverse genetics system...
  19. Le Ru A, Jacob D, Transfiguracion J, Ansorge S, Henry O, Kamen A. Scalable production of influenza virus in HEK-293 cells for efficient vaccine manufacturing. Vaccine. 2010;28:3661-71 pubmed publisher
    ..After virus adaptation and optimization of infection conditions, production in 3-L bioreactor resulted in titers of up to 10(9)IVP/mL demonstrating the scale-up potential of the process. ..
  20. Lira J, Moresco K, Stallknecht D, Swayne D, Fisher D. Single and combination diagnostic test efficiency and cost analysis for detection and isolation of avian influenza virus from wild bird cloacal swabs. Avian Dis. 2010;54:606-12 pubmed
    ..In contrast, isolation in ECE via CAS and YS inoculation routes without prescreening by RRT-PCR was most efficient and cost-effective if the samples had an expected high frequency of AIV...
  21. Munster V, Baas C, Lexmond P, Bestebroer T, Guldemeester J, Beyer W, et al. Practical considerations for high-throughput influenza A virus surveillance studies of wild birds by use of molecular diagnostic tests. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:666-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the lessons learned from current large-scale influenza A virus surveillance activities could be valuable for other pathogen surveillance programs in the future. ..
  22. Lohr V, Genzel Y, Behrendt I, Scharfenberg K, Reichl U. A new MDCK suspension line cultivated in a fully defined medium in stirred-tank and wave bioreactor. Vaccine. 2010;28:6256-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the MDCK.SUS2 cell line represents a new cell substrate for a robust influenza vaccine production in a fully defined process. ..
  23. Moresco K, Stallknecht D, Swayne D. Evaluation and attempted optimization of avian embryos and cell culture methods for efficient isolation and propagation of low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses. Avian Dis. 2010;54:622-6 pubmed
  24. Jordan I, Vos A, Beilfuss S, Neubert A, Breul S, Sandig V. An avian cell line designed for production of highly attenuated viruses. Vaccine. 2009;27:748-56 pubmed publisher
    ..This augmentation appears to be mediated via induction of heat shock and thus provides a novel cellular substrate that may allow further attenuation of vaccine strains. ..
  25. Tsuda Y, Isoda N, Sakoda Y, Kida H. Factors responsible for plaque formation of A/duck/Siberia/272/1998 (H13N6) influenza virus on MDCK cells. Virus Res. 2009;140:194-8 pubmed publisher
  26. Liu J, Shi X, Schwartz R, Kemble G. Use of MDCK cells for production of live attenuated influenza vaccine. Vaccine. 2009;27:6460-3 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that MDCK cell-based production can be used as an alternative production platform to the currently used egg-based LAIV production system. ..
  27. Habjan M, Penski N, Spiegel M, Weber F. T7 RNA polymerase-dependent and -independent systems for cDNA-based rescue of Rift Valley fever virus. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:2157-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the finding that BHK-derived cell lines have a compromised RIG-I pathway may explain their suitability for propagating and rescuing a wide variety of viruses. ..
  28. Lee Y, Park C, Nam E, Kim S, Lee O, Lee D, et al. Generation of a porcine alveolar macrophage cell line for the growth of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. J Virol Methods. 2010;163:410-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This PRRSV-permissive PAM cell line will be a valuable tool not only to facilitate virus propagation but also to advance in vitro studies on virus pathogenesis. ..
  29. Paillet C, Forno G, Kratje R, Etcheverrigaray M. Suspension-Vero cell cultures as a platform for viral vaccine production. Vaccine. 2009;27:6464-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The achieved results constitute valuable information for the development of a low-cost high-productivity process using a suspension culture of Vero cells to produce viral vaccines. ..
  30. Souza M, Freire M, Schulze E, Gaspar L, Castilho L. Production of yellow fever virus in microcarrier-based Vero cell cultures. Vaccine. 2009;27:6420-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Virus titers as high as 8.4 x 10(8)pfu/mL were obtained upon infection with MOI of 0.02 and TOI of 3 days, using the serum-free medium in the sparged bioreactor. ..
  31. Zurbriggen S, Tobler K, Abril C, Diedrich S, Ackermann M, Pallansch M, et al. Isolation of sabin-like polioviruses from wastewater in a country using inactivated polio vaccine. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:5608-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, the continuous introduction of polioviruses into the community emphasizes the necessity for uninterrupted child vaccination to maintain high herd immunity. ..
  32. Liu C, Lian W, Butler M, Wu S. High immunogenic enterovirus 71 strain and its production using serum-free microcarrier Vero cell culture. Vaccine. 2007;25:19-24 pubmed
    ..Therefore, serum-free microcarrier culture is a valuable process for developing inactivated EV71 vaccines. ..
  33. Hamilton S, Daniels D, Sosna W, Jeppesen E, Owells J, Halpern M, et al. Gas-permeable ethylene bags for the small scale cultivation of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 and other viruses in embryonated chicken eggs. Virol J. 2010;7:23 pubmed publisher
    ..For many small-scale applications, ethylene breather bags can be used to encase ECE inoculated with various viruses. ..
  34. Serwer P, Hayes S, Thomas J, Hardies S. Propagating the missing bacteriophages: a large bacteriophage in a new class. Virol J. 2007;4:21 pubmed
    ..Bacteriophage 0305phi8-36 is in a new genomic class, based on genes for both structural components and DNA packaging ATPase. Thus, knowledge of environmental virus diversity is expanded with prospect of greater future expansion...
  35. Ferguson P, Gilroy N, Sloots T, Nissen M, Dwyer D, Sorrell T. Evaluation of a clinical scoring system and directed laboratory testing for respiratory virus infection in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Transpl Infect Dis. 2011;13:448-55 pubmed publisher
    ..An algorithm incorporating CS, paired NTS collection at a threshold of 1 symptom or sign, and sensitive testing including PCR can guide infection control measures in hospitalized hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. ..
  36. Layman C, Gordon S, Elegino Steffens D, Agee W, Barnhill J, Hsue G. Rapid multiplex PCR assay to identify respiratory viral pathogens: moving forward diagnosing the common cold. Hawaii J Med Public Health. 2013;72:24-6 pubmed
    ..We were able to detect at least 94.5% as many viral pathogens as viral culture is able to identify, with a faster turn-around time. ..
  37. Sun Z, Huber V, McCormick K, Kaushik R, Boon A, Zhu L, et al. Characterization of a porcine intestinal epithelial cell line for influenza virus production. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:2008-16 pubmed publisher
    ..25 log(10) TCID(50) ml(-1), respectively. The availability of this swine-specific cell line represents a more relevant substrate for studies and growth of swine-origin influenza viruses. ..
  38. Liu T, Li Z, Lin Y, Song S, Zhang S, Sun L, et al. Dynamic patterns of circulating influenza virus from 2005 to 2012 in Shandong Province, China. Arch Virol. 2016;161:3047-59 pubmed publisher
    ..This system will help official public health target interventions such as education programs and vaccines. ..
  39. Leuchs B, Roscher M, Müller M, Kürschner K, Rommelaere J. Standardized large-scale H-1PV production process with efficient quality and quantity monitoring. J Virol Methods. 2016;229:48-59 pubmed publisher
    ..For quick, sensitive determination of physical particles (and hence, particle-to-infectivity ratios), a "Capsid-ELISA" was developed, based on a novel monoclonal antibody that specifically targets assembled capsids. ..
  40. Frensing T, Heldt F, Pflugmacher A, Behrendt I, Jordan I, Flockerzi D, et al. Continuous influenza virus production in cell culture shows a periodic accumulation of defective interfering particles. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e72288 pubmed publisher
    ..Yet, the continuous replication of influenza virus using a two-stage bioreactor setup is a novel tool to study aspects of viral evolution and the impact of DIPs. ..
  41. Zhao Y, Pan Y, Yan L, Yue Y, Yang L, Chen J, et al. [Adaptability and purification of dengue-III virus D9964 strain in KMB17 cells and proliferation kinetics of adapted strain]. Bing Du Xue Bao. 2013;29:287-92 pubmed
    ..Purified strain maintained the good antigenicity with a highest replicating activity during the 5th-6th day. ..
  42. Miller N, Yen Lieberman B, Poulter M, Tang Y, Granato P. Comparative clinical evaluation of the IsoAmp(®) HSV Assay with ELVIS(®) HSV culture/ID/typing test system for the detection of herpes simplex virus in genital and oral lesions. J Clin Virol. 2012;54:355-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to ELVIS(®), IsoAmp(®) HSV offers excellent sensitivity plus rapid on-demand testing and simpler specimen preparation. ..
  43. Pontoriero A, Baumeister E, Campos A, Savy V. Virological surveillance and antiviral resistance of human influenza virus in Argentina, 2005-2008. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2011;30:634-40 pubmed
    ..The national data generated and analyzed in this study may help increase knowledge about influenza antiviral drug resistance, which is a problem of global concern. ..
  44. Madhusudana S, Sundaramoorthy S, Ullas P. Utility of human embryonic kidney cell line HEK-293 for rapid isolation of fixed and street rabies viruses: comparison with Neuro-2a and BHK-21 cell lines. Int J Infect Dis. 2010;14:e1067-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the HEK-293 cell line is as sensitive as the Neuro-2a cell line for the rapid isolation of rabies virus and may serve as an alternative cell line for rabies diagnosis and future research. ..
  45. Zhou Y, Agudelo J, Lu K, Goetz D, Hansell E, Chen Y, et al. Inhibitors of SARS-CoV entry--identification using an internally-controlled dual envelope pseudovirion assay. Antiviral Res. 2011;92:187-94 pubmed publisher
    ..This assay system can be easily adapted to screen entry inhibitors against other viruses with the careful selection of matching partner virus envelopes. ..
  46. Yang L, Li J, Bi Y, Xu L, Liu W. Development and application of a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for rapid detection of Duck hepatitis A virus type 1. Virus Genes. 2012;45:585-9 pubmed publisher
    ..As a simple, rapid, and accurate detection method, this RT-LAMP assay has important potential applications in the clinical diagnosis of DHAV-1. ..
  47. Tay F, Huang M, Wang L, Yamada Y, Liu D. Characterization of cellular furin content as a potential factor determining the susceptibility of cultured human and animal cells to coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus infection. Virology. 2012;433:421-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings that IBV could productively infect multiple human and animal cells of diverse tissue and organ origins would provide a useful system for studying the pathogenesis of coronavirus. ..
  48. Pan S, Kung H, Kao T, Wu H, Dong S, Hu M, et al. The Madin-Darby canine kidney cell culture derived influenza A/H5N1 vaccine: a phase I trial in Taiwan. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2013;46:448-55 pubmed publisher
    ..MDCK cell line-derived H5N1 vaccine was well tolerated. It is necessary to investigate further the immunogenicity of higher antigen doses and the role of aluminum adjuvant in augmenting the effect of the vaccine. ..
  49. Zeng W, Wang Q, Wang Y, Xu D, Wu S. A one-step molecular biology method for simple and rapid detection of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella reovirus (GCRV) HZ08 strain. J Fish Biol. 2013;82:1545-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The RT-LAMP method is more accurate than conventional RT-PCR. The results indicate that RT-LAMP has potential as a simple and rapid diagnosis technique for the detection of GCRV HZ08 subtype infection. ..
  50. Ito T, Yoshiura Y, Kamaishi T, Yoshida K, Nakajima K. Prevalence of red sea bream iridovirus among organs of Japanese amberjack (Seriola quinqueradiata) exposed to cultured red sea bream iridovirus. J Gen Virol. 2013;94:2094-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the viral genome was detected from all the tested organs of two of five surviving fish which appeared to completely recover from the disease, it is suggested that these fish may become carriers. ..
  51. Trabelsi K, Majoul S, Rourou S, Kallel H. Development of a measles vaccine production process in MRC-5 cells grown on Cytodex1 microcarriers and in a stirred bioreactor. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;93:1031-40 pubmed publisher
  52. Auburn H, Zuckerman M, Broughton S, Greenough A, Smith M. Detection of nine respiratory RNA viruses using three multiplex RT-PCR assays incorporating a novel RNA internal control transcript. J Virol Methods. 2011;176:9-13 pubmed publisher
  53. Franzoso F, Seyffert M, Vogel R, Yakimovich A, de Andrade Pereira B, Meier A, et al. Cell Cycle-Dependent Expression of Adeno-Associated Virus 2 (AAV2) Rep in Coinfections with Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) Gives Rise to a Mosaic of Cells Replicating either AAV2 or HSV-1. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, low Rep protein levels in G1 phase permit HSV-1 replication but are insufficient for AAV2 replication. This allows both viruses to productively replicate in distinct sets of dividing cells. ..