bacterial load

Summary

Summary: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.

Top Publications

  1. Ramachandran G, Panda A, Higginson E, Ateh E, Lipsky M, Sen S, et al. Virulence of invasive Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 in animal models of infection. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005697 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 invasiveness may be investigated using mice. The non-human primate results are consistent with clinical data, suggesting that ST313 strains do not cause diarrhea...
  2. Feng H, Chen J, Wang H, Cheng Y, Zou Z, Zhong Q, et al. Roflumilast reverses polymicrobial sepsis-induced liver damage by inhibiting inflammation in mice. Lab Invest. 2017;97:1008-1019 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that roflumilast treatment improved survival in septic mice by reducing bacterial load locally and systemically, inhibiting the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor ..
  3. Assis A, Barreto C, Navas C. Skin microbiota in frogs from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: Species, forest type, and potential against pathogens. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179628 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we detected antimicrobial activity in 27 morphotypes of bacteria isolated from all four amphibian species. ..
  4. Dube F, Kaba M, Whittaker E, Zar H, Nicol M. Detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae from Different Types of Nasopharyngeal Swabs in Children. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e68097 pubmed publisher
    ..005). Flocked swabs released more S. pneumoniae compared to both Dacron and rayon swabs from mock specimens. Similarly, higher bacterial loads were detected by qPCR from flocked swabs compared with Dacron swabs from healthy children. ..
  5. Loiseau L, Fyfe C, Aussel L, Hajj Chehade M, Hernández S, Faivre B, et al. The UbiK protein is an accessory factor necessary for bacterial ubiquinone (UQ) biosynthesis and forms a complex with the UQ biogenesis factor UbiJ. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:11937-11950 pubmed publisher
  6. Chen X, Jiao J, He X, Zhang J, Wang H, Xu Y, et al. CHI3L1 regulation of inflammation and the effects on osteogenesis in a Staphylococcus aureus-induced murine model of osteomyelitis. FEBS J. 2017;284:1738-1747 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus-infected mice. This research indicates that inhibition of CHI3L1 can reduce the debilitating effects of S. aureus in a murine model of osteomyelitis. ..
  7. Visvabharathy L, Freitag N. Propofol Sedation Exacerbates Kidney Pathology and Dissemination of Bacteria during Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infections. Infect Immun. 2017;85: pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data indicate that short-term sedation with propofol significantly increases the severity of bloodstream MRSA infection, even when administered in conjunction with vancomycin prophylaxis. ..
  8. Bahia El Idrissi N, Iyer A, Ramaglia V, Rosa P, Soares C, Baas F, et al. In Situ complement activation and T-cell immunity in leprosy spectrum: An immunohistological study on leprosy lesional skin. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177815 pubmed publisher
    ..This should be regarded as an important factor in M. leprae nerve damage pathology. ..
  9. Previato Mello M, Meireles D, Netto L, da Silva Neto J. Global Transcriptional Response to Organic Hydroperoxide and the Role of OhrR in the Control of Virulence Traits in Chromobacterium violaceum. Infect Immun. 2017;85: pubmed publisher
    ..violaceum uses the transcriptional regulator OhrR to modulate its virulence. ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Herzog D, Hosny N, Niazi S, Koller G, Cook R, Foschi F, et al. Rapid Bacterial Detection during Endodontic Treatment. J Dent Res. 2017;96:626-632 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, this technique could be applied to antimicrobial research and disinfection control in clinical settings ( ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03055975). ..
  2. Kaihami G, Breda L, de Almeida J, de Oliveira Pereira T, Nicastro G, Boechat A, et al. The Atypical Response Regulator AtvR Is a New Player in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Response to Hypoxia and Virulence. Infect Immun. 2017;85: pubmed publisher
    ..This finding increases the complexity of regulation of one of the central metabolic pathways that contributes to Pseudomonas ubiquity and versatility. ..
  3. Katzenberger R, Chtarbanova S, Rimkus S, Fischer J, Kaur G, Seppala J, et al. Death following traumatic brain injury in Drosophila is associated with intestinal barrier dysfunction. elife. 2015;4: pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that natural variation in the probability of death following TBI is due in part to genetic differences that affect intestinal barrier dysfunction. ..
  4. Kao D, Saeedi B, Kitzenberg D, Burney K, Dobrinskikh E, Battista K, et al. Intestinal Epithelial Ecto-5'-Nucleotidase (CD73) Regulates Intestinal Colonization and Infection by Nontyphoidal Salmonella. Infect Immun. 2017;85: pubmed publisher
    ..These findings have broad implications for the development of new therapeutic agents for infectious disease. ..
  5. Acuff N, Li X, Latha K, Nagy T, Watford W. Tpl2 Promotes Innate Cell Recruitment and Effector T Cell Differentiation To Limit Citrobacter rodentium Burden and Dissemination. Infect Immun. 2017;85: pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that the enhanced bacterial burdens in Tpl2-/- mice are not caused primarily by impairments in CD4 T cell function but result from defects in innate immune cell recruitment and function. ..
  6. Cotrina Luque J, Gil Navarro M, Acosta García H, Alfaro Lara E, Luque Márquez R, Beltrán García M, et al. Continuous versus intermittent piperacillin/tazobactam infusion in infection due to or suspected pseudomonas aeruginosa. Int J Clin Pharm. 2016;38:70-9 pubmed
    ..Multivariate analysis is needed to determine whether continuous administration might be more beneficial than intermittent in certain patient subgroups. ..
  7. Kim D, Seo S, Zeng M, Kim W, Kamada N, Inohara N, et al. Mesenchymal Cell-Specific MyD88 Signaling Promotes Systemic Dissemination of Salmonella Typhimurium via Inflammatory Monocytes. J Immunol. 2017;199:1362-1371 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that S. Typhimurium promotes its systemic growth and dissemination through MyD88 signaling pathways in mesenchymal cells. ..
  8. Scalioni F, Carrada C, Machado F, Devito K, Ribeiro L, Cesar D, et al. Salivary density of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus and dental caries in children and adolescents with Down syndrome. J Appl Oral Sci. 2017;25:250-257 pubmed publisher
    ..The reduced dental caries experience observed in this group of Down syndrome children and adolescents cannot be attributed to lower salivary S. mutans densities, as determined with the fluorescence in situ hybridization technique. ..
  9. Kovach C, Taneli Y, Neiman T, Dyer E, Arzaga A, Kelber S. Evaluation of an ultraviolet room disinfection protocol to decrease nursing home microbial burden, infection and hospitalization rates. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:186 pubmed publisher
    ..Results suggest that placing a stronger emphasis on environmental surface disinfection in long-term care facilities may decrease nursing home acquired infections. ..
  10. Slinger R, Lau K, Slinger M, Moldovan I, Chan F. Higher atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (a-EPEC) bacterial loads in children with diarrhea are associated with PCR detection of the EHEC factor for adherence 1/lymphocyte inhibitory factor A (efa1/lifa) gene. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2017;16:16 pubmed publisher
    ..This supports the idea that efa1/lifA contributes to diarrheal pathogenesis and suggests that, in EPEC-positive samples, efa/lifA may be a useful additional molecular biomarker. ..
  11. Nagalingam G, Vinuesa C, Britton W, Saunders B. Modulation of Roquin Function in Myeloid Cells Reduces Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Induced Inflammation. J Immunol. 2017;199:1796-1804 pubmed publisher
    ..cells into sanroqueRag1-/- mice actually led to enhanced protection with reduced bacterial load, decreased chemokine expression, and reduced inflammation in the lungs compared with transfers into Rag1<..
  12. Dos Santos D, Muniz I, Queiroz A, Pereira I, Souza M, Lima L, et al. Individual variation is the key to the development of a vaccine against Staphylococcus aureus: a comparative study between mice lineages. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2018;51:e6773 pubmed publisher
    ..euthanasia was performed, and the cellular profile of the inflammatory infiltrate, cytokines, and the bacterial load were evaluated in the air pouch lavages. Immunized mice demonstrated that the intradermal immunization with S...
  13. Glass G, Murphy G, Nanchahal J. Does negative-pressure wound therapy influence subjacent bacterial growth? A systematic review. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2017;70:1028-1037 pubmed publisher
    ..Reviews and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched for articles quantitatively evaluating bacterial load under NPWT...
  14. Yang R, Abraham S, Gardner G, Ryan U, Jacobson C. Prevalence and pathogen load of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157/O145 serogroup in sheep faeces collected at sale yards and in abattoir effluent in Western Australia. Aust Vet J. 2017;95:143-148 pubmed publisher
    ..Further work to determine risk factors for shedding of bacterial organisms in meat sheep in the pre-slaughter period (on-farm, sale yards and lairage at abattoirs) could further reduce the risk of contamination of meat products. ..
  15. Antonopoulou A, Tsaganos T, Tzepi I, Giamarellou H, Giamarellos Bourboulis E. Comparative efficacy of tigecycline VERSUS vancomycin in an experimental model of soft tissue infection by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus producing Panton-Valentine leukocidin. J Chemother. 2015;27:80-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Survival of group D was prolonged compared to all other groups. The bacterial load of blood, liver, spleen and lung was significantly decreased within group D compared to group B at 36 hours...
  16. Soares G, Mendes J, Silva M, Faveri M, Teles R, Socransky S, et al. Metronidazole alone or with amoxicillin as adjuncts to non-surgical treatment of chronic periodontitis: a secondary analysis of microbiological results from a randomized clinical trial. J Clin Periodontol. 2014;41:366-76 pubmed
    ..The adjunctive use of MTZ and MTZ + AMX results in a greater reduction in the levels of periodontal pathogens in generalized ChP subjects compared to SRP alone. ..
  17. Kidd T, Mills G, Sá Pessoa J, Dumigan A, Frank C, Insua J, et al. A Klebsiella pneumoniae antibiotic resistance mechanism that subdues host defences and promotes virulence. EMBO Mol Med. 2017;9:430-447 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our findings have important implications for patient management and antimicrobial stewardship, while also stressing antibiotic resistance development is not inexorably linked with subdued bacterial fitness and virulence. ..
  18. Sommerstein R, Rüegg C, Kohler P, Bloemberg G, Kuster S, Sax H. Transmission of Mycobacterium chimaera from Heater-Cooler Units during Cardiac Surgery despite an Ultraclean Air Ventilation System. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22:1008-13 pubmed publisher
    ..chimaera aerosols from a contaminated HCU to an open surgical field despite ultraclean air ventilation. Efforts to mitigate infectious risks during surgery should consider contamination from water sources and airflow-generating devices. ..
  19. Larrouy Maumus G, Layre E, Clark S, Prandi J, Rayner E, Lepore M, et al. Protective efficacy of a lipid antigen vaccine in a guinea pig model of tuberculosis. Vaccine. 2017;35:1395-1402 pubmed publisher
    ..In three protection trials, a reduction of bacterial load in the spleen of inoculated animals was consistently observed compared to the unvaccinated group...
  20. Lee J, Kim S, Kim D, Yun N, Kim C, Lee S. Clinical Usefulness of Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Diagnosis of Vibrio vulnificus Infection Using Skin and Soft Tissues. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;97:443-446 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, skin lesions were more useful than blood samples as specimens for PCR analysis in patients administered antibiotics for V. vulnificus infection before admission. ..
  21. Rufai S, Singh A, Singh J, Kumar P, Sankar M, Singh S. Diagnostic usefulness of Xpert MTB/RIF assay for detection of tuberculous meningitis using cerebrospinal fluid. J Infect. 2017;75:125-131 pubmed publisher
    ..5%), 31 (81.6%) and 3 (7.9%) were found to be rifampicin resistant, sensitive and indeterminate respectively. Xpert MTB/RIF assay showed lower sensitivity as compared to MGIT 960 culture for the diagnosis of TBM from CSF samples. ..
  22. Tacconelli E, Autenrieth I, Peschel A. Fighting the enemy within. Science. 2017;355:689-690 pubmed publisher
  23. Morilla A, Melon S, Alvarez Argüelles M, Armesto E, Villar H, de Ona M. Utility of normalized genome quantification of Helicobacter pylori in gastric mucosa using an in-house real-time polymerase chain reaction. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0178674 pubmed publisher
    ..H. pylori bacterial load expressed as bacterial load per 105 cells was calculated using a standard curve. H...
  24. Wang J, Liu B, Teng Z, Zhou X, Wang X, Zhang B, et al. Phloretin Attenuates Listeria monocytogenes Virulence Both In vitro and In vivo by Simultaneously Targeting Listeriolysin O and Sortase A. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2017;7:9 pubmed publisher
    ..monocytogenes due to its simultaneous targeting of SrtA and LLO, which may result in fewer side effects than those caused by other antibiotics. ..
  25. Nilebäck L, Hedin J, Widhe M, Floderus L, Krona A, Bysell H, et al. Self-Assembly of Recombinant Silk as a Strategy for Chemical-Free Formation of Bioactive Coatings: A Real-Time Study. Biomacromolecules. 2017;18:846-854 pubmed publisher
    ..Human primary cells cultured on the functional silk coatings show good cell viability and proliferation, implying the potential to improve implant performance and acceptance by the body...
  26. Verrall A, Netea M, Alisjahbana B, Hill P, van Crevel R. Early clearance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a new frontier in prevention. Immunology. 2014;141:506-13 pubmed publisher
    ..How EC may be impaired by HIV infection or vitamin D deficiency is also explored. As EC is a form of protective immunity, further study may advance the development of vaccines and immunotherapies to prevent M. tuberculosis infection. ..
  27. Diaz L, Altman N, Khan W, Serhan C, Adkins B. Specialized Proresolving Mediators Rescue Infant Mice from Lethal Citrobacter rodentium Infection and Promote Immunity against Reinfection. Infect Immun. 2017;85: pubmed publisher
    ..rodentium-specific IgG responses comparable to those in adults. These results indicate that SPM may provide novel therapeutic tools for the treatment of pathological intestinal infections in infants. ..
  28. Deniffel D, Nuyen B, Pak K, Suzukawa K, Hung J, Kurabi A, et al. Otitis Media and Nasopharyngeal Colonization in ccl3-/- Mice. Infect Immun. 2017;85: pubmed publisher
    ..The nasopharyngeal bacterial load was assessed in naive animals of both strains...
  29. Wiedmer D, Petersen F, Lönn Stensrud J, Tiainen H. Antibacterial effect of hydrogen peroxide-titanium dioxide suspensions in the decontamination of rough titanium surfaces. Biofouling. 2017;33:451-459 pubmed publisher
    ..Bacterial regrowth, bacterial load and viability after decontamination were analyzed by continuous luminescence monitoring, live/dead staining ..
  30. Girard M, Laforce Lavoie A, de Grandmont M, Cayer M, Fournier D, Delage G, et al. Optimization of cord blood unit sterility testing: impact of dilution, analysis delay, and inhibitory substances. Transfusion. 2017;57:1956-1967 pubmed publisher
    ..Because inhibitory substances affect bacterial growth, inoculation of culture bottles should be done rapidly after sample preparation. ..
  31. Ferreira C, Donders G, Parada C, Tristão A, Fernandes T, da Silva M, et al. Treatment failure of bacterial vaginosis is not associated with higher loads of Atopobium vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis. J Med Microbiol. 2017;66:1217-1224 pubmed publisher
    ..vaginalis produces several virulence factors and its loads correlate positively with those of A. vaginae, higher cervicovaginal quantities of these bacteria are not associated with treatment failure of BV after oral metronidazole. ..
  32. Brotons P, Bassat Q, Lanaspa M, Henares D, Perez Arguello A, Madrid L, et al. Nasopharyngeal bacterial load as a marker for rapid and easy diagnosis of invasive pneumococcal disease in children from Mozambique. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184762 pubmed publisher
  33. Piao Z, Yuan H. Osteopontin exacerbates Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced bacteremia in mice. Cell Immunol. 2017;318:23-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, the percentages and absolute numbers of B cells were elevated in the spleens of OPN-KO mice. Thus, OPN promoted sepsis in P. aeruginosa-infected mice and potentially blocked B cell-dependent immunity. ..
  34. Davicino R, Méndez Huergo S, Eliçabe R, Stupirski J, Autenrieth I, Di Genaro M, et al. Galectin-1-Driven Tolerogenic Programs Aggravate Yersinia enterocolitica Infection by Repressing Antibacterial Immunity. J Immunol. 2017;199:1382-1392 pubmed publisher
    ..enterocolitica pathogenesis, mice lacking Gal-1 showed increased weight and survival, lower bacterial load, and attenuated intestinal pathology compared with wild-type mice...
  35. Exterkate R, Zaura E, Buijs M, Koopman J, Crielaard W, Ten Cate J. The effects of propidium monoazide treatment on the measured composition of polymicrobial biofilms after treatment with chlorhexidine. Caries Res. 2014;48:291-8 pubmed
    ..However, PMA also influenced the ability of cells to grow, indicating that PMA should be used with caution. ..
  36. Wang H, Anthony D, Yatmaz S, Wijburg O, Satzke C, Levy B, et al. Aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 reduces pneumococcal lung infection and inflammation in a viral and bacterial coinfection pneumonia model. Clin Sci (Lond). 2017;131:2347-2362 pubmed publisher
  37. Shang Q, Sun W, Shan X, Jiang H, Cai C, Hao J, et al. Carrageenan-induced colitis is associated with decreased population of anti-inflammatory bacterium, Akkermansia muciniphila, in the gut microbiota of C57BL/6J mice. Toxicol Lett. 2017;279:87-95 pubmed publisher
  38. Lewis B, Sultana R, Sharma R, Noël A, Langohr I, Patial S, et al. Early Postnatal Secondhand Smoke Exposure Disrupts Bacterial Clearance and Abolishes Immune Responses in Muco-Obstructive Lung Disease. J Immunol. 2017;199:1170-1183 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that household smoking may predispose neonates with muco-obstructive lung disease to bacterial exacerbations. ..
  39. Qaqish A, Huang D, Chen C, Zhang Z, Wang R, Li S, et al. Adoptive Transfer of Phosphoantigen-Specific ?? T Cell Subset Attenuates Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in Nonhuman Primates. J Immunol. 2017;198:4753-4763 pubmed publisher
    ..The proof-of-concept finding supports the view that the dominant V?2V?2 T cell subset may be included in the rational design of a TB vaccine or host-directed therapy. ..
  40. Mencio F, de Angelis F, Papi P, Rosella D, Pompa G, Di Carlo S. A randomized clinical trial about presence of pathogenic microflora and risk of peri-implantitis: comparison of two different types of implant-abutment connections. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2017;21:1443-1451 pubmed
    ..05). We concluded that, also after only 360 days, implants with screwed connection showed a higher risk of peri-implantitis that implants with cemented connection. ..
  41. Amabile Cuevas C, Arredondo García J. Antimicrobial activity data in support of nitrofurantoin three times per day. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2011;66:1652-3 pubmed publisher
  42. Bandyopadhyay U, Chadha A, Gupta P, Tiwari B, Bhattacharyya K, Popli S, et al. Suppression of Toll-like receptor 2-mediated proinflammatory responses by Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein Rv3529c. J Leukoc Biol. 2017;102:1249-1259 pubmed publisher
    ..The data presented show another strategy evolved by M. tuberculosis toward immune evasion that centers on incorporating sequences in proteins that are similar to crucial proteins in the innate immune system of the host. ..
  43. Meng W, Paunel Görgülü A, Flohe S, Hoffmann A, Witte I, Mackenzie C, et al. Depletion of neutrophil extracellular traps in vivo results in hypersusceptibility to polymicrobial sepsis in mice. Crit Care. 2012;16:R137 pubmed publisher
    ..01). This study shows, for the first time, that depletion of NETs by rhDNase administration impedes the early immune response and aggravates the pathology that follows polymicrobial sepsis in vivo. ..
  44. Tsai C, Lin C, Hsu C, Chang C, Chang I, Lin L, et al. Using the Chinese herb Scutellaria barbata against extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections: in vitro and in vivo studies. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2018;18:96 pubmed publisher
    ..The bacterial load in the lungs of the treatment group that received the oral S...
  45. Kneidinger N, Warszawska J, Schenk P, Fuhrmann V, Bojic A, Hirschl A, et al. Storage of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and accuracy of microbiologic diagnostics in the ICU: a prospective observational study. Crit Care. 2013;17:R135 pubmed publisher
    ..Delayed culturing after storage at -80°C may not be reliable, in particular with regard to Gram-negative bacteria. ..
  46. Wang Y, Huang Y. Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum supplementation to standard triple therapy on Helicobacter pylori eradication and dynamic changes in intestinal flora. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2014;30:847-53 pubmed
    ..L. acidophilus and B. bifidum supplementation is effective for H. pylori eradication compared with triple therapy alone. ..
  47. Falahee P, Anderson L, Reynolds M, Pirir M, McLaughlin B, Dillen C, et al. ?-Toxin Regulates Local Granulocyte Expansion from Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells in Staphylococcus aureus-Infected Wounds. J Immunol. 2017;199:1772-1782 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus-infected wounds, revealing a potential antibiotic-free strategy for tuning the innate immune response to treat methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection in immunodeficient patients. ..
  48. Shadoud L, Almahmoud I, Jarraud S, Etienne J, Larrat S, Schwebel C, et al. Hidden Selection of Bacterial Resistance to Fluoroquinolones In Vivo: The Case of Legionella pneumophila and Humans. EBioMedicine. 2015;2:1179-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This hidden resistance must be carefully considered in the therapeutic management of legionellosis patients and in the control of the gradual loss of effectiveness of antibiotics. ..
  49. Han B, Sivaramakrishnan P, Lin C, Neve I, He J, Tay L, et al. Microbial Genetic Composition Tunes Host Longevity. Cell. 2017;169:1249-1262.e13 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results identified molecular targets for developing pro-longevity microbes and a bacterial metabolite acting on host mitochondria to promote longevity. ..
  50. Yang M, Zhang C, Zhang M, Zhang S. Novel synthetic analogues of avian ?-defensin-12: the role of charge, hydrophobicity, and disulfide bridges in biological functions. BMC Microbiol. 2017;17:43 pubmed publisher
    ..Analogue AvBD-12A3 with a high net positive charge, a moderate degree of hydrophobicity and a CCR2-binding domain can serve as a template for the design of novel antimicrobial peptides with chemotactic property and salt resistance. ..
  51. Floch P, Izotte J, Guillemaud J, Sifré E, Costet P, Rousseau B, et al. A New Animal Model of Gastric Lymphomagenesis: APRIL Transgenic Mice Infected by Helicobacter Species. Am J Pathol. 2017;187:1473-1484 pubmed publisher
    ..We believe that APRIL Tg mice infected by Helicobacter species may represent a novel animal model of gastric lymphomagenesis. ..
  52. Jang S, Bak E, Cha J. N-acetylcysteine prevents the development of gastritis induced by Helicobacter pylori infection. J Microbiol. 2017;55:396-402 pubmed publisher
    ..pylori colonization. However, no reduction in the bacterial load or degree of gastritis was observed with a 6-week administration of NAC following 6-week infection period...
  53. Weiss S, Xu Z, Peddada S, Amir A, Bittinger K, Gonzalez A, et al. Normalization and microbial differential abundance strategies depend upon data characteristics. Microbiome. 2017;5:27 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings guide which normalization and differential abundance techniques to use based on the data characteristics of a given study. ..