Summary: A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.
- Helm R, Porwollik S, Stanley A, Maloy S, McClelland M, Rabsch W, et al. Pigeon-associated strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium phage type DT2 have genomic rearrangements at rRNA operons. Infect Immun. 2004;72:7338-41 pubmed..Some strains have a genomic inversion between rrn operons. Two prophages found in the common laboratory strain LT2 were absent. Pigeon-associated strains are still virulent in mice. ..
- Dionisi A, Graziani C, Lucarelli C, Filetici E, Villa L, Owczarek S, et al. Molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant strains of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium and Monophasic variant (S. 4,,12:i:-) isolated from human infections in Italy. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2009;6:711-7 pubmed publisher..4,,12:i:-, increasingly isolated in Italy, belong to a same clonal lineage and that the S. 4,,12:i:- strains circulating in our country mainly derive from this STM clonal lineage. ..
- Rivas M, Miliwebsky E, Chinen I, Roldán C, Balbi L, Garcia B, et al. Characterization and epidemiologic subtyping of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from hemolytic uremic syndrome and diarrhea cases in Argentina. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2006;3:88-96 pubmed..STEC strains with different genotypes and belonging to diverse serotypes were isolated in Argentina. Some STEC O157 strains could not be distinguished by applying subtyping techniques such as PFGE and phage typing...
- Halliday J, Chase Topping M, Pearce M, McKendrick I, Allison L, Fenlon D, et al. Herd-level risk factors associated with the presence of Phage type 21/28 E. coli O157 on Scottish cattle farms. BMC Microbiol. 2006;6:99 pubmed..coli O157. This finding has implications for the control of E. coli O157 as a whole and suggests that control could be tailored to target the locally dominant PT. ..
- Altekruse S, Bauer N, Chanlongbutra A, DeSagun R, Naugle A, Schlosser W, et al. Salmonella enteritidis in broiler chickens, United States, 2000-2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:1848-52 pubmed..The policy targets establishments with common Salmonella serotypes of human illness, including Salmonella Enteritidis. Voluntary interventions should be implemented by industry. ..
- Choi S, Woo J, Lee J, Park S, Choo E, Kwak Y, et al. Increasing incidence of quinolone resistance in human non-typhoid Salmonella enterica isolates in Korea and mechanisms involved in quinolone resistance. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2005;56:1111-4 pubmed..The main mechanism of nalidixic acid resistance was a mutation in the gyrA region. ..
- Helms M, Ethelberg S, Mølbak K. International Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 infections, 1992-2001. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:859-67 pubmed..Typhimurium was increasing. This survey implies that MDR S. Typhimurium constitutes an increasing public health problem in large parts of the world and emphasizes the importance of surveillance and control programs. ..
- Woo Y. Finding the sources of Korean Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT 4 isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. J Microbiol. 2005;43:424-9 pubmed..Therefore, this study was able to successfully trace the major source of SEPT 4 isolates and also to determine the usefulness of the PFGE method for genetic analysis of epidemic strains. ..
- Mitra K, Ghosh A. Characterization of Vibrio cholerae O1 ElTor typing phage S5. Arch Virol. 2007;152:1775-86 pubmed..SDS-PAGE of phage S5 shows two major structural polypeptides of 50 and 42 kDa. A 3D structure of the phage head was reconstructed at a resolution of 37 A using Cryo-EM and a single-particle reconstruction technique. ..
- Parker C, Huynh S, Quiñones B, Harris L, Mandrell R. Comparison of genotypes of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type 30 and 9c strains isolated during three outbreaks associated with raw almonds. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:3723-31 pubmed publisher..These data indicate that S. Enteritidis PT9c and 30 strains are highly related genetically and that PT30 orchard strains differ from clinical PT30 strains metabolically, possibly due to fitness adaptations. ..
- LoMonaco S, Decastelli L, Bianchi D, Nucera D, Grassi M, Sperone V, et al. Detection of Salmonella in finishing pigs on farm and at slaughter in Piedmont, Italy. Zoonoses Public Health. 2009;56:137-44 pubmed publisher..These results set the bases for further research studies that would aim to estimate the real herd prevalence in Piedmont and the diffusion of serotypes and anti-microbial resistant strains within the same region. ..
- Peters T, Berghold C, Brown D, Coia J, Dionisi A, Echeita A, et al. Relationship of pulsed-field profiles with key phage types of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis in Europe: results of an international multi-centre study. Epidemiol Infect. 2007;135:1274-81 pubmed..Collation of subtyping data, especially in the commonly recognized phage types, is necessary in order to evaluate trends and emerging issues in salmonella infection. ..
- Hermans A, Abee T, Zwietering M, Aarts H. Identification of novel Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104-specific prophage and nonprophage chromosomal sequences among serovar Typhimurium isolates by genomic subtractive hybridization. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:4979-85 pubmed..All five selected DNA fragments were Salmonella serovar Typhimurium DT104 specific among the serovar Typhimurium isolates tested. These DNA fragments can be useful for better detection and typing of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium DT104. ..
- Kikuvi G, Ombui J, Mitema E. Serotypes and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Salmonella isolates from pigs at slaughter in Kenya. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2010;4:243-8 pubmed..Pigs may serve as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella and slaughterhouse cross-contamination of pork may be a food safety risk. ..
- van Duijkeren E, Wannet W, Houwers D, van Pelt W. Serotype and phage type distribution of salmonella strains isolated from humans, cattle, pigs, and chickens in the Netherlands from 1984 to 2001. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:3980-5 pubmed..In general, similar sero- and phage types were found in humans and animals, although distinct types were more common in animals. Between the animal species, the sero- and phage type distributions varied considerably. ..
- Gatto A, Peters T, Green J, Fisher I, Gill O, O Brien S, et al. Distribution of molecular subtypes within Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis phage type 4 and S. Typhimurium definitive phage type 104 in nine European countries, 2000-2004: results of an international multi-centre study. Epidemiol Infect. 2006;134:729-36 pubmed..Typhimurium DT104. Ascertainment of international outbreaks involving common serotypes and phage types may be increased by the timely pooling of PFGE profiles within a central database readily accessible to all participating countries. ..
- Liebana E, Clouting C, Garcia Migura L, Clifton Hadley F, Lindsay E, Threlfall E, et al. Multiple genetic typing of Salmonella Enteritidis phage-types 4, 6, 7, 8 and 13a isolates from animals and humans in the UK. Vet Microbiol. 2004;100:189-95 pubmed..There was not clear evidence of a higher degree of diversity for human or animal isolates. Some clones were found to be present in both human and animal. ..
- Torpdahl M, Sørensen G, Lindstedt B, Nielsen E. Tandem repeat analysis for surveillance of human Salmonella Typhimurium infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:388-95 pubmed..Several possible outbreaks were detected and confirmed. MLVA was particularly valuable for discriminating within the most common phage types. MLVA was superior to PFGE for both surveillance and outbreak investigations of S. Typhimurium. ..
- Cho S, Whittam T, Boxrud D, Bartkus J, Rankin S, Wilkins M, et al. Use of multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis and phage typing for subtyping of Salmonella Enteritidis from sporadic human cases in the United States. J Appl Microbiol. 2010;108:859-67 pubmed publisher..Enteritidis isolates. It can also be useful for tracing possible sources during investigations of sporadic and outbreak cases of S. Enteritidis. ..
- Kandle S, Ghatole M, Takpere A, Hittinhalli V, Yemul V. Bacteriophage typing and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Staphylococcus aureus from clinical specimen in and around Solapur (South Maharashtra). J Commun Dis. 2003;35:17-23 pubmed..149), blood (36), urine (28), sputum (14), stool (12), throat swab (9) and CSF (4) were subjected for bacteriophage typing and antibiotic susceptibility pattern. 113 (39.11%) strains were typable. Among the typable strains, 16 (5...
- Wildemauwe C, Godard C, Verschraegen G, Claeys G, Duyck M, De Beenhouwer H, et al. Ten years phage-typing of Belgian clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates (1992-2001). J Hosp Infect. 2004;56:16-21 pubmed..The general trends were confirmed in two particular hospitals. Local epidemic and/or endemic phage-types were also encountered. ..
- Cooke F, Brown D, Fookes M, Pickard D, Ivens A, Wain J, et al. Characterization of the genomes of a diverse collection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium definitive phage type 104. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:8155-62 pubmed publisher..Thus, here the nature of variation in different Salmonella serovar Typhimurium DT104 isolates is further defined at the gene and whole-genome levels, illustrating how this phage type evolves over time. ..
- Paiba G, Wilesmith J, Evans S, Pascoe S, Smith R, Kidd S, et al. Prevalence of faecal excretion of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157 in cattle in England and Wales. Vet Rec. 2003;153:347-53 pubmed..The phage types identified most widely were 4, 34 and 2, which were each found on six of the 29 positive farms. ..
- Guerin P, Nygard K, Siitonen A, Vold L, Kuusi M, de Jong B, et al. Emerging Salmonella Enteritidis anaerogenic phage type 14b: outbreak in Norwegian, Swedish and Finnish travellers returning from Greece. Euro Surveill. 2006;11:61-6 pubmed..Further collaboration between national institutes of public health in Europe is needed to detect outbreaks occurring among tourists. ..
- Carrique Mas J, Papadopoulou C, Evans S, Wales A, Teale C, Davies R. Trends in phage types and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolated from animals in Great Britain from 1990 to 2005. Vet Rec. 2008;162:541-6 pubmed..pts 1, 5a, 6, 6a and 35 had the highest level of resistance after adjusting for species. During 2001 to 2005 there was an increase in resistance among pts 1, 6 and 7, in most cases involving nalidixic acid...
- Nógrády N, Toth A, Kostyák A, Pászti J, Nagy B. Emergence of multidrug-resistant clones of Salmonella Infantis in broiler chickens and humans in Hungary. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2007;60:645-8 pubmed..It seems that broiler chickens constitute a reservoir for one large and a few smaller multidrug-resistant Salmonella Infantis clones in Hungary, which might have spread to humans through chicken meat. ..
- Majtanova L, Majtan J, Majtan V. Trends in phage types of Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium isolated in Slovakia from 1995 to 2009. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2011;69:454-6 pubmed publisher..Among Salmonella Enteritidis in individual years, the most prevalent phage type (PT) was 8. The most predominant PTs of Salmonella Typhimurium were DT104 and U302...
- dos Reis E, Rodrigues D, de Freitas Almeida A, Hofer E. Prevalence of R-type ACSSuT in strains of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium DT193 isolated from human infections in Brazil. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2011;29:387-92 pubmed..Therefore, continuous surveillance should be conducted to evaluate the occurrence of Salmonella ser. Typhimurium DT193 and its antimicrobial resistance. ..
- Horby P, O Brien S, Adak G, Graham C, Hawker J, Hunter P, et al. A national outbreak of multi-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium definitive phage type (DT) 104 associated with consumption of lettuce. Epidemiol Infect. 2003;130:169-78 pubmed..This has implications for public health since food hazard warnings and product withdrawal are contingent on accurate identification of the suspect product...
- Linnane E, Roberts R, Mannion P. An outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 34a infection in primary school children: the use of visual aids and food preferences to overcome recall bias in a case control study. Epidemiol Infect. 2002;129:35-9 pubmed..006). The results of the case control study agreed with the findings of the environmental investigation. We believe our approach could be used in other circumstances, where subjects are young children or recall bias is a concern...
- Lawson A, Desai M, O Brien S, Davies R, Ward L, Threlfall E. Molecular characterisation of an outbreak strain of multiresistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 in the UK. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2004;10:143-7 pubmed..The study demonstrated the highly clonal nature of MR DT104 and the importance of a hierarchical approach to molecular subtyping for outbreak investigations. ..
- Barrett T, Lior H, Green J, Khakhria R, Wells J, Bell B, et al. Laboratory investigation of a multistate food-borne outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and phage typing. J Clin Microbiol. 1994;32:3013-7 pubmed..isolates of Escherichia coli O157:H7 were analyzed by both pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and bacteriophage typing. All 26 isolates from persons whose illness was associated with a recent multistate outbreak of E...
- Echeita M, Usera M. Chromosomal rearrangements in Salmonella enterica serotype typhi affecting molecular typing in outbreak investigations. J Clin Microbiol. 1998;36:2123-6 pubmed..We conclude that genetic rearrangements can occur during the emergence of an outbreak. ..
- Samra Z, Gadba R, Ofir O. Antibiotic susceptibility and phage typing of methicillin-resistant and -sensitive Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates at three periods during 1991-1997. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2001;20:425-7 pubmed..Of the isolates that were sensitive to group III phages, 96% were methicillin resistant, and 70.5% of them were sensitive to phages 75 and 85. ..
- Kariuki S, Gilks C, Kimari J, Muyodi J, Waiyaki P, Hart C. Analysis of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium by phage typing, antimicrobial susceptibility and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. J Med Microbiol. 1999;48:1037-42 pubmed..100 kb were responsible for self-transferable multiresistance among the isolates. Analysis by PFGE and phage type demonstrated that multiresistant Typhimurium strains causing diarrhoea and invasive disease were multiclonal. ..
- Threlfall E, Ward L, Skinner J, Graham A. Antimicrobial drug resistance in non-typhoidal salmonellas from humans in England and Wales in 1999: decrease in multiple resistance in Salmonella enterica serotypes Typhimurium, Virchow, and Hadar. Microb Drug Resist. 2000;6:319-25 pubmed
- Anderson E, Ward L, Saxe M, de Sa J. Bacteriophage-typing designations of Salmonella typhimurium. J Hyg (Lond). 1977;78:297-300 pubmed..The original number of types was 34; this has now risen to 207. Tables are presented which show the provisional type designations and the definitive designations now being introduced. ..
- Bannerman T, Hancock G, Tenover F, Miller J. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis as a replacement for bacteriophage typing of Staphylococcus aureus. J Clin Microbiol. 1995;33:551-5 pubmedb>Bacteriophage typing (BT) (World Health Organization method) has been used at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for over 30 years to type isolates of Staphylococcus aureus...
- Boonmar S, Bangtrakulnonth A, Pornrunangwong S, Terajima J, Watanabe H, Kaneko K, et al. Epidemiological analysis of Salmonella enteritidis isolates from humans and broiler chickens in Thailand by phage typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. J Clin Microbiol. 1998;36:971-4 pubmed..These results indicate the spread of a genetically identical clone of S. enteritidis in humans and poultry in Thailand. ..
- Głośnicka R, Dera Tomaszewska B. Comparison of two Salmonella enteritidis phage typing schemes. Eur J Epidemiol. 1999;15:395-401 pubmed..Only the correspondence of Salmonella enteritidis PT7 of Lalko with PT8 of Ward et al.  was observed. ..
- Salmenlinna S, Lyytikainen O, Kotilainen P, Scotford R, Siren E, Vuopio Varkila J. Molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Finland. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2000;19:101-7 pubmed..Thus far, the epidemics have remained primarily intracity problems, and only two strains have become endemic. ..
- Nastasi A, Mammina C. Surveillance of multidrug-resistant strains of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in southern Italy in the years 1992-1997. Eur J Epidemiol. 2000;16:135-9 pubmed..2%. Phage type (PT) 193 is the most prevalent phage type. Phage typing and ribotyping suggest that few bacterial clones are involved in spread of multidrug-resistant S. typhimurium strains in southern Italy. ..
- Liebana E, Garcia Migura L, Breslin M, Davies R, Woodward M. Diversity of strains of Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis from English poultry farms assessed by multiple genetic fingerprinting. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:154-61 pubmed
- O Neill G, Murchan S, Gil Setas A, Aucken H. Identification and characterization of phage variants of a strain of epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (EMRSA-15). J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:1540-8 pubmed
- Walker R, Lindsay E, Woodward M, Ward L, Threlfall E. Variation in clonality and antibiotic-resistance genes among multiresistant Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium phage-type U302 (MR U302) from humans, animals, and foods. Microb Drug Resist. 2001;7:13-21 pubmed..However, isolates with distinctive PFGE patterns can have different mechanisms of resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulphonamides, and tetracyclines. Such resistance genes may be borne on transmissible plasmids. ..
- Boyd D, Peters G, Cloeckaert A, Boumedine K, Chaslus Dancla E, Imberechts H, et al. Complete nucleotide sequence of a 43-kilobase genomic island associated with the multidrug resistance region of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 and its identification in phage type DT120 and serovar Agona. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:5725-32 pubmed..enterica serovar Agona strains with similar antibiotic-resistant phenotypes. The G+C content suggests a potential mosaic structure for the SGI1. Emergence of the SGI1 in serovar Agona strains is discussed. ..
- Hudson C, Garcia M, Gast R, Maurer J. Determination of close genetic relatedness of the major Salmonella enteritidis phage types by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and DNA sequence analysis of several Salmonella virulence genes. Avian Dis. 2001;45:875-86 pubmed..Any chance for discerning genetic differences among isolates will need to rely on molecular techniques other than PFGE...
- Helms M, Vastrup P, Gerner Smidt P, Mølbak K. Excess mortality associated with antimicrobial drug-resistant Salmonella typhimurium. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:490-5 pubmed..8 times (95% CI 2.2 to 10.2) more likely to die, whereas quinolone resistance was associated with a mortality rate 10.3 times higher than the general population. ..
- Frana T, Carlson S, Griffith R. Relative distribution and conservation of genes encoding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes in Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium phage type DT104. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2001;67:445-8 pubmed..The data from this study indicate that pentaresistant DT104 does not acquire extra-integron genes in species- or geography-related foci, which supports the hypothesis that clonal expansion is the method of spread of this organism. ..
- Briggs C, Fratamico P. Molecular characterization of an antibiotic resistance gene cluster of Salmonella typhimurium DT104. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1999;43:846-9 pubmed..These genes are grouped within two district integrons and intervening plasmid-derived sequences. This sequence is potentially useful for detection of multiresistant DT104...
- Rabsch W, Andrews H, Kingsley R, Prager R, Tschäpe H, Adams L, et al. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium and its host-adapted variants. Infect Immun. 2002;70:2249-55 pubmed
- Tribe I, Hart S, Ferrall D, Givney R. An outbreak of Salmonella typhimurium phage type 99 linked to contaminated bakery piping bags. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2003;27:389-90 pubmed
- Herrero A, Rodicio M, Gonzalez Hevia M, Mendoza M. Molecular epidemiology of emergent multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium strains carrying the virulence resistance plasmid pUO-StVR2. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2006;57:39-45 pubmed