latex fixation tests


Summary: Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)

Top Publications

  1. de Góes A, de Moraes M, de Castro Silveira W, Araújo I, de H alluin J, da Silva Souza W, et al. Development of a rapid and sensitive latex agglutination-based method for detection of group A rotavirus. J Virol Methods. 2008;148:211-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The polyclonal serum produced was conjugated to a latex support to detect rotavirus in stool specimens. The percentage values for sensitivity and specificity of the rotavirus group A LAT were 98.5% and 100%, respectively. ..
  2. Antonio M, Hakeem I, Sankareh K, Cheung Y, Adegbola R. Evaluation of sequential multiplex PCR for direct detection of multiple serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae from nasopharyngeal secretions. J Med Microbiol. 2009;58:296-302 pubmed publisher
    ..0001). The multiplex PCR method identified significantly more serotypes than the latex/Quellung method if limited to the 29 serotypes (P=0.001 and P=0.014, respectively). ..
  3. Turner P, Hinds J, Turner C, Jankhot A, Gould K, Bentley S, et al. Improved detection of nasopharyngeal cocolonization by multiple pneumococcal serotypes by use of latex agglutination or molecular serotyping by microarray. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:1784-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Sweep serotyping is cost-effective and field deployable but may fail to detect serotypes at low abundance, whereas microarray serotyping is more costly and technology dependent but may detect these additional minor carried serotypes. ..
  4. Dickson E, Davidson M, Hay A, Ho Yen D. A cost-effective protocol for screening patients for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Br J Biomed Sci. 2011;68:126-30 pubmed
    ..15 compared with published reports of Euro 35.00 for a commercial polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. This protocol would allow the reporting of presumptive positive MRSA results approximately 24 hours earlier than currently achieved. ..
  5. Slotved H, Kaltoft M, Skovsted I, Kerrn M, Espersen F. Simple, rapid latex agglutination test for serotyping of pneumococci (Pneumotest-Latex). J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:2518-22 pubmed
    ..By use of this ready-to-perform latex agglutination kit (Pneumotest-Latex), serotyping of pneumococci can gain more ground as a tool in prevention of pneumococcal diseases. ..
  6. Babady N, Bestrom J, Jespersen D, Jones M, Beito E, Binnicker M, et al. Evaluation of three commercial latex agglutination kits and a commercial enzyme immunoassay for the detection of cryptococcal antigen. Med Mycol. 2009;47:336-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The assays demonstrated similar performance characteristics based on concordance values > or = 93% but important differences were noted in endpoint titers. ..
  7. Polpanich D, Tangboriboonrat P, Elaissari A. Preparation and agglutination of immuno-nanolatex for malaria diagnosis. J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2009;5:486-92 pubmed
    ..The prepared immuno-latexes were characterized in terms of immuno-agglutination and specific bridging using patient's plasma with P. Falciparum infection. This evaluation was performed using photon correlation spectroscopy. ..
  8. Rahal E, Kazzi N, Kanbar A, Abdelnoor A, Matar G. Role of rifampicin in limiting Escherichia coli O157:H7 Shiga-like toxin expression and enhancement of survival of infected BALB/c mice. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2011;37:135-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Rifampicin treatment resulted in enhanced mouse survival and limited the weight loss of infected animals. In conclusion, both in vitro and in vivo tests showed that rifampicin may be useful in treating E. coli O157:H7 infection. ..
  9. van Griethuysen A, Bes M, Etienne J, Zbinden R, Kluytmans J. International multicenter evaluation of latex agglutination tests for identification of Staphylococcus aureus. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:86-9 pubmed
    ..The specificity of the Slidex Staph Plus kit was statistically significantly higher than the specificities of Staphaurex Plus and Pastorex Staph-Plus. The Slidex Staph Plus is a very reliable test for the identification of S. aureus. ..

More Information


  1. Matar G, Rahal E. Inhibition of the transcription of the Escherichia coli O157:H7 genes coding for shiga-like toxins and intimin, and its potential use in the treatment of human infection with the bacterium. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2003;97:281-7 pubmed
    ..coli O157:H7. The effects of other agents on the inhibition of the expression or activity of the shiga-like toxins and intimin attachment protein will also be determined. ..
  2. van Griethuysen A, Pouw M, van Leeuwen N, Heck M, Willemse P, Buiting A, et al. Rapid slide latex agglutination test for detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37:2789-92 pubmed
    ..Also, it offers results within half an hour and is easy to perform, which makes this test a valuable tool in the ongoing battle against methicillin-resistant S. aureus. ..
  3. Castiglione G, Zappa M, Grazzini G, Rubeca T, Turco P, Sani C, et al. Screening for colorectal cancer by faecal occult blood test: comparison of immunochemical tests. J Med Screen. 2000;7:35-7 pubmed
  4. Matee M, Matre R. Pathogenic isolates in meningitis patients in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. East Afr Med J. 2001;78:458-60 pubmed
  5. Arai S, Konda T, Wad A, Matsunaga Y, Okabe N, Watanabe H, et al. Use of antiserum-coated latex particles for serotyping Streptococcus pneumoniae. Microbiol Immunol. 2001;45:159-62 pubmed
    ..pneumoniae. Our method is as specific and sensitive as the Quellung test, and much easier to perform. ..
  6. Al Yousif Y, Anderson J, Chard Bergstrom C, Bustamante A, Muenzenberger M, Austin K, et al. Evaluation of a latex agglutination kit (Virogen Rotatest) for detection of bovine rotavirus in fecal samples. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2001;8:496-8 pubmed
    ..These factors make the LAT suitable and highly efficient for use in a clinical laboratory as a rapid screening test for bovine rotavirus. ..
  7. El Gozamy B, Mohamed S, Mansour H. Toxoplasmosis among pregnant women in Qualyobia Governorate, Egypt. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2009;39:389-401 pubmed
    ..gondii in which ELISA-IgM positive and ELISA-IgG negative, was 23 cases (27.05%) and v.v. was 20 (23.54). The interpretation of IgM and IgG was given. ..
  8. Stepanovic S, Hauschild T, Dakic I, Al Doori Z, Svabić Vlahović M, Ranin L, et al. Evaluation of phenotypic and molecular methods for detection of oxacillin resistance in members of the Staphylococcus sciuri group. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:934-7 pubmed
  9. Manfreda G, Mioni R, De Cesare A. Surveillance and characterization of enterotoxigenic staphylococci in foods of animal origin collected in the Veneto region. Vet Res Commun. 2005;29 Suppl 2:331-3 pubmed
  10. Wulf M, van Nes A, Eikelenboom Boskamp A, de Vries J, Melchers W, Klaassen C, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in veterinary doctors and students, the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:1939-41 pubmed
    ..To preserve the low prevalence of MRSA in the Netherlands, persons involved in the care of livestock should be isolated and screened on admission to the hospital. ..
  11. Monreal L. D-dimer as a new test for the diagnosis of DIC and thromboembolic disease. J Vet Intern Med. 2003;17:757-9 pubmed
  12. Ozel G, Aslan V, Bahar Erdem G, Cağatay M, Sencan I, Mert A. [Comparison of oxacillin, cefoxitin, ceftizoxime, and moxalactam disk diffusion methods for detection of methicillin susceptibility in staphylococci]. Mikrobiyol Bul. 2011;45:258-65 pubmed
  13. Li R, Harada T, Honjoh K, Miyamoto T. Phylogenetic analysis and Shiga toxin production profiling of Shiga toxin-producing/enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli clinical isolates. Microb Pathog. 2010;49:246-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report of the isolation of stx-positive strains showing Stx-negative phenotype from stx(1)-bearing strains and non-O157 strains. ..
  14. Evers D, He J, Mason J, O Leary T. The liposome PCR assay is more sensitive than the Vibrio cholerae enterotoxin and Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin reversed passive latex agglutination test at detecting cholera toxin in feces and water. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:4620-2 pubmed publisher
    ..LPCR detected CT in the range of 10 pg/ml to 100 ng/ml in simulated feces and environmental water. Detection by VET-RPLA required at least 4 to 19 ng/ml CT. ..
  15. Kemapunmanus M, Sretrirutchai S, Khuntikij P, Pradutkanchana S, Pradutkanchana J. A prospective evaluation of four immunodiagnotic assays for human leptospirosis. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2004;35:863-7 pubmed
  16. Crump E, Perry M, Gale S, Crawford E, Kay W. Lipopolysaccharide O-antigen antibody-based detection of the fish pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2003;6:182-90 pubmed
    ..Antibodies were purified from rabbit anti-O-PS serum and adsorbed onto coloured latex beads for the development of a specific, bead agglutination assay for F. psychrophilum. ..
  17. Hamano M, Saito M, Eto M, Nishimatsu S, Suda H, Matsuda M, et al. Serum amyloid A, C-reactive protein and remnant-like lipoprotein particle cholesterol in type 2 diabetic patients with coronary heart disease. Ann Clin Biochem. 2004;41:125-9 pubmed
    ..213 (P <0.05) and 0.301 (P <0.01), respectively. These data suggest that SAA, CRP and RLP-cholesterol are increased in type 2 diabetic patients with CHD, and that the inflammatory proteins correlate with remnant lipoprotein. ..
  18. Zuridah H, Bahaman A, Mohd Azmi M, Mutalib A. Rotavirus RNA electropherotype in different states in Malaysia for the year 2000 and 2001. Med J Malaysia. 2004;59:153-9 pubmed
  19. Fonsale N, Bes M, Verdier I, Carricajo A, Ploton C, Aubert G, et al. Specific identification of Staphylococcus aureus by Staphychrom II, a rapid chromogenic staphylocoagulase test. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:1962-4 pubmed
    ..The Staphychrom II test was positive for 90% of the 215 S. aureus strains tested after only 1 h of incubation. The Staphychrom II test was as sensitive as the reference TCT and was 100% specific. ..
  20. Chomvarin C, Siripornmongcolchai T, Chaicumpar K, Limpaiboon T, Wongkham C, Yutanawiboonchai W. Evaluation of polymerase chain reaction, conventional and MRSA screen latex agglutination methods for detection of methicillin-resistant, -borderline and -susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2004;35:879-85 pubmed
    ..MIC method was better for BRSA detection and OSS method was more appropriate for screening clinical specimens and carriers. ..
  21. Nakayasu H, Sawada H, Doi M, Hayashi M, Murakami T, Nakashima K. Spontaneous haemophilus influenzae type B meningoventriculitis with intraventricular debris. Intern Med. 2005;44:332-4 pubmed
    ..He was treated with intravenous administration of antibiotics, and his clinical condition and MRI findings gradually improved. Six weeks after onset, he was discharged without sequelae. ..
  22. Kline J, Wells P. Methodology for a rapid protocol to rule out pulmonary embolism in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. 2003;42:266-75 pubmed
    ..Finally, we assess the potential effect of the proposed pulmonary embolism rule-out protocol on use of imaging resources and ED throughput. ..
  23. Dusetty P, Velazquez F, Gutiérrez Escolano A, Ludert J. Evaluation of the second generation of a commercial latex agglutination test for the detection of rotavirus antigens in fecal samples. J Clin Virol. 2013;57:88-90 pubmed publisher
    ..9% and a specificity of 97.7%. Positive and negative predicted values for the test were 97% and 88%, respectively. The results suggest that this commercial test is a good alternative for rotavirus diagnosis. ..
  24. Rijal S, Boelaert M, Regmi S, Karki B, Jacquet D, Singh R, et al. Evaluation of a urinary antigen-based latex agglutination test in the diagnosis of kala-azar in eastern Nepal. Trop Med Int Health. 2004;9:724-9 pubmed
    ..A urine test for kala-azar could become a real breakthrough in kala-azar management if its reproducibility and sensitivity could be further improved. ..
  25. Kawai Y. [Cross-linked fibrin polymer and degradation products by plasmin (XDP)]. Nihon Rinsho. 2004;62 Suppl 12:618-22 pubmed
  26. Meyer O, Abdallah Z, Schonemann C, Hugo F, Agaylan A, Kiesewetter H, et al. A simple and practical agglutination assay for human leucocyte antigen-B27 typing. Vox Sang. 2006;91:77-80 pubmed
    ..Flow cytometric HLA-B27 typing revealed an indeterminate result in one patient. The new HLA-B27 PaGIA is suitable for rapid typing of HLA-B27. The assay is simple and easy to perform, and can be implemented in any routine laboratory. ..
  27. Ferreira R, Iorio N, Malvar K, Nunes A, Fonseca L, Bastos C, et al. Coagulase-negative staphylococci: comparison of phenotypic and genotypic oxacillin susceptibility tests and evaluation of the agar screening test by using different concentrations of oxacillin. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:3609-14 pubmed
    ..Both assays are technically simple and can be easier to perform in routine laboratories than PCR. ..
  28. Matos P, Schuenck R, Cavalcante F, Caboclo R, Santos K. Accuracy of phenotypic methicillin susceptibility methods in the detection of Staphylococcus aureus isolates carrying different SCCmec types. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2010;105:931-4 pubmed
    ..The DD test showed high accuracy in the detection of MRSA isolates, but there was low precision in the detection of type IV isolates by the other tests, indicating that the genotypic characteristics of the isolates should be considered. ..
  29. Qian Q, Venkataraman L, Kirby J, Gold H, Yamazumi T. Direct detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus in blood culture broth by use of a penicillin binding protein 2a latex agglutination test. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:1420-1 pubmed publisher
    ..The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of this method were 94.1%, 97.5%, 98%, and 92.9%, respectively. ..
  30. Xie Y, Yang J, Zhao P, Jia H, Wang Q. Occurrence and detection method evaluation of group B streptococcus from prenatal vaginal specimen in Northwest China. Diagn Pathol. 2016;11:8 pubmed publisher
  31. Akhoundi B, Mohebali M, Shojaee S, Jalali M, Kazemi B, Bandehpour M, et al. Rapid detection of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis: assessment of a latex agglutination test based on the A2 antigen from amastigote forms of Leishmania infantum. Exp Parasitol. 2013;133:307-13 pubmed publisher
    ..LAT for the detection of human and canine L. infantum infections. In conclusion, A2-LAT and Pro.-LAT could be used in parallel to screen for L. infantum infections in humans and dogs in areas endemic for VL in Iran. ..
  32. Suttisunhakul V, Pumpuang A, Ekchariyawat P, Wuthiekanun V, Elrod M, Turner P, et al. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei from Asia and Australia and differentiation between Burkholderia species. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0175294 pubmed publisher
    ..pseudomallei and B. mallei, while the recA tree did not. MALDI-TOF MS is an accurate method for the identification of B. pseudomallei, and discriminates between this and other related Burkholderia species. ..
  33. Sakurai S, Suzuki H, Hata T, Yoshizawa Y, Nakayama R, Machida K, et al. A novel positive regulatory element for exfoliative toxin A gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus. Microbiology. 2004;150:945-52 pubmed
    ..7 kb eta/pYT3) containing the 1.7 kb eta sequence carrying the 1.4 kb ETA(exp)-deficient eta fragment (pYT3-etaJ3) was 2500-4000 times lower than that of pYT3-etaJ6. ..
  34. Shameem S, Vinod Kumar C, Neelagund Y. Bacterial meningitis: rapid diagnosis and microbial profile: a multicentered study. J Commun Dis. 2008;40:111-20 pubmed
    ..To conclude, inclusion of latex agglutination test for detection of bacterial antigen in the routine diagnosis adds a valuable adjunct in the rapid and accurate diagnosis of pyogenic meningitis...
  35. Abdoel T, Pastoor R, Smits H, Hatta M. Laboratory evaluation of a simple and rapid latex agglutination assay for the serodiagnosis of typhoid fever. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2007;101:1032-8 pubmed
    ..5% for samples collected between days 7 and 9, and to 84.6% for the samples collected more than 9 days after the onset of illness. Testing of follow-up samples may further improve sensitivity by demonstrating seroconversion. ..
  36. Fan C, Su K, Tsai Y. Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii infection among slaughtered pigs in northwestern Taiwan. J Parasitol. 2004;90:653-4 pubmed
    ..4%, 128/288) previously reported about 10 yr ago using the LA test. Nevertheless, it is important to avoid eating raw or undercooked pork in order to prevent the acquisition of T. gondii infection among people in Taiwan. ..
  37. Bartova E, Sedlak K, Syrová M, Literak I. Neospora spp. and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in horses in the Czech Republic. Parasitol Res. 2010;107:783-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Antibodies against T. gondii were found in 125 (23%) horses. This is the first serologic survey for Neospora spp. antibodies performed on horses in the Czech Republic. ..
  38. Djibo S, Njanpop Lafourcade B, Boisier P, Moussa A, Kobo G, Sidikou F, et al. Evaluation of the Pastorex meningitis kit for the rapid identification of Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A and W135. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2006;100:573-8 pubmed
    ..This study showed that latex agglutination performs well and could be used during the epidemic season to determine appropriate vaccine response...
  39. Jittapalapong S, Sangvaranond A, Pinyopanuwat N, Chimnoi W, Khachaeram W, Koizumi S, et al. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic goats in Satun Province, Thailand. Vet Parasitol. 2005;127:17-22 pubmed
    ..6; 95% CI=0.92, 4.15, for >2 years, OR=2.70; 95% CI=1.26, 5.80). The high seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies found in the present study suggested widespread exposure of goats in Satun Province to T. gondii. ..
  40. Senthilkumar T, Subathra M, Phil M, Ramadass P, Ramaswamy V. Rapid serodiagnosis of leptospirosis by latex agglutination test and flow-through assay. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2008;26:45-9 pubmed
    ..In the present study, in order to develop a simple, rapid immunodiagnostic assay, one of the outer membrane proteins (OMPs), recombinant LipL41 (rLipL41) has been utilised in latex agglutination test (LAT) and flow-through assay...
  41. Bardot L, Gobert J, Kapel N. [Faecal occult blood testing: comparison of a latex agglutination test (Hemolex) and an immunoturbidimetric test (QuikRead FOB)]. Ann Biol Clin (Paris). 2004;62:339-43 pubmed
    ..analytical performance were similar with the 2 methods and discrepancies observed wi-thin the positive group were mainly related to the extraction method. ..
  42. Sundar S, Agrawal S, Pai K, Chance M, Hommel M. Detection of leishmanial antigen in the urine of patients with visceral leishmaniasis by a latex agglutination test. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005;73:269-71 pubmed
    ..Positive and negative predictive values were 0.994 and 0.788, respectively. KAtex is a promising test, and in a simplified and improved format it could be applied meaningfully in the diagnosis of VL. ..
  43. Koshihara K, Fukutake K. [Laboratory tests of coagulation and fibrinolysis for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis]. Nihon Rinsho. 2005;63 Suppl 1:358-61 pubmed
  44. Zahra L, Azzopardi C, Scott G. Cryptococcal meningitis in two apparently immunocompetent Maltese patients. Mycoses. 2004;47:168-73 pubmed
    ..Culture of CSF this time yielded Cryptococcus neoformans and the antigen test was consistently positive. These are the first reported cases of cryptococcal meningitis in immunocompetent patients in Malta...
  45. Benkerroum N, Bouhlal Y, El Attar A, Marhaben A. Occurrence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 in selected dairy and meat products marketed in the city of Rabat, Morocco. J Food Prot. 2004;67:1234-7 pubmed
    ..Four of the five strains (80%) were meat isolates and produced ST2 with or without ST1, and the fifth was a dairy isolate producing ST2. ..
  46. Thiramanas R, Jangpatarapongsa K, Asawapirom U, Tangboriboonrat P, Polpanich D. Sensitivity and specificity of PS/AA-modified nanoparticles used in malaria detection. Microb Biotechnol. 2013;6:406-13 pubmed publisher
    ..All Ab-latex conjugates provided the high sensitivity for the detection of P. falciparum malaria plasma. The highest specificity to P. falciparum was obtained from using Ab-NPs conjugated via the SA-biotin interaction. ..
  47. Narkeviciute I, Bernatoniene J, Mikelionyte A, Bernatoniene G, Baliukynaite V, Eidukevicius R. Aetiological diagnostics of acute bacterial meningitis in children. Scand J Infect Dis. 2006;38:782-7 pubmed
    ..The most common pathogens of bacterial meningitis were H. influenzae type b, N. meningitidis and S. pneumoniae. ..
  48. Hodgson K, Engler C, Govan B, Ketheesan N, Norton R. Comparison of routine bench and molecular diagnostic methods in identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:1578-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Using bench tests and latex agglutination alone, 100% (30/30) of B. pseudomallei isolates were correctly identified. Amoxicillin-clavulanate susceptibility testing was also a good and simple discriminatory test...
  49. Koo H, Park Y, Ahn J, Waters W, Hamilton M, Barrington G, et al. New latex bead agglutination assay for differential diagnosis of cattle infected with Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2004;11:1070-4 pubmed
    ..bovis or M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis for differential diagnosis of cattle infected with M. bovis or M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. ..
  50. Tsai Y, Chung W, Fei A, Hong C, Tsai Y, Peng S, et al. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in stray dogs in Taipei, Taiwan. J Parasitol. 2008;94:1437 pubmed publisher
    ..Antibodies (LAT titers >1:32) to T. gondii were found in 284 (20.1%) of the animals. Seroprevalences were not affected by the sex or density of dogs. The prevalence was highest in dogs from the eastern part of the city. ..
  51. Bendahou A, Abid M, Bouteldoun N, Catelejine D, Lebbadi M. Enterotoxigenic coagulase positive Staphylococcus in milk and milk products, lben and jben, in northern Morocco. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2009;3:169-76 pubmed
    ..The presence of enterotoxigenic strains in food does not always necessarily mean that the toxin will be produced. For that reason, the combination of both methods (RPLA and PCR) is a guarantee for success in diagnostic analysis tests. ..
  52. Lehmann H, Heaton T, Mallon D, Holt P. Staphylococcal enterotoxin-B-mediated stimulation of interleukin-13 production as a potential aetiologic factor in eczema in infants. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2004;135:306-12 pubmed
    ..aureus was used to stimulate the cells. IL-13 is an important factor in AEDS development in early childhood, and prophylactic anti-staphylococcal treatment may provide protection from AEDS in atopic individuals. ..
  53. Chen S, Wang S, Cheng X, Xiao S, Zhu X, Lin F, et al. Isolation and characterization of a distinct duck-origin goose parvovirus causing an outbreak of duckling short beak and dwarfism syndrome in China. Arch Virol. 2016;161:2407-16 pubmed publisher
    ..A similar disease was reproduced by inoculating birds with SBDSV M15. Together, these data indicate that SBDSV M15 is a GPV-related parvovirus causing SBDS disease and that it is divergent from classical GPV isolates. ..