hemagglutination tests


Summary: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Takada A, Matsushita S, Ninomiya A, Kawaoka Y, Kida H. Intranasal immunization with formalin-inactivated virus vaccine induces a broad spectrum of heterosubtypic immunity against influenza A virus infection in mice. Vaccine. 2003;21:3212-8 pubmed
    ..This approach may overcome limitations in the efficacy of inactivated influenza vaccines and confer potent immunity to humans against viruses with new pandemic potential. ..
  2. Zou F, Sun X, Xie Y, Li B, Zhao G, Duan G, et al. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in pigs in southwestern China. Parasitol Int. 2009;58:306-7 pubmed publisher
    ..28%), followed by breeding sows (16.59%). The results of the present survey indicated that infection with T. gondii in pigs is widely spread in China, including the Yunnan province, and is of public health concern. ..
  3. Wiriyarat W, Lerdsamran H, Pooruk P, Webster R, Louisirirotchanakul S, Ratanakorn P, et al. Erythrocyte binding preference of 16 subtypes of low pathogenic avian influenza and 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) viruses. Vet Microbiol. 2010;146:346-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the 2009 pandemic viruses did not agglutinate both horse and chicken erythrocytes. Our study concluded that goose and guinea pig erythrocytes are the best in HA assay for all subtypes of influenza viruses. ..
  4. Chang Q, Zheng X, Qiu J, Wang C, Zhu X. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in fattening pigs in Northeast China. J Parasitol. 2013;99:544-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Given that pork is not examined for T. gondii infection in China by law, these findings have public health implications and provide useful baseline information for the control of pig toxoplasmosis in this unique region of China. ..
  5. Otani M, Vinelli E, Kirchhoff L, del Pozo A, Sands A, Vercauteren G, et al. WHO comparative evaluation of serologic assays for Chagas disease. Transfusion. 2009;49:1076-82 pubmed publisher
  6. Eris F, Akisu C, Aksoy U. Evaluation of two ELISA and two indirect hemagglutination tests for serodiagnosis of pulmonary hydatid disease. Korean J Parasitol. 2009;47:427-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Likewise, the combination of the ELISA-lab and IHA-kit or IHA-TA allowed us to achieve a sensitivity of 84.2% in cases of pulmonary echinococcosis. In conclusion, the diagnosis would be imminent if least 2 tests were applied together. ..
  7. Qiu J, Wang C, Zhang X, Sheng Z, Chang Q, Zhao Q, et al. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in beef cattle and dairy cattle in northeast China. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2012;9:579-82 pubmed publisher
    ..gondii infection for humans in this region. ..
  8. Sánchez Riera A, Daud A, Gallo A, Genta S, Aybar M, Sanchez S. Antibacterial activity of lactose-binding lectins from Bufo arenarum skin. Biocell. 2003;27:37-46 pubmed
    ..The antibacterial activity of these lectins may provide an effective defense against invading microbes in the amphibian Bufo arenarum...
  9. Clarke D, Casals J. Techniques for hemagglutination and hemagglutination-inhibition with arthropod-borne viruses. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1958;7:561-73 pubmed

More Information


  1. Sánchez Guillén M, Barnabe C, Guegan J, Tibayrenc M, Velásquez Rojas M, Martínez Munguía J, et al. High prevalence anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies, among blood donors in the State of Puebla, a non-endemic area of Mexico. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2002;97:947-52 pubmed
    ..cruzi, higher than those reported for infections by blood e.g. hepatitis (0.1%) and AIDS (0.1%) in the same region. ..
  2. Haraguchi T, Nomura K, Yagi F. Cloning and expression of a mannose-binding jacalin-related lectin from leaves of Japanese cycad (Cycas revoluta Thunb.). Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2006;70:2222-9 pubmed
    ..Recombinant CRLL (rCRLL) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography after refolding procedures. Properties of active rCRLL appeared to be almost the same as those of native CRLL...
  3. Tanimura N, Tsukamoto K, Okamatsu M, Mase M, Imada T, Nakamura K, et al. Pathology of fatal highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus infection in large-billed crows (Corvus macrorhynchos) during the 2004 outbreak in Japan. Vet Pathol. 2006;43:500-9 pubmed
    ..Thus we concluded that highly pathogenic avian influenza virus was associated with clinical disease, severe pathologic changes, and death in the 3 crows...
  4. Tanji T, Ohashi Kobayashi A, Natori S. Participation of a galactose-specific C-type lectin in Drosophila immunity. Biochem J. 2006;396:127-38 pubmed
  5. Andrade C, Correia M, Coelho L, Nascimento S, Santos Magalhães N. Antitumor activity of Cratylia mollis lectin encapsulated into liposomes. Int J Pharm. 2004;278:435-45 pubmed
    ..In particular, histopathological analysis revealed that treatment with Cra-loaded liposomes prevented Cra cytotoxicity in the liver and kidney of animals. ..
  6. Sakem B, Matozan K, Nydegger U, Weigel G, Griesmacher A, Risch L. Anti-red blood cell antibodies, free light chains, and antiphospholipid antibodies in intravenous immunoglobulin preparations. Isr Med Assoc J. 2013;15:617-21 pubmed
    ..Our findings provide clear evidence that IVIG may harbor pathophysiological substrates with a potential risk for adverse effects such as iatrogenic hemolysis, FLC-associated disorders, and thromboembolism. ..
  7. Iqbal M, Yaqub T, Mukhtar N, Shabbir M, McCauley J. Infectivity and transmissibility of H9N2 avian influenza virus in chickens and wild terrestrial birds. Vet Res. 2013;44:100 pubmed publisher
    ..These results highlight the ease of spread of this group of H9N2 viruses between domesticated poultry and sparrows and show that sparrows need to be considered as a high risk species for transmitting H9N2 viruses between premises...
  8. Thorpe S, Fox B, Sharp G, White J, Milkins C. A WHO reference reagent to standardize haemagglutination testing for anti-A and anti-B in serum and plasma: international collaborative study to evaluate a candidate preparation. Vox Sang. 2016;111:161-70 pubmed publisher
  9. Decaro N, Desario C, Billi M, Lorusso E, Colaianni M, Colao V, et al. Evaluation of an in-clinic assay for the diagnosis of canine parvovirus. Vet J. 2013;198:504-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The in-clinic test was also able to detect all CPV types at equivalent rates. ..
  10. Klafke G, Borsuk S, Gonçales R, Arruda F, Carneiro V, Teixeira E, et al. Inhibition of initial adhesion of oral bacteria through a lectin from Bauhinia variegata L. var. variegata expressed in Escherichia coli. J Appl Microbiol. 2013;115:1222-30 pubmed publisher
    ..variegata lectins in inhibiting early adhesion of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus sobrinus to experimentally acquired pellicle...
  11. Boyle J, Thorpe S, Hawkins J, Lockie C, Fox B, Matejtschuk P, et al. International reference reagents to standardise blood group genotyping: evaluation of candidate preparations in an international collaborative study. Vox Sang. 2013;104:144-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The establishment of RBC1, RBC4, RBC5 and RBC12 as World Health Organization Reference Reagents will facilitate international standardisation of blood group genotyping and ensure that such tests are sufficiently sensitive and specific. ..
  12. Li F, Wen H, Zhang Y, Aa M, Liu X. Purification and characterization of a novel immunomodulatory protein from the medicinal mushroom Trametes versicolor. Sci China Life Sci. 2011;54:379-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that TVC is an immunostimulant that can boost immune response. Comparison of the N-terminal amino acid residues and mass spectrometry results with the protein database revealed no homologous proteins. ..
  13. Prezioso C, Scribano D, Bellizzi A, Anzivino E, Rodio D, Trancassini M, et al. Efficient propagation of archetype JC polyomavirus in COS-7 cells: evaluation of rearrangements within the NCCR structural organization after transfection. Arch Virol. 2017;162:3745-3752 pubmed publisher
    ..This model is a useful tool for analyzing NCCR rearrangements during in vitro replication in cells that are sites of viral persistence, such as tubular epithelial cells of the kidney. ..
  14. Hua H, Zhu X, Yang L, Li M, Jiang P. Multiple condylomata lata: a case report. Int J Dermatol. 2008;47:56-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Later on, serologic tests confirmed the diagnosis. This patient is presented to emphasize the importance of considering syphilis in any patient with an at-risk sexual history and popular verrucous lesions of the skin folds...
  15. Kdodier M, Shoman S. Preparation and evaluation of specific polyclonal antibodies to H5N1 subtype of the avian influenza virus in Egypt. Egypt J Immunol. 2009;16:139-47 pubmed
    ..Extracts from pharyngeal-tracheal mucus of apparently healthy chickens mixed with H5 AIVs also yielded positive signals in ELISA. Such data suggest that these PAbs are useful in the surveillance and diagnosis of AIV in birds in Egypt. ..
  16. Souza R, Amato Neto V. Discrepancies and consequences of indirect hemagglutination, indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA tests for the diagnosis of Chagas disease. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2012;54:141-3 pubmed
    ..What was found brought about concerns and we suggest the adoption of different measures, aiming to avoid these mismatches in the context of this disease. ..
  17. Stern E, Galloway R, Shadomy S, Wannemuehler K, Atrubin D, Blackmore C, et al. Outbreak of leptospirosis among Adventure Race participants in Florida, 2005. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50:843-9 pubmed publisher
    ..On 21 November 2005, a 32-year-old male resident of New York was hospitalized with suspected leptospirosis. He had participated in an endurance-length swamp race on 4-5 November 2005 outside of Tampa, Florida...
  18. Othman N, Mohamed Z, Verweij J, Huat L, Olivos Garcia A, Yeng C, et al. Application of real-time polymerase chain reaction in detection of Entamoeba histolytica in pus aspirates of liver abscess patients. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2010;7:637-41 pubmed publisher
    ..3%) pus samples that showed bacterial infection by culture. The use of real-time PCR is a promising detection method for diagnosis and epidemiology assessment of amoebic liver abscess...
  19. Takemae N, Ruttanapumma R, Parchariyanon S, Yoneyama S, Hayashi T, Hiramatsu H, et al. Alterations in receptor-binding properties of swine influenza viruses of the H1 subtype after isolation in embryonated chicken eggs. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:938-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate clearly that classical H1 SIVs undergo alterations in receptor-binding activity associated with an amino acid substitution in the HA protein during isolation and propagation in embryonated chicken eggs. ..
  20. Hyono A, Gaboriaud F, Mazda T, Takata Y, Ohshima H, Duval J. Impacts of papain and neuraminidase enzyme treatment on electrohydrodynamics and IgG-mediated agglutination of type A red blood cells. Langmuir. 2009;25:10873-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This is experimentally confirmed by agglutination data collected for papain- and neuraminidase-treated cells. ..
  21. Li Q, Ye X, Zeng H, Chen X, Li X. [Study on the extraction technology and hypoglycemic activity of lectin from Trichosanthes kirilowi]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2012;35:475-9 pubmed
    ..2. Precipitate lectins by ammonium sulfate in the 70% saturation, centrifugal speed is 10 000 tracted from Trichosanthes kirilowi exposes proper hypoglycemic activity. ..
  22. Luo M, Yang S, Li X, Liu P, Xue J, Zhou X, et al. The KP1_4563 gene is regulated by the cAMP receptor protein and controls type 3 fimbrial function in Klebsiella pneumoniae NTUH-K2044. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180666 pubmed publisher
    ..KP1_4563 plays an important role in type 3 fimbrial function. This novel insight will assist in the development of strategies for preventing K. pneumoniae infection. ..
  23. Mitra S, Saha D, Pal A, Niyogi S, Mitra U, Koley H. Hemagglutinating activity is directly correlated with colonization ability of shigellae in suckling mouse model. Can J Microbiol. 2012;58:1159-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In all 4 serogroups, high HA titer was associated with greater intestinal colonization. ..
  24. Chang S, Sun H, Ji D, Lo Y, Wu C, Wu P, et al. Cost-effectiveness of detection of intestinal amebiasis by using serology and specific-amebic-antigen assays among persons with or without human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:3077-9 pubmed publisher
    ..histolytica infection. ..
  25. Dubois Galopin F, Lamballais F, Rapatel C, Berger M. [XE-2100: platelet clumps or polymorphonuclear neutrophil aggregates, that is the question]. Ann Biol Clin (Paris). 2010;68:480-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Two patients had clumps located only at the edges of the smears, and automated imaging processes, scanning only the center of the smears, may also contribute to the failure of recognising this phenomenon. ..
  26. Wambura P. Formulation of novel nano-encapsulated Newcastle disease vaccine tablets for vaccination of village chickens. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2011;43:165-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings from the present study showed that, if the vaccine tablet formulation technique is optimised, it will allow the delivery of the ND vaccine without depending on cold chains to rural areas in tropical countries. ..
  27. Xing W, Yu X, Feng J, Sun K, Fu W, Wang Y, et al. Field evaluation of a recombinase polymerase amplification assay for the diagnosis of Schistosoma japonicum infection in Hunan province of China. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:164 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first time we applied the RPA technology to the field evaluation of S. japonicum infection. And the results suggest that RPA-based assays can be used as a promising point-of-care test for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis. ..
  28. Krauss S, Walker D, Webster R. Influenza virus isolation. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;865:11-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Successful isolation of influenza virus depends on the quality of the sample and matching the appropriate culture method to the sample type. ..
  29. Wu D, Lv R, Sun X, Shu F, Zhou Z, Nie K, et al. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies from slaughter pigs in Chongqing, China. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2012;44:685-7 pubmed publisher
    ..gondii. Comprehensive measures are needed to strengthen further prevention and control of the disease in Chongqing. ..
  30. Singh R, Jain P, Kaur H. Characterization and antimicrobial activity of lectins from Penicillium sp. Indian J Exp Biol. 2013;51:984-91 pubmed
    ..Lectin extracts from the three Penicillium species displayed antifungal activity and antibacterial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains. ..
  31. Chen Y, Chen C, Wang C. H5 antibody detection by blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a monoclonal antibody. Avian Dis. 2008;52:124-9 pubmed
    ..The results showed that the sensitivity and specificity of this ELISA were 98.3% (232/236) and 95.9% (232/242), respectively. This blocking ELISA could be used specifically for detecting the H5 humoral responses in chickens. ..
  32. Tsivileva O, Nikitina V, Loshchinina E. Isolation and characterization of Lentinus edodes (Berk.) singer extracellular lectins. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2008;73:1154-61 pubmed
    ..The purified extracellular lectins of L. edodes are highly selective at recognition of definite structures on the surface of trypsinized rabbit erythrocytes and do not react with the erythrocytes of other animals and humans...
  33. Jaber K, Cuartero Diaz G, Haubruge E, Francis F. Investigation of carbohydrate binding property of a fungal lectin from Xerocomus chrysenteron and potential use on Myzus persicae aphid. Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 2008;73:629-38 pubmed
    ..The potential use of this particular fungal Lectin (XCL) with more specific carbohydrate binding will be discussed in relation to the development of bio-insecticide and integrated pest management. ..
  34. Ho D, Schierts J, Zimmerman Z, Gadsden I, BRUTTIG S. Comparison of frozen versus desiccated reference human red blood cells for hemagglutination assays. Transfusion. 2009;49:2173-80 pubmed publisher
  35. Brisbin J, Gong J, Lusty C, Sabour P, Sanei B, Han Y, et al. Influence of in-feed virginiamycin on the systemic and mucosal antibody response of chickens. Poult Sci. 2008;87:1995-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are required to determine to what extent these effects on antibody response are mediated through changes in the composition of the microbiota. ..
  36. Wang J, Zhou J, Yang Q, Chen Y, Li X, Piao Y, et al. An improved embryonated chicken egg model for the evaluation of antiviral drugs against influenza A virus. J Virol Methods. 2008;153:218-22 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, ribavirin treatment showed significant antiviral activity against IVA1 and IVA3 in this model, suggesting that the improved model would be useful for evaluating the anti-influenza virus activity of potential inhibitors. ..
  37. Araujo R, Pereira M, Soares A, Pereira I, Diotaiuti L, Gontijo N, et al. Effect of intestinal erythrocyte agglutination on the feeding performance of Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). J Insect Physiol. 2009;55:862-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that, in addition to other parameters, haemagglutination brought about by SCC has an important role in the feeding efficiency of T. brasiliensis. ..
  38. Harris P, Ketheesan N, Owens L, Norton R. Clinical features that affect indirect-hemagglutination-assay responses to Burkholderia pseudomallei. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009;16:924-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Reasons for these findings are examined, and directions for future research are discussed. ..
  39. Ghule B, Yeole P. In vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory activities of iridoids fraction from Barleria prionitis Linn. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;141:424-31 pubmed publisher
    ..55±2.40 and 10.03±1.69 in IFBp of BP, respectively. The present investigation reveals that IFBp is a potent immunostimulant, stimulating both the specific and non-specific immune mechanisms. ..
  40. Barbour E, Itani H, Sleiman F, Saade M, Harakeh S, Nour A, et al. Preliminary comparison of different immune and production components in local and imported Saanen goats reared under a sub-tropical environment. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2012;44:87-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The impact of the differences in blood immune components and responses to antigens in the compared goats on protection potential against prevalent diseases in the sub-tropical zone of the eastern Mediterranean countries is discussed. ..
  41. Nafeev A, Vinogradova I, Savinova G, Sibaeva E. [Sporadic forms of ornithosis (psittacosis) in a clinician's practice]. Klin Med (Mosk). 2007;85:69-70 pubmed
  42. Andrade A, Gontijo E. [Neonatal screening for congenital Chagas infection: application of latent class analysis for diagnostic test evaluation]. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2008;41:615-20 pubmed
    ..The results showed that enzyme immunoassaying of dry blood samples can be used as safely as the indirect immunofluorescence test. ..
  43. Zhang Y, Dai X, Wang X, Maituohuti A, Cui Y, Rehemu A, et al. Dynamics of Yersinia pestis and its antibody response in great gerbils (Rhombomys opimus) by subcutaneous infection. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46820 pubmed publisher
    ..pestis susceptibility of great gerbil will improve the understanding of its variable resistance, which would facilitate the development of more effective countermeasures for controlling plague epidemics in this focus. ..
  44. Rodríguez González I, Fernández Molina C, Obregón A, Zamora Martínez Y, Rodríguez Silveira J, Rodríguez Preval N, et al. [Microbiological confirmation of two emergent outbreaks of human leptospirosis in Cuba]. Rev Cubana Med Trop. 2007;59:19-23 pubmed
    ..The two epidemiologic events were caused by pathogenic leptospires infection, which contributed to the adoption of hygienic-sanitary measures in both provinces. ..
  45. Wuthiekanun V, Pheaktra N, Putchhat H, Sin L, Sen B, Kumar V, et al. Burkholderia pseudomallei antibodies in children, Cambodia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:301-3 pubmed publisher
    ..This organism was isolated from 30% of rice paddies in the surrounding vicinity. Despite the lack of reported indigenous cases, melioidosis is likely to occur in Cambodia. ..
  46. Naeem A, Haque S, Khan R. Purification and characterization of a novel beta-D-galactosides-specific lectin from Clitoria ternatea. Protein J. 2007;26:403-13 pubmed
    ..Based on these assays, we conclude that CTA binds beta-D: -galactosides, and also may has an extended specificity towards non-reducing terminal Neu5Acalpha2,6Gal...
  47. Barnard T, Van Heerden E, Bragg R, Albertyn J. Haemophilus paragallinarum haemagglutinin: role in adhesion, serotyping and pathogenicity. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2008;75:11-6 pubmed
    ..The haemagglutination assay conditions were optimized at pH 7.5 at 37 degrees C. It was also shown that activity is enhanced by the addition of Ca2+ and Mn2+ ions...
  48. Kumar S, Verma A, Sharma A, Kumar D, Tripathi A, Chaudhari B, et al. Phytohemagglutinins augment red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) induced allergic manifestations. J Proteomics. 2013;93:50-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, the PHA-L seems to be more allergenic than the PHA-E. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translational plant proteomics. ..
  49. Miyata K, Sagane Y, Inui K, Miyashita S, Suzuki T, Oguma K, et al. Purification and characterization of nontoxic protein complex from serotype D 4947 botulinum toxin complex. Protein J. 2012;31:387-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The NC, as well as the L-TC, demonstrated cell binding and monolayer transport in the rat intestinal epithelial cell line IEC-6. Consequently, the highly purified NC can function as a "delivery vehicle" even without the BoNT...
  50. Seo B, Rather I, Kumar V, Choi U, Moon M, Lim J, et al. Evaluation of Leuconostoc mesenteroides YML003 as a probiotic against low-pathogenic avian influenza (H9N2) virus in chickens. J Appl Microbiol. 2012;113:163-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The aims of the study were to isolate anti-H9N2 bacteria from Korean Kimchi isolates and to evaluate its performance in cell line, egg and in specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens...
  51. Xie H, Jing X, Li X, Lin Z, Plant E, Zoueva O, et al. Immunogenicity and cross-reactivity of 2009-2010 inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine in US adults and elderly. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16650 pubmed publisher
    ..The pandemic specific cross-reactive antibodies strongly correlated with the post-vaccination HAI titers against the seasonal H3N2 vaccine strain in all subjects. ..
  52. Heathcote D, Carroll T, Wang J, Flower R, Rodionov I, Tuzikov A, et al. Novel antibody screening cells, MUT+Mur kodecytes, created by attaching peptides onto red blood cells. Transfusion. 2010;50:635-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This technology has the potential to create a large range of specialized RBCs for antibody screening and identification. ..
  53. Cevahir N, Demir M, Kaleli I, Gurbuz M, Tikvesli S. Evaluation of biofilm production, gelatinase activity, and mannose-resistant hemagglutination in Acinetobacter baumannii strains. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2008;41:513-8 pubmed
    ..Several parameters may play important roles in causing infection in colonized patients. Identifying the factors that influence virulence may help to separate the colonizing strains into those with high or low potential virulence. ..