agglutination tests


Summary: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Gadisa E, Custodio E, Cañavate C, Sordo L, Abebe Z, Nieto J, et al. Usefulness of the rK39-immunochromatographic test, direct agglutination test, and leishmanin skin test for detecting asymptomatic Leishmania infection in children in a new visceral leishmaniasis focus in Amhara State, Ethiopia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012;86:792-8 pubmed publisher
    ..1% (61 of 605). We conclude that the best option to detect asymptomatic infection in this new visceral leishmaniasis-endemic focus is the combined use of the direct agglutination test and the leishmanin skin test. ..
  2. Dubey J, Felix T, Kwok O. Serological and parasitological prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild birds from Colorado. J Parasitol. 2010;96:937-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first time T. gondii has been isolated from the barn owl, ferruginous hawk, rough-legged hawk, and Swainson's hawk. ..
  3. Andre Fontaine G. Diagnosis algorithm for leptospirosis in dogs: disease and vaccination effects on the serological results. Vet Rec. 2013;172:502 pubmed publisher
    ..2 per cent) vaccinated dogs and remained probable in 14 others (13.7 per cent), thus indicating the permanent exposure of dogs and the weakness of the protection offered by the current vaccines to pathogenic Leptospira. ..
  4. Cardoso L, Lopes A, Sherry K, Schallig H, Solano Gallego L. Low seroprevalence of Leishmania infantum infection in cats from northern Portugal based on DAT and ELISA. Vet Parasitol. 2010;174:37-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, Leishmania infection must not be underestimated and leishmaniasis may be included in the differential diagnosis of cutaneous or systemic clinical signs in cats. ..
  5. Kohn B, Steinicke K, Arndt G, Gruber A, Guerra B, Jansen A, et al. Pulmonary abnormalities in dogs with leptospirosis. J Vet Intern Med. 2010;24:1277-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In 70% of dogs with leptospirosis pulmonary changes were detected. Lung involvement represented a severe complication causing increased case fatality depending on the severity of respiratory distress. ..
  6. Lopes A, Sargo R, Rodrigues M, Cardoso L. High seroprevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in wild animals from Portugal. Parasitol Res. 2011;108:1163-9 pubmed publisher
    ..100), 80.0% in female and 66.7% in male birds (p=1.000), and 81.8% in female and 100% in male mammals (p=0.479). This is the first study performed on T. gondii in birds of prey, white storks, and wild carnivores in Portugal. ..
  7. Ridzlan F, Bahaman A, Khairani Bejo S, Mutalib A. Detection of pathogenic Leptospira from selected environment in Kelantan and Terengganu, Malaysia. Trop Biomed. 2010;27:632-8 pubmed
    ..Pathogenic leptospires can be detected in Malaysian environment and this has the potential to cause an outbreak. Therefore, precautionary steps against leptospirosis should be taken by camp authorities to ensure the safety of trainees...
  8. Khanal B, Rijal S, Ostyn B, Picado A, Gidwani K, Menten J, et al. Serological markers for leishmania donovani infection in Nepal: Agreement between direct agglutination test and rK39 ELISA. Trop Med Int Health. 2010;15:1390-4 pubmed
    ..The agreement between both tests was moderate (j = 0.53; 95% CI 0.49–0.57). More research is needed to develop validated markers for Leishmania infection. ..
  9. Wu S, Huang S, Fu B, Liu G, Chen J, Chen M, et al. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pet dogs in Lanzhou, Northwest China. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:64 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to reduce the risk of exposure to T. gondii, further measures and essential control strategies should be carried out rationally in this region. ..

More Information


  1. Ostyn B, Gidwani K, Khanal B, Picado A, Chappuis F, Singh S, et al. Incidence of symptomatic and asymptomatic Leishmania donovani infections in high-endemic foci in India and Nepal: a prospective study. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1284 pubmed publisher
    ..3)). Incident asymptomatic L. donovani infection in VL high-endemic foci in India and Nepal is nine times more frequent than incident VL disease. About 1 in 50 of these new but latent infections led to VL within the next 18 months. ..
  2. Youn Y, Lee K, Hwang J, Rhim J, Kang J, Lee J, et al. Difference of clinical features in childhood Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. BMC Pediatr. 2010;10:48 pubmed publisher
    ..The severity of pulmonary lesions was associated with the absence of diagnostic IgM antibodies at presentation and lymphocyte count. Short-term paired IgM serologic test may be mandatory for early and definitive diagnosis of MP. ..
  3. Fraune C, Schweighauser A, Francey T. Evaluation of the diagnostic value of serologic microagglutination testing and a polymerase chain reaction assay for diagnosis of acute leptospirosis in dogs in a referral center. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2013;242:1373-80 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the diagnostic value of a serologic microagglutination test (MAT) and a PCR assay on urine and blood for the diagnosis of leptospirosis in dogs with acute kidney injury (AKI)...
  4. Sousa S, Lopes A, Cardoso L, Silvestre R, Schallig H, Reed S, et al. Seroepidemiological survey of Leishmania infantum infection in dogs from northeastern Portugal. Acta Trop. 2011;120:82-7 pubmed publisher
    ..2%) and those living in a mixed habitat (27.5%). Risk factors for canine Leishmania infection, as defined by multiple logistic regression analysis, were of clinical status (odds ratio [OR] = 3.1) and Toxoplasma infection (OR = 1.5)...
  5. Gautam R, Wu C, Guptill L, Potter A, Moore G. Detection of antibodies against Leptospira serovars via microscopic agglutination tests in dogs in the United States, 2000-2007. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2010;237:293-8 pubmed publisher
    To use results of microscopic agglutination tests (MATs) conducted at a commercial veterinary diagnostic laboratory to determine temporal and demographic distributions of positive serologic test results for leptospirosis in dogs and ..
  6. Wu S, Zhu X, Zhou D, Fu B, Chen J, Yang J, et al. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in household and stray cats in Lanzhou, northwest China. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:214 pubmed publisher
    ..gondii in cats in Lanzhou, northwest China, which poses a threat to animal and human health. Therefore, measures should be taken to control and prevent toxoplasmosis of cats in this area. ..
  7. Dangoudoubiyam S, Oliveira J, Víquez C, Gomez Garcia A, Gonzalez O, Romero J, et al. Detection of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora spp., and Toxoplasma gondii in horses from Costa Rica. J Parasitol. 2011;97:522-4 pubmed publisher
    ..neurona antibodies in horses from geographical areas where Didelphis marsupialis has wide distribution suggests that D. marsupialis is a potential definitive host for this parasite and a source of infection for these horses...
  8. Yang N, Mu M, Li H, Long M, He J. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in slaughtered chickens, ducks, and geese in Shenyang, northeastern China. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:237 pubmed publisher
    ..gondii infection in poultry in northeastern China. Therefore, the present study was performed to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection in slaughtered chickens, ducks, and geese in Shenyang, northeastern China...
  9. Yalin W, Lingbing Z, Hongliang Y, Jianmin X, Xiangyan Z, Xiaokui G, et al. High prevalence of pathogenic Leptospira in wild and domesticated animals in an endemic area of China. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2011;4:841-5 pubmed publisher
  10. Srivastava P, Dayama A, Mehrotra S, Sundar S. Diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2011;105:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..A simple, rapid, non invasive, accurate and cost effective marker of active VL, which can be used in field conditions, is necessary to improve diagnosis of VL. ..
  11. García Bocanegra I, Cabezón O, Arenas Montés A, Carbonero A, Dubey J, Perea A, et al. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in equids from Southern Spain. Parasitol Int. 2012;61:421-4 pubmed publisher
    ..gondii infection in donkeys in Europe. The presence of antibodies is indication of contact with the parasite and therefore, consumption of equine meat could be a potential source of human infection in Spain...
  12. Ley B, Mtove G, Thriemer K, Amos B, von Seidlein L, Hendriksen I, et al. Evaluation of the Widal tube agglutination test for the diagnosis of typhoid fever among children admitted to a rural hdospital in Tanzania and a comparison with previous studies. BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10:180 pubmed publisher
    ..However a test with improved PPV that is similarly easy to apply and cost-efficient is desirable. ..
  13. Jacquet D, Boelaert M, Seaman J, Rijal S, Sundar S, Menten J, et al. Comparative evaluation of freeze-dried and liquid antigens in the direct agglutination test for serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (ITMA-DAT/VL). Trop Med Int Health. 2006;11:1777-84 pubmed
    ..The major advantages of FD antigen are its better stability at higher temperatures and its longer shelf life, which make it much more suitable than the LQ version for use in the field. ..
  14. Dubey J, Stone D, Kwok O, Sharma R. Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum antibodies in dogs from Grenada, West Indies. J Parasitol. 2008;94:750-1 pubmed publisher
    ..Two of the 107 dogs had N. caninum antibodies (IFAT titers 1:100 and 1:400); these dogs had T. gondii titers of 1:1,600 and 1:50, respectively. Results indicate that these 2 structurally similar protozoa are antigenically different...
  15. Dubey J, Hill D, Sundar N, Velmurugan G, Bandini L, Kwok O, et al. Endemic toxoplasmosis in pigs on a farm in Maryland: isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii. J Parasitol. 2008;94:36-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Both genotypes 1 and 2 are considered to belong to the clonal type II lineages. Genotype 3 and 4 are nonclonal isolates. Results document high prevalence of T. gondii in pigs on a farm in Maryland. ..
  16. de Sousa S, Ajzenberg D, Canada N, Freire L, da Costa J, Darde M, et al. Biologic and molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from pigs from Portugal. Vet Parasitol. 2006;135:133-6 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that phenotypically and genetically T. gondii are similar to isolates from pigs from the U.S. ..
  17. Schenkel K, Rijal S, Koirala S, Koirala S, Vanlerberghe V, Van der Stuyft P, et al. Visceral leishmaniasis in southeastern Nepal: a cross-sectional survey on Leishmania donovani infection and its risk factors. Trop Med Int Health. 2006;11:1792-9 pubmed
    ..The risk factors identified are linked with the socioeconomic level and the environment. The population would benefit from a community intervention to improve the environmental and housing conditions in the villages. ..
  18. de A Dos Santos C, de Carvalho A, Ragozo A, Soares R, Amaku M, Yai L, et al. First isolation and molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from finishing pigs from São Paulo State, Brazil. Vet Parasitol. 2005;131:207-11 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that phenotypically and genetically T. gondii isolates from pigs from Brazil are distinct from isolates of T. gondii from pigs in the USA. ..
  19. Klun I, Djurkovic Djakovic O, Katić Radivojević S, Nikolic A. Cross-sectional survey on Toxoplasma gondii infection in cattle, sheep and pigs in Serbia: seroprevalence and risk factors. Vet Parasitol. 2006;135:121-31 pubmed
    ..gondii seroprevalence in meat animals in Serbia, the results of this study show the main risk factors associated with infection, thereby pointing to the type of preventive measures to reduce T. gondii infection. ..
  20. Abass E, Mansour D, el Mutasim M, Hussein M, el Harith A. Beta-mercaptoethanol-modified ELISA for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. J Med Microbiol. 2006;55:1193-6 pubmed
  21. Hamze M, Vincent P. [Typhoid fever in north Lebanon: a 8-year study (1992-1999) using the Widal test]. East Mediterr Health J. 2004;10:180-6 pubmed
    ..However with over 100 cases annually, typhoid is endemic in the area and could cause major outbreaks. The monthly analysis shows that we have an increase in summer, whilst a decrease is observed in winter. ..
  22. de Camps S, Dubey J, Saville W. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals in selected zoos in the midwestern United States. J Parasitol. 2008;94:648-53 pubmed publisher
    ..22, p = 0.00)...
  23. Dong B, Galindo C, Shin E, Acosta C, Page A, Wang M, et al. Optimizing typhoid fever case definitions by combining serological tests in a large population study in Hechi City, China. Epidemiol Infect. 2007;135:1014-20 pubmed
    ..Improved case detection is essential to understand the true disease burden and can help to boost the power of intervention trials. ..
  24. Silverman M, Aronson L, Eccles M, Eisenstat J, Gottesman M, Rowsell R, et al. Leptospirosis in febrile men ingesting Agouti paca in South America. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2004;98:851-9 pubmed
    ..0007). In Guyana at least, leptospirosis appears to be common among men who hunt, prepare and ingest AP. Vaccines may be the best, practical form of protection among such men. ..
  25. Dassanayake D, Wimalaratna H, Agampodi S, Liyanapathirana V, Piyarathna T, Goonapienuwala B. Evaluation of surveillance case definition in the diagnosis of leptospirosis, using the Microscopic Agglutination Test: a validation study. BMC Infect Dis. 2009;9:48 pubmed publisher
    ..93%. This study confirms that the surveillance case definition has a very high sensitivity and negative predictive value with an average specificity in diagnosing leptospirosis, based on a MAT titre of >or= 1: 800. ..
  26. Chirathaworn C, Kaewopas Y, Poovorawan Y, Suwancharoen D. Comparison of a slide agglutination test, LeptoTek Dri-Dot, and IgM-ELISA with microscopic agglutination test for Leptospira antibody detection. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2007;38:1111-4 pubmed
    ..MAT can be performed as a reference test and when information regarding the causative serovar is required. ..
  27. Sinha P, Bimal S, Pandey K, Singh S, Ranjan A, Kumar N, et al. A community-based, comparative evaluation of direct agglutination and rK39 strip tests in the early detection of subclinical Leishmania donovani infection. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2008;102:119-25 pubmed publisher
    In the Indian state of Bihar, the sensitivities and specificities of direct agglutination tests (DAT) and rK39 test strips for the detection of Leishmania donovani infection in humans were explored and found to be generally good (92%-100%..
  28. Chappuis F, Rijal S, Soto A, Menten J, Boelaert M. A meta-analysis of the diagnostic performance of the direct agglutination test and rK39 dipstick for visceral leishmaniasis. BMJ. 2006;333:723 pubmed
    ..9% (72.3% to 93.4%) and of the rK39 dipstick was 90.6% (66.8% to 97.9%). The diagnostic performance of the direct agglutination test and the rK39 dipstick for visceral leishmaniasis is good to excellent and seem comparable. ..
  29. De Oliveira L, Costa Junior L, de Melo C, Ramos Silva J, Bevilaqua C, Azevedo S, et al. Toxoplasma gondii isolates from free-range chickens from the northeast region of Brazil. J Parasitol. 2009;95:235-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Five isolates killed all infected mice. Results indicate widespread contamination of rural environment in Brazil with T. gondii oocysts. ..
  30. Gidwani K, Kumar R, Rai M, Sundar S. Longitudinal seroepidemiologic study of visceral leishmaniasis in hyperendemic regions of Bihar, India. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;80:345-6 pubmed
    ..However, there was no significant difference in disease conversion among children (5-15 years of age) and adults (> 15 years of age). Seropositivity among asymptomatic persons is not a predictor for development of VL...
  31. Shaapan R, El Nawawi F, Tawfik M. Sensitivity and specificity of various serological tests for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii infection in naturally infected sheep. Vet Parasitol. 2008;153:359-62 pubmed publisher
    ..1%) and IFAT, which demonstrated the lowest sensitivity (80.4%). Conversely, IFAT had the highest specificity (91.4%), followed by MAT (88.9%) and ELISA (85.9%). ..
  32. Jakubek E, Farkas R, Palfi V, Mattsson J. Prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in Hungarian red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Vet Parasitol. 2007;144:39-44 pubmed
    ..The high prevalence of foxes positive for T. gondii might be explained by the widespread occurrence of the parasite in the diet of foxes. As a contrast, latent infections of N. caninum among red foxes in Hungary are much less common. ..
  33. Bhattarai N, Van der Auwera G, Khanal B, De Doncker S, Rijal S, Das M, et al. PCR and direct agglutination as Leishmania infection markers among healthy Nepalese subjects living in areas endemic for Kala-Azar. Trop Med Int Health. 2009;14:404-11 pubmed publisher
    ..PCR is probably more informative for very recent infections among HNK, while DAT provides more information among HHC and HPK, a feature likely related to the power of serology to track less recent infections. ..
  34. Arman M, Raza A, Tempest L, Lyke K, Thera M, Kone A, et al. Platelet-mediated clumping of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes is associated with high parasitemia but not severe clinical manifestations of malaria in African children. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;77:943-6 pubmed
    ..001) but not with disease category (F(2,122) = 1.8, P = 0.17). Therefore platelet-mediated clumping in Malian P. falciparum isolates is primarily associated with high parasitemia and not with severe clinical manifestations of malaria. ..
  35. el Mutasim M, Mansour D, Abass E, Hassan W, el Harith A. Evaluation of a glycerol-preserved antigen in the direct agglutination test for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis at rural level in eastern Sudan. J Med Microbiol. 2006;55:1343-7 pubmed
  36. Handojo I, Edijanto S, Probohoesodo M, Mahartini N. Comparison of the diagnostic value of local Widal slide test with imported Widal slide test. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2004;35:366-70 pubmed
    ..The cost of local antigens is lower than the imported antigens. Based on these data, the Widal SAT-MJD has a reliable diagnostic value and can be used in small laboratories, such as primary health centers (Puskesmas). ..
  37. Ardic N, Ozyurt M, Sezer O, Erdemoglu A, Haznedaroglu T. Comparison of Coombs' and immunocapture-agglutination tests in the diagnosis of brucellosis. Chin Med J (Engl). 2005;118:252-4 pubmed
  38. Bimal S, Das V, Sinha P, Gupta A, Verma N, Ranjan A, et al. Usefulness of the direct agglutination test in the early detection of subclinical Leishmania donovani infection: a community-based study. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2005;99:743-9 pubmed
    ..8% v. 30.8%). The wide-spread use of DAT could allow the detection and early treatment of latent L. donovani infections and so contribute to the elimination of VL, at least as a public-health problem, from India. ..
  39. Alvarado Esquivel C, García Machado C, Alvarado Esquivel D, Vitela Corrales J, Villena I, Dubey J. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic sheep in Durango State, Mexico. J Parasitol. 2012;98:271-3 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report of T. gondii infection in sheep in Durango State, Mexico. Results indicate that infected sheep are probably an important source of T. gondii infection for humans in Durango State...
  40. Grushina T, Atshabar B, Syzdykov M, Daulbaeva S, Tserelson L, Kuznetsov A, et al. Universal indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for monitoring of human and animal brucellosis in Kazakhstan. Vaccine. 2010;28 Suppl 5:F46-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that the combination of conventional serological tests (SAT and CF), combined with the iELISA is optimal for the processing of large numbers of samples and the most efficient detection of human and animal brucellosis. ..
  41. Benacer D, Mohd Zain S, Amran F, Galloway R, Thong K. Isolation and molecular characterization of Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira borgpetersenii isolates from the urban rat populations of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013;88:704-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite the low infection rate reported, the high pathogenicity of these serovars raises concern of public health risks caused by rodent transmission of leptospirosis. ..
  42. Hosoglu S, Bosnak V, Akalin S, Geyik M, Ayaz C. Evaluation of false negativity of the Widal test among culture proven typhoid fever cases. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2008;2:475-8 pubmed
    ..Age was found to be a possible factor for a false negative Widal test (p=0.06). Of existing compatible clinical findings, age should be considered in cases of Widal test negativity. ..
  43. Fu J, Yao R, Luo Y, Yang D, Cao Y, Qiu Y, et al. Anti-GAPDHS antibodies: a biomarker of immune infertility. Cell Tissue Res. 2016;364:199-207 pubmed publisher
    ..infertile (n = 175) and fertile (n = 237) individuals and were screened by tray agglutination tests (TAT)...
  44. La Ard A, Amavisit P, Sukpuaram T, Wajjwalku W. Evaluation of recombinant Lig antigen-based ELISA for detection of leptospiral antibodies in canine sera. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2011;42:128-37 pubmed
    ..It was concluded that the GST.Lig recombinant protein-based ELISA could be used as a screening test for serodiagnosis of canine leptospirosis with also for confirmation of MAT-positive test results. ..
  45. Guven T, Ugurlu K, Ergonul O, Celikbaş A, Gok S, Comoglu S, et al. Neurobrucellosis: clinical and diagnostic features. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;56:1407-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Brucella TA with Coombs test in CSF is sensitive and specific by using a cutoff of ?1:8. ..
  46. Galvão B, Meggersee R, Abratt V. Antibiotic resistance and adhesion potential of Bacteroides fragilis clinical isolates from Cape Town, South Africa. Anaerobe. 2011;17:142-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This revealed that 78% of the clinical isolates adhered to all four ECM components to varying extents, with the strongest being to laminin and weakest to mucin and collagen Type I. ..
  47. Alam M, Ghosh D, Khan M, Islam M, Mondal D, Itoh M, et al. Survey of domestic cattle for anti-Leishmania antibodies and Leishmania DNA in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area of Bangladesh. BMC Vet Res. 2011;7:27 pubmed publisher
    ..antibodies in serum was investigated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and then with direct agglutination tests (DAT)...
  48. Tong M, Liu L, Zeng Y, Zhang H, Liu G, Zheng W, et al. Laboratory findings in neurosyphilis patients with epileptic seizures alone as the initial presenting symptom. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2013;75:377-80 pubmed publisher
    ..When the serology results are positive, all of the patients should undergo a CSF examination to diagnose NS. ..
  49. Pallos D, Leão M, Togeiro F, Alegre L, Ricardo L, Perozini C, et al. Salivary markers in patients with chronic renal failure. Arch Oral Biol. 2015;60:1784-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Nitric oxide levels were determined indirectly by the nitrite concentration using Griess reagent; CRP by agglutination tests; and total proteins, by Bradford assay...
  50. Asaad A, Alqahtani J. Serological and molecular diagnosis of human brucellosis in Najran, Southwestern Saudi Arabia. J Infect Public Health. 2012;5:189-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The PCR test results can be particularly important in patients with clinical signs and symptoms, and negative serological results, allowing the early and rapid confirmation of the brucellosis...
  51. Houk A, Goodwin D, Zajac A, Barr S, Dubey J, Lindsay D. Prevalence of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Sarcocystis neurona, Besnoitia darlingi, and Neospora caninum in North American opossums, Didelphis virginiana, from southern Louisiana. J Parasitol. 2010;96:1119-22 pubmed publisher
    ..gondii , compared to 8 (27%) using the IFAT. The sensitivity and specificity of the IFAT compared to the MAT was 100% and 72%, respectively...
  52. Soares H, Minervino A, Barrêto Júnior R, Neves K, Oliveira M, Santos J, et al. Occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in Dasyprocta aguti from Brazil: comparison of diagnostic techniques. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2011;42:763-5 pubmed
    ..The kappa value agreement was 87.3% (75.1-99.6%). The anti-capybara conjugate can be successfully used to perform IFAT in Brazilian agouti with maximum specificity and PPV. ..
  53. Khosroshahi A, Cheryk L, Carruthers M, Edwards J, Bloch D, Stone J. Brief Report: spuriously low serum IgG4 concentrations caused by the prozone phenomenon in patients with IgG4-related disease. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2014;66:213-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This phenomenon should be considered if the serum IgG4 measurement appears discordant with the clinicopathologic diagnosis and the clinical assessment of disease activity. ..