basophil degranulation test

Summary

Summary: An in vitro test used in the diagnosis of allergies including drug hypersensitivity. The allergen is added to the patient's white blood cells and the subsequent histamine release is measured.

Top Publications

  1. Sanz M, Sanchez G, Gamboa P, Vila L, Uasuf C, Chazot M, et al. Allergen-induced basophil activation: CD63 cell expression detected by flow cytometry in patients allergic to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Lolium perenne. Clin Exp Allergy. 2001;31:1007-13 pubmed
    ..The sensitivity of the basophil activation test was 93.3%, and its specificity 98.4%, when using a cut-off point of 15% activated basophils as positive result. ..
  2. Boumiza R, Monneret G, Forissier M, Savoye J, Gutowski M, Powell W, et al. Marked improvement of the basophil activation test by detecting CD203c instead of CD63. Clin Exp Allergy. 2003;33:259-65 pubmed
    ..Specificity was 100% for both protocols. Due to superior gating of basophils and a higher range of activation in response to allergen, the basophil activation test is markedly improved by use of CD203c instead of CD63. ..
  3. Chen J, Cai S, Ye S, Xie Q, Yu F. [Antiallergic effects of tranilast in rats and guinea pigs]. Hua Xi Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 1997;28:179-83 pubmed
    ..05); and (5) they inhibit the contraction of ileum of normal guinea pigs induced by SRS-A(10(-4) and 10(-3) mol/L). ..
  4. Patil S, Wang J, Song Y, Noone S, Yang N, Wallenstein S, et al. Clinical safety of Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2 (FAHF-2) and inhibitory effect on basophils from patients with food allergy: Extended phase I study. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;128:1259-1265.e2 pubmed publisher
    ..Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2 (FAHF-2) blocks peanut-induced anaphylaxis in a murine model of peanut-induced anaphylaxis. It was found to be safe and well tolerated in an acute phase I study of patients with food allergy...
  5. Hochreiter R, Stepanoska T, Ferreira F, Valenta R, Vrtala S, Thalhamer J, et al. Prevention of allergen-specific IgE production and suppression of an established Th2-type response by immunization with DNA encoding hypoallergenic allergen derivatives of Bet v 1, the major birch-pollen allergen. Eur J Immunol. 2003;33:1667-76 pubmed
    ..This concept may be applied for the development of safe and specific DNA vaccines for the prophylaxis and therapy of allergic diseases. ..
  6. Knipping K, van Esch E, Wijering S, van der Heide S, Dubois A, Garssen J. In vitro and in vivo anti-allergic effects of Arctium lappa L. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2008;233:1469-77 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, this active component was able to inhibit acute skin response in mice in vivo, indicating that AL is a very promising natural component for use in anti-allergic treatment. ..
  7. Asero R, Tedeschi A, Riboldi P, Griffini S, Bonanni E, Cugno M. Coagulation cascade and fibrinolysis in patients with multiple-drug allergy syndrome. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2008;100:44-8 pubmed publisher
    ..68; P = .04). Positive APST results and thrombin generation indicate a common physiopathologic background in MDAS and CU. The lower D-dimer levels suggest that fibrinolysis occurs less intensely in MDAS than in CU. ..
  8. González Pereyra M, Cariddi L, Ybarra F, Isola M, Demo M, Sabini L, et al. Immunomodulating properties of Minthostachys verticillata on human lymphocytes and basophils. Rev Alerg Mex. 2005;52:105-12 pubmed
    ..Some of the compounds of the essential oil revealed by gas chromatography analysis may be responsible of the biological activity of these products. ..
  9. Nilsson O, Binnmyr J, Zoltowska A, Saarne T, van Hage M, Grönlund H. Characterization of the dog lipocalin allergen Can f 6: the role in cross-reactivity with cat and horse. Allergy. 2012;67:751-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Three of four patients are allergic to more than one pet, which can only partially be explained by cross-reactivity between serum albumins. The lipocalin protein family harbours allergens in mammalian species...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Aranda A, Mayorga C, Ariza A, Doña I, Rosado A, Blanca Lopez N, et al. In vitro evaluation of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions to quinolones. Allergy. 2011;66:247-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The BAT is a useful method for diagnosing patients. Specific IgE was demonstrated by Sepharose-RIA and inhibition assay. ..
  2. Malbran A, Yeyati E, Rey G, Galassi N. Diclofenac induces basophil degranulation without increasing CD63 expression in sensitive patients. Clin Exp Immunol. 2007;147:99-105 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that CD63 expression is not a reliable diagnostic method for diclofenac allergy. ..
  3. Yang L, Guo Y, Jiang J, Guo X, Xu Y, Tian Y, et al. The effect of stimuli on basophil-mediated atopic responses during asthmatic lying-in women and in newborns. Hybridoma (Larchmt). 2012;31:255-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Peripheral blood basophil histamine was measured using the human basophil degranulation test (HBDT), whereas activation was assessed by flow cytometric measurement of CD63 expression on the cord ..
  4. Santos J, de Brito C, Futata E, Azor M, Orii N, Maruta C, et al. Up-regulation of chemokine C-C ligand 2 (CCL2) and C-X-C chemokine 8 (CXCL8) expression by monocytes in chronic idiopathic urticaria. Clin Exp Immunol. 2012;167:129-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings showed a high responsiveness of monocytes through CCL2/CXCL8 expression, contributing to the creation of a proinflammatory environment in CIU. ..
  5. Brown S, Haas M, Black J, Parameswaran A, Woods G, Heddle R. In vitro testing to diagnose venom allergy and monitor immunotherapy: a placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Clin Exp Allergy. 2004;34:792-800 pubmed
    ..Uninformative performance of the commercially available LRT and BAT tests may be due to pre-incubation with IL-3. None of the tests evaluated appear to be reliable markers of successful VIT. ..
  6. Reininger R, Swoboda I, Bohle B, Hauswirth A, Valent P, Rumpold H, et al. Characterization of recombinant cat albumin. Clin Exp Allergy. 2003;33:1695-702 pubmed
    ..Recombinant cat albumin may be used as a paradigmatic tool to analyse mechanisms of allergen-triggered exacerbation of AD, for diagnostic and, perhaps for therapeutic purposes. ..
  7. Javaloyes G, Goikoetxea M, García Núñez I, Sanz M, Blanca M, Scheurer S, et al. Performance of different in vitro techniques in the molecular diagnosis of peanut allergy. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2012;22:508-13 pubmed
    ..The CRD103 version of ISAC is not of value in our region as it does not include the most common allergen, Ara h 9. ..
  8. Karlsson A, Alm R, Ekstrand B, Fjelkner Modig S, Schiött A, Bengtsson U, et al. Bet v 1 homologues in strawberry identified as IgE-binding proteins and presumptive allergens. Allergy. 2004;59:1277-84 pubmed
    ..We conclude that strawberry homologues to Bet v 1 may be allergens of importance for adverse reactions to strawberry. ..
  9. Erdmann S, Heussen N, Moll Slodowy S, Merk H, Sachs B. CD63 expression on basophils as a tool for the diagnosis of pollen-associated food allergy: sensitivity and specificity. Clin Exp Allergy. 2003;33:607-14 pubmed
    ..Basophil activation is associated with the expression of CD63. Because allergens can induce basophil activation by cross-linking specific IgE, increased CD63 expression has been proposed as a novel in vitro test for immediate type allergy...
  10. Perovic I, Milovanovic M, Stanic D, Burazer L, Petrovic D, Milcic Matic N, et al. Allergenicity and immunogenicity of the major mugwort pollen allergen Art v 1 chemically modified by acetylation. Clin Exp Allergy. 2009;39:435-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Art v 1 modified by acetylation had a significantly reduced allergenicity in vitro and in vivo, while its immunogenicity was retained. Modification of allergens by acetylation could be a new strategy for allergen-specific immunotherapy. ..
  11. Dewachter P, Castro S, Nicaise Roland P, Chollet Martin S, Le Beller C, Lillo Le Louet A, et al. Anaphylactic reaction after methylene blue-treated plasma transfusion. Br J Anaesth. 2011;106:687-9 pubmed publisher
    ..All immediate reactions after MB-FFP transfusion should be investigated to document the underlying mechanism. ..
  12. Gibbs B, Räthling A, Zillikens D, Huber M, Haas H. Initial Fc epsilon RI-mediated signal strength plays a key role in regulating basophil signaling and deactivation. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;118:1060-7 pubmed
    ..The speed of allergic symptom generation depends on the degree of IgE receptor triggering, which is downregulated by SHIP, a potential target for allergy therapy. ..
  13. Itoh T, Ninomiya M, Yasuda M, Koshikawa K, Deyashiki Y, Nozawa Y, et al. Inhibitory effects of flavonoids isolated from Fragaria ananassa Duch on IgE-mediated degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3. Bioorg Med Chem. 2009;17:5374-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that strawberry would be of some ameliorative benefit for the allergic symptoms. ..
  14. Dráberová L, Lebduska P, Hálová I, Tolar P, Stokrova J, Tolarová H, et al. Signaling assemblies formed in mast cells activated via Fcepsilon receptor I dimers. Eur J Immunol. 2004;34:2209-19 pubmed
  15. Wallner M, Erler A, Hauser M, Klinglmayr E, Gadermaier G, Vogel L, et al. Immunologic characterization of isoforms of Car b 1 and Que a 1, the major hornbeam and oak pollen allergens. Allergy. 2009;64:452-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, rCar b 1 and rQue a 1 allergens should be considered for improving molecule-based diagnosis and therapy of tree pollen allergies manifesting in birch-free areas. ..
  16. Rodríguez Trabado A, Cámara Hijón C, Ramos Cantariño A, Porcel Carreño S, Jiménez Timón S, Pereira Navarro G, et al. Basophil activation test for the in vitro diagnosis of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug hypersensitivity. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2008;29:241-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The basophil activation test is useful for the in vitro diagnosis of NSAID hypersensitivity, providing good specificity and positive predictive value and diagnostic reliability in the assessment of NSAID intolerance. ..
  17. Shelley W, Resnik S. Basophil degranulation induced by oral poison ivy antigen. Arch Dermatol. 1965;92:147-50 pubmed
    ..All but one of the sensitive subjects showed objective patch test evidence of hyposensitization following the intensive three-week course of oral poison ivy antigen. ..
  18. Liu X, Feng B, Kong X, Xu H, Li X, Yang P, et al. Food-cooking processes modulate allergenic properties of hen's egg white proteins. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2013;160:134-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Processing by steaming, spicing, or tea boiling can weaken the allergenicity of egg proteins. ..
  19. Kumagai T, Yamaguchi N, Hirai H, Kojima S, Kodani Y, Hashiguchi A, et al. Loxoprofen sodium induces the production of complement C5a in human serum. Int Immunopharmacol. 2016;33:55-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that the complement activation is involved in drug hypersensitivity and the suppression of this activation may contribute to the elimination of false positive of BAT for drug allergies. ..
  20. De Week A, Sanz M, Gamboa P, Aberer W, Sturm G, Bilo M, et al. Diagnosis of immediate-type beta-lactam allergy in vitro by flow-cytometric basophil activation test and sulfidoleukotriene production: a multicenter study. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2009;19:91-109 pubmed
    ..This procedure would also allow us to avoid two-thirds of the required controlled challenges. ..
  21. Pinnobphun P, Buranapraditkun S, Kampitak T, Hirankarn N, Klaewsongkram J. The diagnostic value of basophil activation test in patients with an immediate hypersensitivity reaction to radiocontrast media. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2011;106:387-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are required to confirm the test accuracy and identify a patient's predisposing factors. ..
  22. Ceuppens J, Bullens D, Kleinjans H, van der Werf J. Immunotherapy with a modified birch pollen extract in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis: clinical and immunological effects. Clin Exp Allergy. 2009;39:1903-9 pubmed publisher
    ..IgG and IgG4 antibodies against native Bet v 1 are induced, which block basophil activation. ..
  23. Morita E, Chinuki Y, Takahashi H. Recent advances of in vitro tests for the diagnosis of food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis. J Dermatol Sci. 2013;71:155-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Detection of serum allergen levels possibly gives useful information whether food challenge tests have been performed with sufficient strength. ..
  24. Sato S, Tachimoto H, Shukuya A, Ogata M, Komata T, Imai T, et al. Utility of the peripheral blood basophil histamine release test in the diagnosis of hen's egg, cow's milk, and wheat allergy in children. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2011;155 Suppl 1:96-103 pubmed publisher
    ..The utility of the histamine release test (HRT) in the diagnosis of childhood FA has not been fully examined...
  25. Chiang W, Huang C, Llanora G, Gerez I, Goh S, Shek L, et al. Anaphylaxis to cow's milk formula containing short-chain galacto-oligosaccharide. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130:1361-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study describes an unusual form of IgE-mediated anaphylaxis triggered by low-molecular-weight oligosaccharides in scGOS. The primary sensitizer for this phenomenon requires further investigation. ..
  26. Ozdemir S, Guloglu D, Sin B, Elhan A, Ikinciogullari A, Misirligil Z. Reliability of basophil activation test using CD203c expression in diagnosis of pollen allergy. Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2011;25:e225-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was designed to investigate the efficacy of basophil activation test via CD203c in the diagnosis of pollen allergy...
  27. Ariza A, Garcia Martin E, Salas M, Montañez M, Mayorga C, Blanca Lopez N, et al. Pyrazolones metabolites are relevant for identifying selective anaphylaxis to metamizole. Sci Rep. 2016;6:23845 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that pyrazolone metabolites are useful for improving the in vitro diagnosis of allergic reactions to metamizole. ..
  28. Renz H, Becker W, Bufe A, Kleine Tebbe J, Raulf Heimsoth M, Saloga J, et al. [In vitro allergy diagnosis. Guideline of the German Society of Asthma and Immunology in conjunction with the German Society of Dermatology]. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2006;4:72-85 pubmed
  29. Lund G, Jacobi H, Skov P, Holm J, Lund K. Effect on cell surface markers following allergen-induced desensitization of human whole-blood basophils. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2010;153:323-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We showed that conditions leading to desensitization affect histamine release and expression of different basophil markers alike. ..
  30. George M, Balachandran C, Prabhu S. Chronic idiopathic urticaria: comparison of clinical features with positive autologous serum skin test. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2008;74:105-8 pubmed
    ..ASST may be used as a simple and cost-effective test for the classification of chronic urticaria, which has proven to be a therapeutic challenge to the treating physician. ..
  31. Sun R, Chen X, Sui J, Liu R, Cheng T, Ran X, et al. Detecting anti-FcepsilonRI autoantibodies in patients with asthma by flow cytometry. J Int Med Res. 2008;36:1214-9 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that some asthma patients have aberrant anti-FcepsilonRI autoantibodies, which implies that autoimmunity may be one factor involved in the pathogenesis of intrinsic asthma. ..
  32. McDermott R, Porterfield H, El Mezayen R, Burks A, Pons L, Schlichting D, et al. Contribution of Ara h 2 to peanut-specific, immunoglobulin E-mediated, cell activation. Clin Exp Allergy. 2007;37:752-63 pubmed
    ..Its ability to cross-link IgE effectively from a specific serum is related to the proportion of anti-Ara h 2 in that serum but Ara h 2 does not account for a majority of the effector activity of the CPE for any of the sera studied. ..
  33. Zitnik S, Vesel T, Avcin T, Silar M, Kosnik M, Korosec P. Monitoring honeybee venom immunotherapy in children with the basophil activation test. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2012;23:166-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Basophil CD63 allergen-specific sensitivity seems to be a promising tool for monitoring protective immune response in honeybee VIT. ..
  34. Sancho A, Wangorsch A, Jensen B, Watson A, Alexeev Y, Johnson P, et al. Responsiveness of the major birch allergen Bet v 1 scaffold to the gastric environment: impact on structure and allergenic activity. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2011;55:1690-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data show the importance of including surfactants in model digestion systems. ..
  35. Hausmann O, Gentinetta T, Bridts C, Ebo D. The basophil activation test in immediate-type drug allergy. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2009;29:555-66 pubmed publisher
    ..This article summarizes the authors' current experience with the BAT in the diagnostic management of immediate-type drug allergy mediated by drug-specific IgE antibodies. ..
  36. Itoh T, Oyama M, Takimoto N, Kato C, Nozawa Y, Akao Y, et al. Inhibitory effects of sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Eupatorium chinense L. on IgE-mediated degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction in mice. Bioorg Med Chem. 2009;17:3189-97 pubmed publisher
    ..The SQTLs remarkably suppressed PCA reaction in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, it was suggested that SQTLs would be a candidate as an anti-allergic agent. ..
  37. Wopfner N, Gruber P, Wallner M, Briza P, Ebner C, Mari A, et al. Molecular and immunological characterization of novel weed pollen pan-allergens. Allergy. 2008;63:872-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The identified proteins are novel pan-allergens and can be used as diagnostic markers for polysensitization and used in component-resolved diagnosis. ..
  38. Mora Nieto A, Segura Méndez N, Almeida Arvizu V, Díaz Torres M, Martínez Pérez T. [Drug allergy assessed by modified Shelley's test. A case series]. Rev Alerg Mex. 2006;53:89-93 pubmed
    ..The Shelley's test is useful to support the diagnosis of allergy to drugs, although does not exclude it. The antibiotics intake is the most common cause and the most common clinical manifestation was urticaria. ..
  39. Liao E, Ho C, Tsai J. Prevalence of Tyrophagus putrescentiae hypersensitivity in subjects over 70 years of age in a veterans' nursing home in Taiwan. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2010;152:368-77 pubmed publisher
    ..The main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Tp sensitization in elderly subjects in a veterans' nursing home using mite allergen extracts and recombinant allergens...
  40. Ciardiello M, Palazzo P, Bernardi M, Carratore V, Giangrieco I, Longo V, et al. Biochemical, immunological and clinical characterization of a cross-reactive nonspecific lipid transfer protein 1 from mulberry. Allergy. 2010;65:597-605 pubmed publisher
    ..Mor n 3 is the first allergen isolated in black mulberry and immunologically characterized. It displayed allergenic activity among symptomatic and nonconsumer patients and a pattern of cross-reactivity to other plant-derived LTPs. ..
  41. Soundararajan S, Kikuchi Y, Joseph K, Kaplan A. Functional assessment of pathogenic IgG subclasses in chronic autoimmune urticaria. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005;115:815-21 pubmed
  42. Shields M, Mirakhur R, Crockard A, Edgar J. The use of basophil activation to diagnose allergy to Gelofusine. Anaesthesia. 2006;61:716-7; author reply 717-8 pubmed
  43. Sturm E, Kranzelbinder B, Heinemann A, Groselj Strele A, Aberer W, Sturm G. CD203c-based basophil activation test in allergy diagnosis: characteristics and differences to CD63 upregulation. Cytometry B Clin Cytom. 2010;78:308-18 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to skin testing, CD203c-based BAT can be performed in patients undergoing antiallergic treatment. © 2010 International Clinical Cytometry Society. ..
  44. Thierry A, Bernasconi E, Mercenier A, Corthesy B. Conditioned polarized Caco-2 cell monolayers allow to discriminate for the ability of gut-derived microorganisms to modulate permeability and antigen-induced basophil degranulation. Clin Exp Allergy. 2009;39:527-36 pubmed publisher
    ..It can further serve as a direct tool to search for microorganisms with anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties. ..
  45. Sanz M, Maselli J, Gamboa P, Oehling A, Diéguez I, De Weck A. Flow cytometric basophil activation test: a review. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2002;12:143-54 pubmed
    ..Further clinical evaluation of this technique will allow validation and better establishment of its diagnostic value in allergy. ..
  46. De Weck A, Sanz M, Gamboa P, Aberer W, Bienvenu J, Blanca M, et al. Diagnostic tests based on human basophils: more potentials and perspectives than pitfalls. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2008;146:177-89 pubmed publisher
  47. Erzen R, Kosnik M, Silar M, Korosec P. Basophil response and the induction of a tolerance in venom immunotherapy: a long-term sting challenge study. Allergy. 2012;67:822-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the depression of allergen-specific basophil response seems to be associated with the induction of a tolerance after completing a course of VIT. ..
  48. Wismol P, Putivoranat P, Buranapraditkun S, Pinnobphun P, Ruxrungtham K, Klaewsongkram J. The values of nasal provocation test and basophil activation test in the different patterns of ASA/NSAID hypersensitivity. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2012;40:156-63 pubmed publisher
    ..A reliable alternative method with minimum side effects is needed to diagnose aspirin sensitivity in suspected patients who have contraindications for OPT. ..
  49. Mari A, Ooievaar De Heer P, Scala E, Giani M, Pirrotta L, Zuidmeer L, et al. Evaluation by double-blind placebo-controlled oral challenge of the clinical relevance of IgE antibodies against plant glycans. Allergy. 2008;63:891-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Poor or no biological activity and lack of clinical relevance of IgE-binding plant glycans (five out of five) was demonstrated using human lactoferrin expressed in rice as a model. ..
  50. Gentinetta T, Pecaric Petkovic T, Wan D, Falcone F, Dahinden C, Pichler W, et al. Individual IL-3 priming is crucial for consistent in vitro activation of donor basophils in patients with chronic urticaria. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;128:1227-1234.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..Coincubation of patient sera with donor basophils and measuring their degranulation in vitro could be a safe alternative but has shown inconsistent results...
  51. Krause S, Latendorf T, Schmidt H, Darcan Nicolaisen Y, Reese G, Petersen A, et al. Peanut varieties with reduced Ara h 1 content indicating no reduced allergenicity. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010;54:381-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the allergenicity of peanuts with reduced Ara h 1 content might be compensated by the other allergens, and thus do not necessarily cause a reduction of allergenicity. ..
  52. Tanaka Y, Nakase Y, Yamaguchi M, Sugimoto N, Ohara K, Nagase H, et al. Allergy to formaldehyde: basophil histamine-release test is useful for diagnosis. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2014;164:27-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Formaldehyde's slow protein-binding property may explain why basophil histamine-release tests using fresh formaldehyde solutions are not diagnostic, whereas the tests are useful if formaldehyde that had been stored with albumin is used. ..
  53. Potapinska O, Gorska E, Zawadzka Krajewska A, Kulus M, Wasik M, Demkow U. [The usefulness of CD203c expression measurement on basophils after activation with grass pollen and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus antigens. Preliminary study]. Pneumonol Alergol Pol. 2009;77:138-44 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of antigen CD203c expression, as a marker of basophil activation by grass pollen or D. pteronyssinus antigens...