immunologic tests


Summary: Immunologic techniques involved in diagnosis.

Top Publications

  1. Dahlen B, Nopp A, Johansson S, Eduards M, Skedinger M, Adedoyin J. Basophil allergen threshold sensitivity, CD-sens, is a measure of allergen sensitivity in asthma. Clin Exp Allergy. 2011;41:1091-7 pubmed publisher
    ..CD-sens was found to be an objective marker of airway allergen sensitivity in stable allergic asthmatics, that may be used to predict airway responsiveness when bronchial challenge tests cannot be performed. ..
  2. van der Zee T, Dubois A, Kerkhof M, van der Heide S, Vlieg Boerstra B. The eliciting dose of peanut in double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges decreases with increasing age and specific IgE level in children and young adults. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;128:1031-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, in this study, the eliciting dose was used as a measure of clinical sensitivity...
  3. Parkash O, Singh B, Pai M. Regions of differences encoded antigens as targets for immunodiagnosis of tuberculosis in humans. Scand J Immunol. 2009;70:345-57 pubmed publisher
    ..This article provides an overview of the use of RD antigens in the immunodiagnosis of tuberculosis infection and disease. ..
  4. Lasseter G, McNulty C, Richard Hobbs F, Mant D, Little P. In vitro evaluation of five rapid antigen detection tests for group A beta-haemolytic streptococcal sore throat infections. Fam Pract. 2009;26:437-44 pubmed publisher
    ..None of the RADTs gave any false-positive results with commensal flora-they were 100% specific. The IMI Test Pack is most suitable for use in primary care, as it had high sensitivity, high specificity and was easy to use. ..
  5. Mack U, Migliori G, Sester M, Rieder H, Ehlers S, Goletti D, et al. LTBI: latent tuberculosis infection or lasting immune responses to M. tuberculosis? A TBNET consensus statement. Eur Respir J. 2009;33:956-73 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, the main issue regarding testing is to restrict it to those who are known to be at higher risk of developing tuberculosis and who are willing to accept preventive chemotherapy. ..
  6. Oliveira H, Machado G, Gonçalves Pires M, Moura L, Costa Cruz J. Saline extract of Taenia saginata metacestodes as an alternative antigen for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis in human cerebrospinal fluid. Parasitol Res. 2009;105:169-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that T. saginata metacestodes can be used as an alternative antigen for the diagnosis of human NCC in CSF samples...
  7. Hell R, Amim P, de Andrade H, de Avila R, Felicori L, Oliveira A, et al. Immunodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis using a synthetic peptide selected by phage-display. Clin Immunol. 2009;131:129-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that a peptide-based immunodiagnostic of neurocisticercosis can be envisioned. ..
  8. Menzies D, Pai M, Comstock G. Meta-analysis: new tests for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection: areas of uncertainty and recommendations for research. Ann Intern Med. 2007;146:340-54 pubmed
    ..Additional studies are needed to better define their performance in high-risk populations and in serial testing. Longitudinal studies are needed to define the predictive value of IGRAs. ..
  9. Bindslev Jensen C, Ballmer Weber B, Bengtsson U, Blanco C, Ebner C, Hourihane J, et al. Standardization of food challenges in patients with immediate reactions to foods--position paper from the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology. Allergy. 2004;59:690-7 pubmed

More Information


  1. Ongut G, Ogunc D, Gunseren F, Ogus C, Donmez L, Colak D, et al. Evaluation of the ICT Tuberculosis test for the routine diagnosis of tuberculosis. BMC Infect Dis. 2006;6:37 pubmed
    ..Of the eight patients with extrapulmonary TB, antibody was detected in four patients. Our results suggest that ICT Tuberculosis test can be used to aid TB diagnosis in smear-positive patients until the culture results are available. ..
  2. Roberts S. Challenging times for food allergy tests. Arch Dis Child. 2005;90:564-6 pubmed
  3. Espindola N, Iha A, Fernandes I, Takayanagui O, Machado L, Livramento J, et al. Cysticercosis immunodiagnosis using 18- and 14-kilodalton proteins from Taenia crassiceps cysticercus antigens obtained by immunoaffinity chromatography. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:3178-84 pubmed
  4. Durand F, Crassous B, Fricker Hidalgo H, Carpentier F, Brion J, Grillot R, et al. Performance of the Now Malaria rapid diagnostic test with returned travellers: a 2-year retrospective study in a French teaching hospital. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2005;11:903-7 pubmed
    ..falciparum infection in non-endemic countries could lead to misdiagnosis of malaria. This rapid diagnostic test should therefore be performed in association with another prompt traditional method such as examination of thin blood films. ..
  5. Nopp A, Johansson S, Ankerst J, Bylin G, Cardell L, Grönneberg R, et al. Basophil allergen threshold sensitivity: a useful approach to anti-IgE treatment efficacy evaluation. Allergy. 2006;61:298-302 pubmed
    ..CD-max, the conventional approach to basophil allergen challenge, which mirrors cell reactivity, gives incorrect information. ..
  6. Porsa E, Cheng L, Seale M, Delclos G, Ma X, Reich R, et al. Comparison of a new ESAT-6/CFP-10 peptide-based gamma interferon assay and a tuberculin skin test for tuberculosis screening in a moderate-risk population. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2006;13:53-8 pubmed
    ..Future longitudinal studies are needed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of this new assay in detecting LTBI. ..
  7. Pai M, Riley L, Colford J. Interferon-gamma assays in the immunodiagnosis of tuberculosis: a systematic review. Lancet Infect Dis. 2004;4:761-76 pubmed
    ..Whether this potential can be realised in practice remains to be confirmed in well designed, long-term studies. ..
  8. Richeldi L. An update on the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006;174:736-42 pubmed
  9. Fraser C, Matthew C, Mowat N, Wilson J, Carey F, Steele R. Immunochemical testing of individuals positive for guaiac faecal occult blood test in a screening programme for colorectal cancer: an observational study. Lancet Oncol. 2006;7:127-31 pubmed
    ..5% (36.0-43.1) and 47.8% (43.9-51.8), respectively. Immunochemical FOBT for individuals with positive guaiac FOBT could decrease substantially the number of false positives in a screening programme for colorectal cancer. ..
  10. Johansson S, Nopp A, van Hage M, Olofsson N, Lundahl J, Wehlin L, et al. Passive IgE-sensitization by blood transfusion. Allergy. 2005;60:1192-9 pubmed
    ..After transfusion of plasma with >10 kU(A)/l IgE antibody the recipient could have allergen reactive basophils for up to 7 weeks. ..
  11. Bell D, Peeling R. Evaluation of rapid diagnostic tests: malaria. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2006;4:S34-8 pubmed
  12. Bobes R, Hernandez M, Márquez C, Fragoso G, Garcia E, Parkhouse R, et al. Subarachnoidal and intraventricular human neurocysticercosis: application of an antigen detection assay for the diagnosis and follow-up. Trop Med Int Health. 2006;11:943-50 pubmed
  13. Pereira B, Venter C, Grundy J, Clayton C, Arshad S, Dean T. Prevalence of sensitization to food allergens, reported adverse reaction to foods, food avoidance, and food hypersensitivity among teenagers. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005;116:884-92 pubmed
    ..001 in the 11-year-olds; odds ratio, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.81-4.13; P < .001 in the 15-year-olds). By means of objective assessment, 2.3% of both 11- and 15-year-old children had FHS, with the majority showing immediate reactions. ..
  14. Flisser A, Gyorkos T. Contribution of immunodiagnostic tests to epidemiological/intervention studies of cysticercosis/taeniosis in Mexico. Parasite Immunol. 2007;29:637-49 pubmed
    ..Current immunodiagnostic techniques can be used to pinpoint transmission foci so that appropriate and effective interventions can be applied. In this way, sustainable control, and even eradication of T. solium may be envisioned. ..
  15. Dheda K, Udwadia Z, Huggett J, Johnson M, Rook G. Utility of the antigen-specific interferon-gamma assay for the management of tuberculosis. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2005;11:195-202 pubmed
    ..Further studies are required to address the utility of the interferon-gamma assay in specialised subgroups of patients, in developing countries, and as a marker of disease activity. ..
  16. Pai M, Kalantri S, Dheda K. New tools and emerging technologies for the diagnosis of tuberculosis: part I. Latent tuberculosis. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2006;6:413-22 pubmed
    ..The review concludes by highlighting areas where evidence is lacking, and provides an agenda for future research. Active TB and drug resistance are discussed in Part II; 423-432 of this issue. ..
  17. van Mierlo G, Cnubben N, Kuper C, Wolthoorn J, van Meeteren Kreikamp A, Nagtegaal M, et al. The Göttingen minipig® as an alternative non-rodent species for immunogenicity testing: a demonstrator study using the IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra. J Immunotoxicol. 2013;10:96-105 pubmed publisher
    ..However, more studies evaluating additional biopharmaceutical products are needed to support the use of the minipig as an alternative model for (immuno)toxicity testing, including immunogenicity. ..
  18. Mari A, Scala E, Alessandri C. The IgE-microarray testing in atopic dermatitis: a suitable modern tool for the immunological and clinical phenotyping of the disease. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;11:438-44 pubmed publisher
    ..IgE microarray testing gives trustable results to define the nonallergic atopic dermatitis form because of the broad and comprehensive negative IgE testing. ..
  19. McManus D. Immunodiagnosis of sheep infections with Echinococcus granulosus: in 35 years where have we come?. Parasite Immunol. 2014;36:125-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, the poor antibody response of ruminants to naturally acquired hydatid infection may prove an insurmountable barrier in future efforts to develop a reliable and accurate immunological test. ..
  20. Treudler R, Simon J. Overview of component resolved diagnostics. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2013;13:110-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, CRD may decrease the need for provocation testing and may also improve the specificity of allergen-specific immunotherapy. ..
  21. Gushken A, Castro A, Yonamine G, Corradi G, Pastorino A, Jacob C. Double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges in Brazilian children: adaptation to clinical practice. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2013;41:94-101 pubmed publisher
    ..It was considered feasible and safe if performed in an appropriate setting with physician supervision. ..
  22. Targoff I. Laboratory testing in the diagnosis and management of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2002;28:859-90, viii pubmed
    ..factors--such as enzymes, myoglobin, and other molecules--in order to assess muscle injury; (2) immunologic tests that detect markers of the disease process, including serum autoantibodies that have been associated with ..
  23. Nakajima Y, Ukai T, Shimizu T, Ogata K, Iwai S, Takahashi N, et al. Detection and Analysis of Targeted Biological Cells by Electrophoretic Coulter Method. Anal Chem. 2017;89:12450-12457 pubmed publisher
    ..The high-performance ECM can detect cellular morphology alterations, improve immunologic test sensitivity, and identify cell states (living, dying, and dead); this information is clinically useful for early diagnosis and its follow-up...
  24. Stas P, Lasters I. [Immunogenicity of therapeutic antibodies]. Med Sci (Paris). 2009;25:1070-7 pubmed publisher
  25. Toosi S, Bystryn J. Potential role of interleukin-17 in the pathogenesis of bullous pemphigoid. Med Hypotheses. 2010;74:727-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The information obtained could also lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for this and other autoimmune blistering diseases. ..
  26. Sugiyama K, Isogai K, Horisawa S, Toyama A, Satoh H, Saito K, et al. The pharmacological efficacy of mycophenolic acid before and after renal transplantation as estimated by the lymphocyte immunosuppressant sensitivity test (LIST). Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2010;32:430-6 pubmed publisher
    ..No significant implications of these individual differences in the mycophenolic acid sensitivity were noted in regard to the clinical courses of these recipients. ..
  27. Sawitzki B, Schlickeiser S, Reinke P, Volk H. Pretransplant immune risk assessment. Curr Opin Organ Transplant. 2009;14:650-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Subsequently, a combined effort to design pretransplant risk stratification algorithms should lead to personalized immunosuppressive treatment regimes and improved graft survival and long-term graft function. ..
  28. Zeilfelder B, Chouaniere D, Reboux G, Vacheyrou M, Milon A, Wild P, et al. Health effects of occupational exposure in a dairy food industry, with a specific assessment of exposure to airborne lactic acid bacteria. J Occup Environ Med. 2012;54:969-73 pubmed publisher
    ..A medical questionnaire, lung function tests, and immunologic tests were carried out on 50 workers. Occupational exposure to inhalable dust and airborne LAB was measured...
  29. Roelen D, Doxiadis I, Claas F. Detection and clinical relevance of donor specific HLA antibodies: a matter of debate. Transpl Int. 2012;25:604-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The problems associated with the use of solid phase assays for clinical decision making and possible solutions are discussed. ..
  30. Kornacka A, Cybulska A, Bien J, Goździk K, Moskwa B. The usefulness of direct agglutination test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii in wild animals. Vet Parasitol. 2016;228:85-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Positive results obtained by immunological tests do not always reflect that the host was infected by T. gondii. They indicate only a contact with parasite. PCR should be used to confirm te presence of DNA from T. gondii. ..
  31. Bogdanos D, Mieli Vergani G, Vergani D. Autoantibodies and their antigens in autoimmune hepatitis. Semin Liver Dis. 2009;29:241-53 pubmed publisher
  32. Prakash A. Immunological tests and therapies in reproductive medicine. Minerva Ginecol. 2010;62:253-60 pubmed
    ..Till such time that it becomes available, immune testing and immunotherapy should be offered within the realms of a research setting. ..
  33. Nunes D, Gonzaga H, Ribeiro V, da Cunha J, Costa Cruz J. Taenia saginata metacestode antigenic fractions obtained by ion-exchange chromatography: potential source of immunodominant markers applicable in the immunodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2013;76:36-41 pubmed publisher
    ..8% and 93.4%; Sp 93.7% and 92.6%; AUC 0.965 and 0.987; LR+ 14.07 and 12.67; LR- 0.11 and 0.07, respectively). In conclusion, CM S2 and DEAE S2 fractions are important sources of specific peptides, with high efficiency to diagnose NCC. ..
  34. Dheda K, Ruhwald M, Theron G, Peter J, Yam W. Point-of-care diagnosis of tuberculosis: past, present and future. Respirology. 2013;18:217-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We also discuss future applications, including the potential POC diagnosis of drug-resistant TB and presumed latent TB infection. Challenges to the development and roll-out of POC tests for TB are also reviewed. ..
  35. Tozzoli R, Bizzaro N. The clinical autoimmunologist and the laboratory autoimmunologist: the two sides of the coin. Autoimmun Rev. 2012;11:766-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Cooperation between the two autoimmunology specialists will lead to a more up-to-date and efficient management of autoimmune patients. ..
  36. Johnson N, Malamud D, Reznik D, Speicher D, Phelan J. Mucosal fluids and biomarkers of clinical disease: workshop 3B. Adv Dent Res. 2011;23:137-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Challenges to their uptake require well-designed studies on their practical reliability and utility, with appropriate controls. A range of ethical, social, and political issues need to be addressed in such studies. ..
  37. García Lozano J, Abad C, Escalera A, Torres B, Fernández O, Garcia A, et al. Identification of HAVCR1 gene haplotypes associated with mRNA expression levels and susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. Hum Genet. 2010;128:221-9 pubmed publisher
    ..3 vs. 5.9% in controls, p = 0.0046, p (c) = 0.014, OR = 2.23, 95% CI 1.23-4.10). Our results support a relationship between HAVCR1 haplotypes and mRNA expression levels, and suggest an association of this gene with autoimmune diseases. ..
  38. Tsukinaga S, Kajihara M, Takakura K, Ito Z, Kanai T, Saito K, et al. Prognostic significance of plasma interleukin-6/-8 in pancreatic cancer patients receiving chemoimmunotherapy. World J Gastroenterol. 2015;21:11168-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Prolonged low levels of plasma IL-6/-8 in PDA patients may be a prognostic marker for the clinical outcomes of chemoimmunotherapy. ..
  39. Corstjens P, Abrams W, Malamud D. Detecting viruses by using salivary diagnostics. J Am Dent Assoc. 2012;143:12S-8S pubmed
  40. Liu J, Pan Y, Tang L, Bao J, Hao J, Yu Q, et al. Low adenosine triphosphate activity in CD4+ cells predicts infection in patients with lupus nephritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2014;32:383-9 pubmed
    ..Combined CRP value will increase the diagnostic rate of severe infection in SLE. Larger studies are required to establish clinical advantages of this assay in SLE treatment. ..
  41. Gu S, Liu J, Zhang H, Gu B, Lai H, Zhou H, et al. Core antigen tests for hepatitis C virus: a meta-analysis. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:8197-208 pubmed publisher
    ..Explored by meta-regression and subgroup analysis, possible sources of heterogeneity of specificity was found, while the heterogeneity of sensitivity was still significant. ..
  42. Sloet van Oldruitenborgh Oosterbaan M, van Poppel M, de Raat I, van den Boom R, Savelkoul H. Intradermal testing of horses with and without insect bite hypersensitivity in The Netherlands using an extract of native Culicoides species. Vet Dermatol. 2009;20:607-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that intradermal testing using 1 : 1000 w/v concentration Culicoides extracts relevant to the locality provides useful support for a clinical diagnosis of equine insect hypersensitivity. ..
  43. Gonçalves A, Rocha C, Gonzaga H, Gonçalves Pires M, Ueta M, Costa Cruz J. Specific IgG and IgA to larvae, parthenogenetic females, and eggs of Strongyloides venezuelensis in the immunodiagnosis of human strongyloidiasis. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012;72:79-84 pubmed publisher
    ..By comparing all 3 extracts, larval antigens demonstrated better diagnostic parameters. ..
  44. De Schutter I, Schepers K, Singh M, Mascart F, Malfroot A. Latent tuberculosis in a newborn: diagnostic challenges. Eur J Pediatr. 2010;169:1155-8 pubmed publisher
  45. Coppola M, Klotz K, Kim K, Cho H, Kang J, Shetty J, et al. SpermCheck Fertility, an immunodiagnostic home test that detects normozoospermia and severe oligozoospermia. Hum Reprod. 2010;25:853-61 pubmed publisher
    ..This home test can assist couples in deciding whether to seek comprehensive clinical evaluation of the fertility status of the male partner. ..
  46. Kobashi Y, Shimizu H, Ohue Y, Mouri K, Obase Y, Miyashita N, et al. Comparison of T-cell interferon-gamma release assays for Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antigens in patients with active and latent tuberculosis. Lung. 2010;188:283-7 pubmed publisher
    ..However, there was an overlap in the IFN-gamma levels between active TB disease and LTBI groups. Therefore, it would be difficult to use the QFT-2G test to completely discriminate active TB disease from LTBI. ..
  47. Moreno Perez D, Andres Martin A, Altet Gómez N, Baquero Artigao F, Escribano Montaner A, Gómez Pastrana Durán D, et al. [Diagnosis of tuberculosis in paediatrics]. An Pediatr (Barc). 2010;72:283.e1-283.e14 pubmed publisher
  48. Lea P, Keystone E, Mudumba S, Kahama A, Ding S, Hansen J, et al. Advantages of multiplex proteomics in clinical immunology: the case of rheumatoid arthritis: novel IgXPLEX™: planar microarray diagnosis. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2011;41:20-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The specificity for the 44 RA healthy control cohort was determined at 97.7%. The multiplex data also demonstrated that a patients' severity of disease profile, mild to severe, correlates the status of RA biomarkers to disease status. ..
  49. Oort F, Van Turenhout S, Coupé V, van der Hulst R, Wesdorp E, Terhaar Sive Droste J, et al. Double sampling of a faecal immunochemical test is not superior to single sampling for detection of colorectal neoplasia: a colonoscopy controlled prospective cohort study. BMC Cancer. 2011;11:434 pubmed publisher
    ..None of the double FIT strategies has a superior combination of sensitivity and specificity over single FIT. ..
  50. Adetifa I, Ota M, Jeffries D, Hammond A, Lugos M, Donkor S, et al. Commercial interferon gamma release assays compared to the tuberculin skin test for diagnosis of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in childhood contacts in the Gambia. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29:439-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Testing strategies combining an IGRA and TST with an "or" statement may be useful only in situations where there is a high pretest probability of latent infection. ..
  51. Matta B, Uthman I, Taher A, Khamashta M. The current standing of diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2013;9:659-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Lately, a combination of tests has been acknowledged to play a crucial role in diagnosis. ..
  52. Krane Kvenshagen B, Jacobsen M, Halvorsen R. Can conjunctival provocation test facilitate the diagnosis of food allergy in children?. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2010;38:321-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that a strongly positive conjunctival reaction to a food allergen correlates well with true allergy. An oral challenge should be carefully performed. With a negative conjunctival test an oral challenge may safely be performed. ..
  53. McGowan E, Saini S. Update on the performance and application of basophil activation tests. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2013;13:101-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on the most recent applications of this test to the diagnosis of allergy to drugs, foods, venoms, and pollens, and the evolving role of the BAT in monitoring immunotherapy. ..