osmotic fragility


Summary: RED BLOOD CELL sensitivity to change in OSMOTIC PRESSURE. When exposed to a hypotonic concentration of sodium in a solution, red cells take in more water, swell until the capacity of the cell membrane is exceeded, and burst.

Top Publications

  1. Toplan S, Dariyerli N, Ozdemir S, Ozcelik D, Zengin E, Akyolcu M. Lithium-induced hypothyroidism: oxidative stress and osmotic fragility status in rats. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2013;152:373-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of different doses of lithium carbonate on thyroid functions, erythrocyte oxidant-antioxidant status, and osmotic fragility. Twenty-four Wistar-type male rats were equally divided into three groups: groups I and II received 0.1 and0...
  2. Hamidi M, Zarei N, Zarrin A, Mohammadi Samani S. Preparation and in vitro characterization of carrier erythrocytes for vaccine delivery. Int J Pharm. 2007;338:70-8 pubmed
    ..The BSA-loaded cells were remarkably more fragile and less deformable compared to the normal cells. Totally, BSA-loaded erythrocytes seem to be a promising delivery system for reticuloendothelial system (RES) targeting of the antigens. ..
  3. Shavi G, Doijad R, Deshpande P, Manvi F, Meka S, Udupa N, et al. Erythrocytes as carrier for prednisolone: in vitro and in vivo evaluation. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2010;23:194-200 pubmed
    ..In vitro drug release followed zero-order kinetics, haemoglobin content was found to be satisfactory and osmotic fragility study indicated that increased drug entrapment efficiency was found at 0...
  4. Wen Z, Song L, Yan Z, Lu Z, Sun D, Shi Y, et al. An animal model to study erythrocyte senescence with a narrow time window of erythrocyte production: alterations in osmotic fragility and deformability of erythrocytes during their life span. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 1998;19:299-306 pubmed
    ..the induction of spherocytic anemia in the rabbit with antibody serum, we determined the changes of RBC osmotic fragility and deformability with aging...
  5. de Freitas M, Netto R, da Costa Huss J, de Souza T, Costa J, Firmino C, et al. Influence of aqueous crude extracts of medicinal plants on the osmotic stability of human erythrocytes. Toxicol In Vitro. 2008;22:219-24 pubmed
    ..and S. microglossa enhanced hemolysis, since their H(50) values were higher than in the control group (p<0.05), but they also showed protective effects, as evidenced by a decrease in H and an increase in dS...
  6. Khonyoung S, Kradtap Hartwell S, Jakmunee J, Lapanantnoppakhun S, Sanguansermsri T, Grudpan K. A stopped flow system with hydrodynamic injection for red blood cells osmotic fragility test: possibility for automatic screening of beta-thalassemia trait. Anal Sci. 2009;25:819-24 pubmed
    ..flow system coupled to hydrodynamic injection and spectrophotometric detection were developed for automatic osmotic fragility test (OFT)...
  7. Brzeszczynska J, Pieniazek A, Gwozdzinski L, Gwozdzinski K, Jegier A. Structural alterations of erythrocyte membrane components induced by exhaustive exercise. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2008;33:1223-31 pubmed publisher
  8. Gutiérrez Millán C, Bax B, Castañeda A, Marinero M, Lanao J. In vitro studies of amikacin-loaded human carrier erythrocytes. Transl Res. 2008;152:59-66 pubmed publisher
    ..and hypo-osmotic dialysis time on the encapsulation efficiency of amikacin were determined, and the osmotic fragility and hematologic parameters of amikacin-loaded carrier erythrocytes were measured...
  9. Hamidi M, Zarrin A, Foroozesh M, Zarei N, Mohammadi Samani S. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of carrier erythrocytes for RES-targeted delivery of interferon-alpha 2b. Int J Pharm. 2007;341:125-33 pubmed
    ..All the tested in vitro characteristics showed significant, sometimes notable changes upon drug loading procedure, both with and without the drug. ..

More Information


  1. Chaudhary R, Katharia R. Oxidative injury as contributory factor for red cells storage lesion during twenty eight days of storage. Blood Transfus. 2012;10:59-62 pubmed publisher
    ..and markers of oxidative injury such as malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, haemoglobin oxidation and osmotic fragility were studied in all samples. Statistically significant (p<0...
  2. el Beshlawy A, Kaddah N, Moustafa A, Mouktar G, Youssry I. Screening for beta-thalassaemia carriers in Egypt: significance of the osmotic fragility test. East Mediterr Health J. 2007;13:780-6 pubmed
    ..Microcytosis was present in 412 participants. The osmotic fragility test was positive in 81...
  3. Sirichotiyakul S, Tantipalakorn C, Sanguansermsri T, Wanapirak C, Tongsong T. Erythrocyte osmotic fragility test for screening of alpha-thalassemia-1 and beta-thalassemia trait in pregnancy. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2004;86:347-50 pubmed
    To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of osmotic fragility test (OFT) as a screening test in predicting the severe thalassemia trait (alpha-thalassemia-1 & beta-thalassemia)...
  4. Panyasai S, Sringam P, Fucharoen G, Sanchaisuriya K, Fucharoen S. A simplified screening for alpha-thalassemia 1 (SEA type) using a combination of a modified osmotic fragility test and a direct PCR on whole blood cell lysates. Acta Haematol. 2002;108:74-8 pubmed
    ..Preliminary screening was done using a modified one tube osmotic fragility test (OF test) followed by RBC indices; Hb analysis and detection of alpha-thalassemia 1 with the Southeast ..
  5. Hamidi M, Tajerzadeh H, Dehpour A, Rouini M, Ejtemaee Mehr S. In vitro characterization of human intact erythrocytes loaded by enalaprilat. Drug Deliv. 2001;8:223-30 pubmed
  6. Singh S, Gupta S. Effectiveness of red cell osmotic fragility test with varying degrees of saline concentration in detecting beta-thalassaemia trait. Singapore Med J. 2008;49:823-6 pubmed
    This study was performed with the objective of determining the efficacy of naked eye single tube red cell osmotic fragility test (NESTROFT) as a screening test for beta-thalassaemia trait, and to standardise a saline concentration which ..
  7. Blasi B, D Alessandro A, Ramundo N, Zolla L. Red blood cell storage and cell morphology. Transfus Med. 2012;22:90-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Statistical image analysis through scanning electron microscope was coupled to osmotic fragility and erythrocyte sedimentation rate...
  8. Talwar N, Jain N. Erythrocyte based delivery system of primaquine: in vitro characterization. J Microencapsul. 1992;9:357-64 pubmed
    ..The loaded cells attained spherical shape and exhibited higher osmotic fragility and lower resistance to turbulence shock as compared with normal cells...
  9. Gilligan D, Lozovatsky L, Gwynn B, Brugnara C, Mohandas N, Peters L. Targeted disruption of the beta adducin gene (Add2) causes red blood cell spherocytosis in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:10717-22 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates adducin's importance to RBC membrane stability in vivo. ..
  10. Cabrita E, Martinez F, Alvarez M, Herraez M. The use of flow cytometry to assess membrane stability in fresh and cryopreserved trout spermatozoa. Cryo Letters. 2001;22:263-72 pubmed
    ..flow cytometry combined with PI was used as an alternative method to determined cell membrane integrity and osmotic fragility in trout spermatozoa...
  11. Mittal G, Brar A, Soni G. Impact of hypercholesterolemia on toxicity of N-nitrosodiethylamine: biochemical and histopathological effects. Pharmacol Rep. 2006;58:413-9 pubmed
    ..did not affect the hemoglobin (Hb) content in experimental animals but resulted in an increase in the osmotic fragility of erythrocytes...
  12. Ustun C, Kutlar F, Holley L, Seigler M, Burgess R, Kutlar A. Interaction of sickle cell trait with hereditary spherocytosis: splenic infarcts and sequestration. Acta Haematol. 2003;109:46-9 pubmed
    ..The diagnosis of HS was established by an osmotic fragility test...
  13. Santos D, Schiar V, Paixão M, Meinerz D, Nogueira C, Aschner M, et al. Hemolytic and genotoxic evaluation of organochalcogens in human blood cells in vitro. Toxicol In Vitro. 2009;23:1195-204 pubmed publisher
    ..For osmotic fragility (OF) test, samples of total blood were incubated with the organochalcogens at 4, 8, 50, 75 and 100 microM or ..
  14. Elperin A, Pore S, Evans J, Naditz A, Light D. Swelling-induced Ca²+ influx and K+ efflux in American alligator erythrocytes. J Membr Biol. 2011;240:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Osmotic fragility was determined optically, mean cell volume was measured by electronic sizing, and changes in intracellular ..
  15. Makni M, Chtourou Y, Fetoui H, Garoui E, Barkallah M, Marouani C, et al. Erythrocyte oxidative damage in rat treated with CCl4: protective role of vanillin. Toxicol Ind Health. 2012;28:908-16 pubmed publisher
    ..damage as evidenced by increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, protein carbonyl levels and osmotic fragility accompanied with a significant decrease in Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase activities...
  16. El Missiry M, Abou Seif M. Photosensitization induced reactive oxygen species and oxidative damage in human erythrocytes. Cancer Lett. 2000;158:155-63 pubmed
    ..biological toxicity of the reactive oxygen species on human red blood cells (RBCs) was evident by increased osmotic fragility, spherocytosis and haemolysis. The haemolysis was increased in concentration and time dependent manner...
  17. Mineo H, Hara H. Structure-dependent and receptor-independent increase in osmotic fragility of rat erythrocytes by short-chain fatty acids. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1713:113-7 pubmed
    We examined short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) with 1 (C1) to 5 (C5) carbon atoms for osmotic fragility (OF) in isolated red blood cells (RBCs) in rats. The RBCs were used as prototypical plasma membrane model...
  18. Vlassopoulos D, Hadjiyannakos D, Anogiatis A, Evageliou A, Santikou A, Noussias C, et al. Carnitine action on red blood cell osmotic resistance in hemodialysis patients. J Nephrol. 2002;15:68-73 pubmed
    ..It is related to dialysis membranes and is aggravated by time on hemodialysis. Serum carnitine levels depend on weekly dialysis time and on carnitine supplementation, that normalizes osmotic resistance in some dialysis patients. ..
  19. Ambali S, Ayo J, Ojo S, Esievo K. Vitamin E protects Wistar rats from chlorpyrifos-induced increase in erythrocyte osmotic fragility. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:3477-80 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of chronic chlorpyrifos (CPF) exposure on erythrocyte osmotic fragility, the role of lipid peroxidation and the ameliorative effect of vitamin E on the erythrocyte fragility...
  20. Ishiko O, Hirai K, Nishimura S, Sumi T, Honda K, Deguchi M, et al. Elimination of anemia-inducing substance by cyclic plasma perfusion of tumor-bearing rabbits. Clin Cancer Res. 1999;5:2660-5 pubmed
    ..These results showed that cyclic plasma perfusion is effective in sustained removal of RBC fragility-inducing factor from plasma, suggesting that it might have the potential for clinical application. ..
  21. Henkelman S, Lagerberg J, Graaff R, Rakhorst G, van Oeveren W. The effects of cryopreservation on red blood cell rheologic properties. Transfusion. 2010;50:2393-401 pubmed publisher
    ..05). No significant differences in EI between thawed and 21- or 35-day liquid-stored RBCs were observed. The osmotic fragility, hemolysis, mean cell volume, and mean cell hemoglobin concentration of thawed RBCs were markedly altered, ..
  22. Devi S, Vani R, Subramanyam M, Reddy S, Jeevaratnam K. Intermittent hypobaric hypoxia-induced oxidative stress in rat erythrocytes: protective effects of vitamin E, vitamin C, and carnitine. Cell Biochem Funct. 2007;25:221-31 pubmed
    ..Hemoglobin (Hb) and OS indices such as osmotic fragility and hemolysis were measured together with lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein oxidation...
  23. Alberti R, Mariuzzi G, Artibani L, Bruni E, Tentori L. A new haemoglobin variant: J-Rovigo alpha 53 (E-2) alanine leads to aspartic acid. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1974;342:1-4 pubmed
  24. Ding M, Xu S, Zhang J, Wang Q, Chang Y, Chen F, et al. Trauma to erythrocytes induced by long term in vitro pumping using a roller pump. Cell Biol Int. 2007;31:763-7 pubmed
    ..e. the immediate hemolysis, but also caused sub-trauma to a large number of erythrocytes, which led to the delayed hemolysis. The change of erythrocyte morphology was the basis of the delayed hemolysis. ..
  25. Habibu B, Makun H, Yaqub L, Buhari H, Aluwong T, Kawu M. Comparative evaluation of haematological parameters and erythrocyte membrane stability in pregnant and lactating goats in different seasons of tropical Savannah. Theriogenology. 2017;99:30-35 pubmed publisher
    Haematological parameters and erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF) are commonly used as indicators of health status and erythrocyte membrane integrity...
  26. Quan G, Han Y, Yang C, Hu W, Liu M, Liu A, et al. [Inhibitory effect of trehalose on phosphatidylserine exposure, osmotic fragility and membrane lipid peroxidation damage of erythrocytes induced by high concentration of glucose]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2008;16:1442-6 pubmed
    ..concentrations of trehalose for three hours at 37 degrees C, the phosphatidylserine exposure and the osmotic fragility of cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and the lipid peroxidation of membrane was evaluated by TBA method...
  27. Jalali S, Bahrami S, Rasooli A, Hasanvand S. Evaluation of oxidant/antioxidant status, trace mineral levels, and erythrocyte osmotic fragility in goats naturally infected with Anaplasma ovis. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2016;48:1175-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was performed to assess in goats infected with A. ovis the osmotic fragility of erythrocytes, antioxidant status, and serum levels of microminerals...
  28. Seibert C, Oliveira M, Gonçalves L, Santoro M, Sano Martins I. Intravascular hemolysis induced by Lonomia obliqua caterpillar bristle extract: an experimental model of envenomation in rats. Toxicon. 2004;44:793-9 pubmed
    ..Intravascular hemolysis is probably induced by phospholipase A(2) and other proteins with direct hemolytic activity present in crude caterpillar bristle extract. ..
  29. Spickett C, Reglinski J, Smith W, Wilson R, Walker J, McKillop J. Erythrocyte glutathione balance and membrane stability during preeclampsia. Free Radic Biol Med. 1998;24:1049-55 pubmed
    ..This novel finding suggests that some patients may be unusually susceptible to erythrocyte glutathione oxidation, possibly leading to general cellular damage, in particular HELLP Syndrome. ..
  30. Leung K, Au W, Chan A, Chan L, Waye J, Chui D, et al. Haemoglobin Q-Thailand and hereditary spherocytosis in a Chinese family. Clin Lab Haematol. 2001;23:53-5 pubmed
    ..2) deletion. Active haemolysis in members of this family is segregated with the HS phenotype, and the Hb Q-Thailand in the heterozygous state does not seem to show any modulating effect on HS. ..
  31. Abad C, Carrasco M, Piñero S, Delgado E, Chiarello D, Teppa Garrán A, et al. Effect of magnesium sulfate on the osmotic fragility and lipid peroxidation of intact red blood cells from pregnant women with severe preeclampsia. Hypertens Pregnancy. 2010;29:38-53 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the osmotic fragility and level of lipid peroxidation of red blood cells from pregnant women with severe preeclampsia, treated or not with MgSO(4)...
  32. Pribush A, Meyerstein D, Hatskelzon L, Kozlov V, Levi I, Meyerstein N. Erythrocyte swelling and membrane hole formation in hypotonic media as studied by conductometry. Physiol Meas. 2013;34:139-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, unlike the conventional osmotic fragility test, the proposed methodological approach allows investigations of both the kinetics of swelling and the ..
  33. Lim P, Sears B, Klomparens K. Membrane properties of a plant-pathogenic mycoplasmalike organism. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:682-6 pubmed
    ..The MLOs can be differentiated from acholeplasmas grown without sterols by their greater resistance to lysis in hypotonic sucrose solutions...
  34. Maeda N, Nakajima T, Izumida Y, Suzuki Y, Tateishi N, Seiyama A. Decreased deformability of red cells in refractory anemia and the abnormality of the membrane skeleton. Biorheology. 1994;31:395-405 pubmed
  35. Gupta R, Pande A, Gulla K, Gabius H, Hajela K. Carbohydrate-induced modulation of cell membrane. VIII. Agglutination with mammalian lectin galectin-1 increases osmofragility and membrane fluidity of trypsinized erythrocytes. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:1691-5 pubmed
    ..Moreover, it increases susceptibility of erythrocytes to radical damage. These observations indicate the potential of this endogenous lectin to affect membrane properties beyond the immediate interaction with cell surface epitopes. ..
  36. Koenig D, Dvoracek B, Vongsa R. In vitro prediction of in vivo skin damage associated with the wiping of dry tissue against skin. Skin Res Technol. 2013;19:e453-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The bench method will facilitate rapid and inexpensive skin gentleness assessment of cleansing materials. ..
  37. Chen Q, Fabry M, Rybicki A, Suzuka S, Balazs T, Etzion Z, et al. A transgenic mouse model expressing exclusively human hemoglobin E: indications of a mild oxidative stress. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2012;48:91-101 pubmed publisher
    ..normal MCHC; target RBC; mild anemia with low Hb, HCT and mildly elevated reticulocyte levels and decreased osmotic fragility, indicating altered RBC surface area to volume ratio...
  38. Makhro A, Huisjes R, Verhagen L, Mañú Pereira M, Llaudet Planas E, Petkova Kirova P, et al. Red Cell Properties after Different Modes of Blood Transportation. Front Physiol. 2016;7:288 pubmed publisher
    ..red blood cell (RBC) volume, ion content and density, membrane properties and stability (hemolysis, osmotic fragility, membrane heat stability, patch-clamp investigations, and formation of micro vesicles), Ca(2+) handling, RBC ..
  39. Mena H, Santos J, Huber J, Tarazon M, Calhoun M. The effects of varying gossypol intake from whole cottonseed and cottonseed meal on lactation and blood parameters in lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2004;87:2506-18 pubmed
    ..Indicators of liver, kidney, and muscle cell viability suggest that the higher amounts of gossypol consumed in this study had only minor effects on those tissues in lactating dairy cows. ..
  40. Akuzawa M, Matumoto M, Okamoto K, Nakashima F, Shinozaki M, Morizono M. Hematological, osmotic, and scanning electron microscopic study of erythrocytes of dogs given beta-acetylphenylhydrazine. Vet Pathol. 1989;26:70-4 pubmed
    Hematologic examinations, osmotic fragility tests, and scanning electron microscopy of erythrocytes were done on blood of dogs given 5 mg/kg of beta-acetylphenylhydrazine for 5 weeks...
  41. Harisa G, Ibrahim M, Alanazi F. Characterization of human erythrocytes as potential carrier for pravastatin: an in vitro study. Int J Med Sci. 2011;8:222-30 pubmed
    ..Moreover the percent of cells recovery is 87-93%. Hematological parameters and osmotic fragility behavior of pravastatin loaded erythrocytes were similar that of native erythrocytes...
  42. Rasia M, Spengler M, Palma S, Manzo R, Lo Nostro P, Allemandi D. Effect of ascorbic acid based amphiphiles on human erythrocytes membrane. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2007;36:133-40 pubmed
  43. Smith J. Exercise, training and red blood cell turnover. Sports Med. 1995;19:9-31 pubmed
    ..Because most techniques examine the RBC population as a whole, more sophisticated methods which analyse cells individually are required to determine the mechanisms involved in exercise-induced damage of RBCs. ..
  44. Synchykova O, Shpakova N, Bondarenko V. Effect of alkyl-beta,d-glucopyranosides on hypertonic haemolysis of erythrocytes. Bioelectrochemistry. 2004;62:163-7 pubmed
  45. Suda T, Akamatsu A, Nakaya Y, Masuda Y, Desaki J. Alterations in erythrocyte membrane lipid and its fragility in a patient with familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltrasferase (LCAT) deficiency. J Med Invest. 2002;49:147-55 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that normochromic anemia of the patient might be caused by erythrocyte fragility resulting from decreased deformity and/or abnormal shape of the cells due to abnormal lipid composition in the membrane. ..
  46. Ebuehi O, Balogun M, Audu R, Idigbe E. Osmotic fragility and Na+-K+ ATPase activity of erythrocytes of HIV/AIDS patients. Saudi Med J. 2003;24:1412-4 pubmed
  47. Chapanian R, Constantinescu I, Rossi N, Medvedev N, Brooks D, Scott M, et al. Influence of polymer architecture on antigens camouflage, CD47 protection and complement mediated lysis of surface grafted red blood cells. Biomaterials. 2012;33:7871-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The intermediate sized polymers (PEG or HPG) which showed greater antigen camouflage at lower grafting concentrations have significant potential in transfusion as universal red blood donor cells. ..
  48. Albahary C. Lead and hemopoiesis. The mechanism and consequences of the erythropathy of occupational lead poisoning. Am J Med. 1972;52:367-78 pubmed
  49. Rai D, Rai P, Rizvi S, Watal G, Sharma B. Carbofuran-induced toxicity in rats: protective role of vitamin C. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2009;61:531-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Oxidative stress (OS) is associated with increased osmotic fragility (OF) of erythrocytes. Organophosphate and organocarbamate pesticides are known to cause OS in erythrocytes...
  50. Spengler M, Rasia M, Palma S, Allemandi D. Effects of ascorbate fatty ester derivatives on erythrocyte membrane lipoperoxidation. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2011;47:163-8 pubmed publisher
    ..effect of ASC(n) on erythrocyte properties in order to get information regarding the relationship between osmotic fragility, erythrocyte deformability and membrane lipoperoxidation process...
  51. Jain S. Hyperglycemia can cause membrane lipid peroxidation and osmotic fragility in human red blood cells. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:21340-5 pubmed
    The present study has examined the effect of elevated glucose levels on membrane lipid peroxidation and osmotic fragility in human red blood cells (RBC)...
  52. Baek J, D Agnillo F, Vallelian F, Pereira C, Williams M, Jia Y, et al. Hemoglobin-driven pathophysiology is an in vivo consequence of the red blood cell storage lesion that can be attenuated in guinea pigs by haptoglobin therapy. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:1444-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Hb sequestration by Hp might therefore be a therapeutic modality for enhancing transfusion safety in severely ill or massively transfused patients...
  53. Suboh S, Bilto Y, Aburjai T. Protective effects of selected medicinal plants against protein degradation, lipid peroxidation and deformability loss of oxidatively stressed human erythrocytes. Phytother Res. 2004;18:280-4 pubmed
    ..foenum-graecum, and Allium sativum on protein degradation, lipid peroxidation, erythrocyte deformability and osmotic fragility of erythrocytes exposed in vitro to 10 mM H(2)O(2) for 60 min at 37 degrees C have been examined...