partial thromboplastin time


Summary: The time required for the appearance of FIBRIN strands following the mixing of PLASMA with phospholipid platelet substitute (e.g., crude cephalins, soybean phosphatides). It is a test of the intrinsic pathway (factors VIII, IX, XI, and XII) and the common pathway (fibrinogen, prothrombin, factors V and X) of BLOOD COAGULATION. It is used as a screening test and to monitor HEPARIN therapy.

Top Publications

  1. Tang W, Schwienbacher C, Lopez L, Ben Shlomo Y, Oudot Mellakh T, Johnson A, et al. Genetic associations for activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time, their gene expression profiles, and risk of coronary artery disease. Am J Hum Genet. 2012;91:152-62 pubmed publisher
    Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and prothrombin time (PT) are clinical tests commonly used to screen for coagulation-factor deficiencies...
  2. Sabater Lleal M, Martinez Perez A, Buil A, Folkersen L, Souto J, Bruzelius M, et al. A genome-wide association study identifies KNG1 as a genetic determinant of plasma factor XI Level and activated partial thromboplastin time. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012;32:2008-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, both KNG1 single nucleotide polymorphisms were associated with activated partial thromboplastin time, suggesting that FXI may be the main mechanistic pathway by which KNG1 and F11 influence activated ..
  3. Dansirikul C, Lehr T, Liesenfeld K, Haertter S, Staab A. A combined pharmacometric analysis of dabigatran etexilate in healthy volunteers and patients with atrial fibrillation or undergoing orthopaedic surgery. Thromb Haemost. 2012;107:775-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The relationship between dabigatran plasma concentrations and activated partial thromboplastin time in healthy volunteers and patients (n=762) was best described with a combination of a linear model and ..
  4. Rizzo F, Papasouliotis K, Crawford E, Dodkin S, Cue S. Measurement of prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) on canine citrated plasma samples following different storage conditions. Res Vet Sci. 2008;85:166-70 pubmed
  5. Silva T, Alves L, de Queiroz K, Santos M, Marques C, Chavante S, et al. Partial characterization and anticoagulant activity of a heterofucan from the brown seaweed Padina gymnospora. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2005;38:523-33 pubmed
    ..5-fold lesser than low molecular weight heparin) estimated by activated partial thromboplastin time was completely abolished upon desulfation by solvolysis in dimethyl sulfoxide, indicating that 3-O-..
  6. Lu W, Qiu Y, Li T, Tao X, Sun L, Chen W. Antiplatelet and antithrombotic activities of timosaponin B-II, an extract of Anemarrhena asphodeloides. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2011;38:430-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, 1, 3 and 6 mg/kg TB-II prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time by 9.29, 16.86 and 25.50%, respectively, but had no effect on the prothrombin time...
  7. Camara R, Costa L, Fidelis G, Nobre L, Dantas Santos N, Cordeiro S, et al. Heterofucans from the brown seaweed Canistrocarpus cervicornis with anticoagulant and antioxidant activities. Mar Drugs. 2011;9:124-38 pubmed publisher
    ..However, all polysaccharides prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). Four sulfated polysaccharides (CC-0.3/CC-0.5/CC-0.7/CC-1.0) doubled aPTT with only 0...
  8. Bowyer A, Kitchen S, Makris M. The responsiveness of different APTT reagents to mild factor VIII, IX and XI deficiencies. Int J Lab Hematol. 2011;33:154-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Both Synthasil and Actin FS are acceptable reagents to screen for reduced factors VIII, IX and XI, and the number of mildly reduced factors not diagnosed will be limited. ..
  9. Houlihan L, Davies G, Tenesa A, Harris S, Luciano M, Gow A, et al. Common variants of large effect in F12, KNG1, and HRG are associated with activated partial thromboplastin time. Am J Hum Genet. 2010;86:626-31 pubmed publisher
    Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) is associated with risk of thrombosis and coagulation disorders...

More Information


  1. Delannoy B, Guye M, Slaiman D, Lehot J, Cannesson M. Effect of cardiopulmonary bypass on activated partial thromboplastin time waveform analysis, serum procalcitonin and C-reactive protein concentrations. Crit Care. 2009;13:R180 pubmed publisher
    ..Biphasic waveform (BPW) analysis is a new biological test derived from activated partial thromboplastin time that has recently been proposed for sepsis diagnosis...
  2. Park M, Martini W, Dubick M, Salinas J, Butenas S, Kheirabadi B, et al. Thromboelastography as a better indicator of hypercoagulable state after injury than prothrombin time or activated partial thromboplastin time. J Trauma. 2009;67:266-75; discussion 275-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Laboratory tests included prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), levels of activated factor XI, D-dimer, protein C percent activity, antithrombin III percent ..
  3. Ng V. Prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time assay considerations. Clin Lab Med. 2009;29:253-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this article reviews laboratory issues and known variables influencing prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time results and international normalized ratio determinations.
  4. Alexander J, Yang H, Becker R, Kodama K, Goodman S, Dyke C, et al. First experience with direct, selective factor Xa inhibition in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes: results of the XaNADU-ACS Trial. J Thromb Haemost. 2005;3:439-47 pubmed
    ..The absence of an effect on ST-monitor ischemia warrants further investigation. These data provide the rationale for adequately powered studies of DX-9065a in acute coronary syndromes or percutaneous intervention. ..
  5. Lippi G, Salvagno G, Ippolito L, Franchini M, Favaloro E. Shortened activated partial thromboplastin time: causes and management. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2010;21:459-63 pubmed
    ..hemostasis laboratory, and as an evaluation of the coagulation cascade, the results of the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) have primarily been considered as an index of loss-of-function and rarely as an index of gain-of-..
  6. Alesci S, Borggrefe M, Dempfle C. Effect of freezing method and storage at -20 degrees C and -70 degrees C on prothrombin time, aPTT and plasma fibrinogen levels. Thromb Res. 2009;124:121-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and fibrinogen using a kinetic fibrinogen assay, PT-derived fibrinogen, and an immunoassay were ..
  7. Cuker A, Ptashkin B, Konkle B, Pipe S, Whinna H, Zheng X, et al. Interlaboratory agreement in the monitoring of unfractionated heparin using the anti-factor Xa-correlated activated partial thromboplastin time. J Thromb Haemost. 2009;7:80-6 pubmed publisher
    ..the College of American Pathologists (CAP) recommends that the therapeutic range of the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) be defined in each laboratory through correlation with a direct measure of heparin activity such ..
  8. Kanahara M, Kai H, Okamura T, Wada T, Suda K, Imaizumi T, et al. Usefulness of high-concentration calcium chloride solution for correction of activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) in patients with high-hematocrit value. Thromb Res. 2008;121:781-5 pubmed
    Pseudoprolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) is a serious problem in anticoagulation therapy for patients with high hematocrit, such as cyanotic congenital heart diseases...
  9. Toh C, Downey C. The biphasic waveform in plasma: identifying the sepsis--coagulation crossroad? A rebuttal. J Thromb Haemost. 2005;3:604-5; author reply 605-6 pubmed
  10. Kitchens C. To bleed or not to bleed? Is that the question for the PTT?. J Thromb Haemost. 2005;3:2607-11 pubmed
    The activated partial thromboplastin time (PTT) is the grandchild of the Lee-White whole blood clot time (WBCT). Both tests were developed to assist the diagnostic process for patients who exhibited features consistent with hemophilia, i...
  11. Mina A, Favaloro E, Mohammed S, Koutts J. A laboratory evaluation into the short activated partial thromboplastin time. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2010;21:152-7 pubmed publisher
  12. Karlsson M, Ternstrom L, Hyllner M, Baghaei F, Nilsson S, Jeppsson A. Plasma fibrinogen level, bleeding, and transfusion after on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting surgery: a prospective observational study. Transfusion. 2008;48:2152-8 pubmed publisher
    ..time, anticoagulation therapy), preoperative laboratory variables (platelet [PLT] count, activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and fibrinogen), postoperative bleeding volume, and transfusions during hospital ..
  13. Stangier J, Stähle H, Rathgen K, Fuhr R. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the direct oral thrombin inhibitor dabigatran in healthy elderly subjects. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2008;47:47-59 pubmed
  14. Chopin N, Floccard B, Sobas F, Illinger J, Boselli E, Benatir F, et al. Activated partial thromboplastin time waveform analysis: a new tool to detect infection?. Crit Care Med. 2006;34:1654-60 pubmed
    An abnormality of the optical transmission waveform obtained during measurement of the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) has been described to identify a high-risk intensive care unit population consisting of patients with ..
  15. Martinowitz U, Michaelson M. Guidelines for the use of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in uncontrolled bleeding: a report by the Israeli Multidisciplinary rFVIIa Task Force. J Thromb Haemost. 2005;3:640-8 pubmed
    ..Results of the first 36 trauma patients: The prolonged clotting assays [prothrombin time (PT) and partial thromboplastin time (PTT)] shortened significantly within minutes following administration of rFVIIa...
  16. Acar K, Yağcı M, Sucak G, Haznedar R. Isolated prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time in an asymptomatic patient: Fletcher factor deficiency. Thromb Res. 2006;118:765-6 pubmed
  17. Costa L, Fidelis G, Cordeiro S, Oliveira R, Sabry D, Câmara R, et al. Biological activities of sulfated polysaccharides from tropical seaweeds. Biomed Pharmacother. 2010;64:21-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) test, which evaluates the intrinsic coagulation pathway, seven seaweeds presented anticoagulant ..
  18. Lippi G, Franchini M, Targher G, Montagnana M, Salvagno G, Guidi G, et al. Epidemiological association between fasting plasma glucose and shortened APTT. Clin Biochem. 2009;42:118-20 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the relationship between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and shortened activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), an independent risk factor for thrombosis. We analyzed outpatients' results of coagulation tests and FPG...
  19. Kummeling A, Teske E, Rothuizen J, van Sluijs F. Coagulation profiles in dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts before and after surgical attenuation. J Vet Intern Med. 2006;20:1319-26 pubmed
    ..platelet counts, lower activity of factors II, V, VII, and X, and increased factor VIII and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) compared to healthy dogs...
  20. Lippi G, Favaloro E. Activated partial thromboplastin time: new tricks for an old dogma. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2008;34:604-11 pubmed publisher
    The activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) is the most common coagulation test procedure performed in routine laboratories, apart from the prothrombin time...
  21. Tripodi A, Salerno F, Chantarangkul V, Clerici M, Cazzaniga M, Primignani M, et al. Evidence of normal thrombin generation in cirrhosis despite abnormal conventional coagulation tests. Hepatology. 2005;41:553-8 pubmed
    ..Conventional coagulation tests such as prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time are inadequate to explore the physiological mechanism regulating thrombin, because they do not allow ..
  22. Park C, Seo J, Kim H, Jang J, Kim S. A diagnostic challenge: mild hemophilia B with normal activated partial thromboplastin time. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2010;21:368-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The diagnosis of hemophilia B is typically suspected by significantly prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) on screening tests, but aPTT may be normal or minimally prolonged in mild hemophilia B...
  23. Kim M, Kilgore P, Kang J, Kim S, Lee D, Kim J, et al. Transient acquired hemophilia associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. J Korean Med Sci. 2008;23:138-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Hematologic studies showed a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), partially corrected mixing test for aPTT, reduced levels of FVIII, and the presence of ..
  24. Zakariah A, Cozzi S, Van Nuffelen M, Clausi C, Pradier O, Vincent J. Combination of biphasic transmittance waveform with blood procalcitonin levels for diagnosis of sepsis in acutely ill patients. Crit Care Med. 2008;36:1507-12 pubmed publisher
    ..PCT) concentrations with the presence of a biphasic transmittance waveform (BPW) from the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) to identify sepsis in critically ill patients. Prospective observational study...
  25. Amarnath L, Srinivas A, Ramamurthi A. In vitro hemocompatibility testing of UV-modified hyaluronan hydrogels. Biomaterials. 2006;27:1416-24 pubmed
    ..We conclude that UV-treatment of hylans, useful to improve surface endothelialization, does not compromise their short-term hemocompatibility, vital to their use as vascular implant materials. ..
  26. Adrie C, Monchi M, Laurent I, Um S, Yan S, Thuong M, et al. Coagulopathy after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation following cardiac arrest: implication of the protein C anticoagulant pathway. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005;46:21-8 pubmed
    ..Major coagulation abnormalities were found after successful resuscitation of cardiac arrest. These abnormalities are consistent with secondary down-regulation of the thrombomodulin-endothelial protein C receptor pathway. ..
  27. Sharma P, Saxena R. A novel thromboelastographic score to identify overt disseminated intravascular coagulation resulting in a hypocoagulable state. Am J Clin Pathol. 2010;134:97-102 pubmed publisher
    ..Their combination into a cohesive TEM score possibly better captured the multiple hemostatic derangements occurring in DIC. The TEM score may bring objectivity to the analysis of TEM data. ..
  28. Holck M, Christensen T, Hvas A. Influence of selected antithrombotic treatment on thromboelastometric results. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2017;:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, haemoglobin, platelet count, International Normalized Ratio (INR), activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen (functional), creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and C-reactive protein were ..
  29. Naji D, Tan C, Han F, Zhao Y, Wang J, Wang D, et al. Significant genetic association of a functional TFPI variant with circulating fibrinogen levels and coronary artery disease. Mol Genet Genomics. 2018;293:119-128 pubmed publisher
    ..subjects for blood coagulation data, including fibrinogen levels, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and thrombin time (TT)...
  30. Han Y, Zhu T, Jiao L, Hua B, Cai H, Zhao Y. Normal range and genetic analysis of coagulation factor XII in the general Chinese population. Thromb Res. 2015;136:440-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The samples were subjected to an activated partial thromboplastin time-based factor XII activity assay as well as an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
  31. Ichimiya Y, Wada Y, Kunishima S, Tsukamoto K, Kosaki R, Sago H, et al. 11q23 deletion syndrome (Jacobsen syndrome) with severe bleeding: a case report. J Med Case Rep. 2018;12:3 pubmed publisher
    ..92 and an activated partial thromboplastin time of 158.6 seconds...
  32. Feuring M, Wehling M, Schultz A. Dalteparin dose-dependently increases ROTEM(®) thrombelastography parameters only at supratherapeutic anti-factor Xa levels: an in vitro study. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2011;38:783-6 pubmed publisher
    ..anticoagulant activity of dalteparin can be monitored by measuring anti-factor Xa levels and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT); however, aPTT is an unreliable parameter in this case...
  33. Tripodi A, Chantarangkul V. Lupus Anticoagulant Testing: Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) and Silica Clotting Time (SCT). Methods Mol Biol. 2017;1646:177-183 pubmed publisher
    Actvated partial thromboplastin time and its congener test Silica clotting time are used for the laboratory detection of lupus anticoagulants...
  34. Yang Y, Zhang W, Guo Z, Zhang Z, Zhu H, Yan R, et al. Stability enhanced, repeatability improved Parylene-C passivated on QCM sensor for aPTT measurement. Biosens Bioelectron. 2017;98:41-46 pubmed publisher
    ..this work, Parylene-C passivated on quartz crystal microbalance (P-QCM) was developed for the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) measurement...
  35. Lee W, Ku S, Kim M, Bae J. Anti-factor Xa activities of zingerone with anti-platelet aggregation activity. Food Chem Toxicol. 2017;105:186-193 pubmed publisher
    ..ZGR reduced activated partial thromboplastin time and it inhibited the catalytic activity of FXa toward its substrate S-2222 in a noncompetitive ..
  36. Chhikara A, Sharma S, Chandra J, Nangia A. Thrombin Activable Fibrinolysis Inhibitor in Beta Thalassemia. Indian J Pediatr. 2017;84:25-30 pubmed publisher random and complete blood count (CBC), coagulation parameters [Prothrombin time (PT), Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, D-dimer, protein C, protein S, antithrombin, Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), ..
  37. Mejdoubi Charef N, Courty J, Sineriz F, Papy Garcia D, Charef S. Heparin affin regulatory peptide modulates the endogenous anticoagulant activity of heparin and heparan sulphate mimetics. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2012;111:296-302 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data provide the first evidence for a physiological role of HARP in the modulation of anticoagulant activity of heparin and heparin-like material. ..
  38. Marlar R, Gausman J. Assessment of Hereditary Thrombophilia: Performance of Protein C (PC) Testing. Methods Mol Biol. 2017;1646:145-151 pubmed publisher
    ..PC present in the specimen in a proportional fashion based on the prolongation of the Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT)...
  39. Kanouchi K, Narimatsu H, Ohnuma O, Morikane K, Fukao A. Clinical usefulness of the dilute Russell viper venom time test for patients taking warfarin. Int J Hematol. 2017;106:206-211 pubmed publisher
    ..The number of samples with inconsistent results between the activated partial thromboplastin time and mixing test, and the DRVVT following the ISTH, BCSH, and CLSI guidelines were four of 205 (1...
  40. Agersø H, Stennicke H, Pelzer H, Olsen E, Merricks E, Defriess N, et al. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of turoctocog alfa and N8-GP in haemophilia A dogs. Haemophilia. 2012;18:941-7 pubmed publisher
    ..g. with 4 days between doses, whereas turoctocog alfa will have to be dosed with 2½ day between doses. Data thereby supports N8-GP as an alternative to standard rFVIII replacement therapy, with a more convenient dosing regimen. ..
  41. Chen J, Sun S, Yan Q, Bao C, Fu Q. Elevated partial antiphospholipid score is a strong risk factor for thrombosis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a validation study. Clin Rheumatol. 2016;35:333-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Partial aPL score was calculated by adding up the individual scores for activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), lupus anticoagulant, IgG/IgM anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL), and IgG/IgM anti-β2-..
  42. Saray A, Mesihovic R, Vukobrat Bijedić Z, Gornjaković S, Vanis N, Mehmedovic A, et al. Impact of sustained virus elimination on natural anticoagulant activity in patients with chronic viral hepatitis C. Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2013;13:84-8 pubmed
    ..patients with chronic viral hepatitis C before and after completion of antiviral treatment: activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, plasma fibrinogen and natural anticoagulant proteins antithrombin III, protein C (PC)..
  43. Kluft C, Meijer P, Kret R, Burggraaf J. Preincubation in the Prothrombinase-induced Clotting Time test (PiCT) is necessary for in vitro evaluation of fondaparinux and to be avoided for the reversible, direct factor Xa inhibitor, rivaroxaban. Int J Lab Hematol. 2013;35:379-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Unfortunately, both types of inhibitors cannot be compared in vitro in a single assay format. ..
  44. Khokhlova O, Tukhovskaya E, Kravchenko I, Sadovnikova E, Pakhomova I, Kalabina E, et al. Using Tiletamine-Zolazepam-Xylazine Anesthesia Compared to CO2-inhalation for Terminal Clinical Chemistry, Hematology, and Coagulation Analysis in Mice. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 2017;84:11-19 pubmed publisher
    ..The TZX group had lower activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and fibrinogen (statistically in males and tending in females) and lower platelets (PLT), red ..
  45. Schaefer M, Weber L, Gotthardt D, Seessle J, Stremmel W, Pfeiffenberger J, et al. Coagulation Parameters in Wilson Disease. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis. 2015;24:183-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of peripheral venous blood samples coagulation factors were assessed including: full blood count, INR, partial thromboplastin time (PTT), clotting factors II, V, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, XIII, von Willebrand factor/-antigen, ..
  46. Tshikudi D, Tripathi M, Hajjarian Z, Van Cott E, Nadkarni S. Optical sensing of anticoagulation status: Towards point-of-care coagulation testing. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182491 pubmed publisher
    ..LSR clotting time correlated with prothrombin and activated partial thromboplastin time (r = 0.57-0.77, p<0.04) and all LSR parameters demonstrated good correlation with TEG (r = 0.61-0...
  47. Narazaki T, Haji S, Nakashima Y, Tsukamoto Y, Tsuda M, Takamatsu A, et al. Acquired hemophilia A associated with autoimmune pancreatitis with serum IgG4 elevation. Int J Hematol. 2018;108:335-338 pubmed publisher
    ..She suddenly presented with subcutaneous bleeding in 2015. Her activated partial thromboplastin time was prolonged (80.0 s)...
  48. de Maat M, van Schie M, Kluft C, Leebeek F, Meijer P. Biological Variation of Hemostasis Variables in Thrombosis and Bleeding: Consequences for Performance Specifications. Clin Chem. 2016;62:1639-1646 pubmed
    ..13 times over a 1-year period) in 40 healthy individuals and measured prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen, antithrombin, factor VIII, factor IX, von Willebrand factor (VWF), protein C, and ..
  49. Luo Y, Chi P, Zheng X, Zhang L, Wang X, Chen H. Preoperative D-dimers as an independent prognostic marker in cervical carcinoma. Tumour Biol. 2015;36:8903-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Pretreatment parameters including activated partial thromboplastin time, D-dimer, fibrinogen, prothrombin time, thrombin time, lactate dehydrogenase, and squamous cell ..
  50. Youngwon N, Kim J, Lim H, Han K, Kim H. Coagulation proteins influencing global coagulation assays in cirrhosis: hypercoagulability in cirrhosis assessed by thrombomodulin-induced thrombin generation assay. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:856754 pubmed publisher and anticoagulation factors on global coagulation tests including prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and thrombin generation assay (TGA) in cirrhosis...
  51. Monis G, Ferrell C, Reyes M. Lupus anticoagulant increases activated partial thromboplastin time (PTT) prolongation in incubated 1:1 mix. Clin Lab Sci. 2012;25:165-9 pubmed
    ..time and strength of lupus anticoagulant (LAC) on clotting times and prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time (PTT) 1:1 mix assays with incubation...
  52. Wang X, Tirucherai G, Marbury T, Wang J, Chang M, Zhang D, et al. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of apixaban in subjects with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis. J Clin Pharmacol. 2016;56:628-36 pubmed publisher
    ..parameters, measures of clotting (prothrombin time, international normalized ratio, activated partial thromboplastin time), and anti-factor Xa (FXa) activity...
  53. Bird J, Smith P, Wang X, Schumacher W, Barbera F, Revelli J, et al. Effects of plasma kallikrein deficiency on haemostasis and thrombosis in mice: murine ortholog of the Fletcher trait. Thromb Haemost. 2012;107:1141-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Deficiency in humans is characterised by prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT); however, the balance between thrombosis and haemostasis is not fully understood...