silver staining


Summary: The use of silver, usually silver nitrate, as a reagent for producing contrast or coloration in tissue specimens.

Top Publications

  1. Chou L, Fischer H, Perrault S, Chan W. Visualizing quantum dots in biological samples using silver staining. Anal Chem. 2009;81:4560-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate the use of silver staining for directly visualizing the distribution of QDs within biological samples under bright field microscopy...
  2. Lelong C, Chevallet M, Luche S, Rabilloud T. Silver staining of proteins in 2DE gels. Methods Mol Biol. 2009;519:339-50 pubmed publisher
    b>Silver staining detects proteins after electrophoretic separation on polyacrylamide gels. Its main positive features are its excellent sensitivity (in the low nanogram range) and the use of very simple and cheap equipment and chemicals...
  3. Uchihara T, Nakayama H. Familial tauopathy mimicking corticobasal degeneration an autopsy study on three siblings. J Neurol Sci. 2006;246:45-51 pubmed
    ..This familial tauopathy can be classified as an extremely rare example of CBD based on the distribution of characteristic lesions and staining profiles of tau-deposits. ..
  4. Chevallet M, Luche S, Diemer H, Strub J, Van Dorsselaer A, Rabilloud T. Sweet silver: a formaldehyde-free silver staining using aldoses as developing agents, with enhanced compatibility with mass spectrometry. Proteomics. 2008;8:4853-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Speed, low cost, and user friendliness are also favored features. Silver staining combines many of these features, but its compatibility with MS is limited...
  5. Jaarsma D, Teuling E, Haasdijk E, De Zeeuw C, Hoogenraad C. Neuron-specific expression of mutant superoxide dismutase is sufficient to induce amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in transgenic mice. J Neurosci. 2008;28:2075-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our findings support a pathogenic scenario in which mutant SOD1 in neurons triggers neuronal degeneration, which in turn may facilitate aggregate formation in surrounding glial cells. ..
  6. Bassam B, Gresshoff P. Silver staining DNA in polyacrylamide gels. Nat Protoc. 2007;2:2649-54 pubmed
    This protocol describes a simple silver staining method used to visualize DNA fragments and other organic molecules with unsurpassed detail following traditional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE)...
  7. Hirose S, Li M, Kojima T, de Freitas P, Ubaidus S, Oda K, et al. A histological assessment on the distribution of the osteocytic lacunar canalicular system using silver staining. J Bone Miner Metab. 2007;25:374-82 pubmed
    ..In this study, using Schoen's silver staining, we have examined the distribution of the osteocytic lacunar canalicular system (OLCS) in bones of developing ..
  8. Coric M, Ladika Davidovic B, Bumber Z, Danic D, Vuletic L, Seiwerth S. Prognostic significance of DNA cytometry in combination with AgNOR investigation. Acta Otolaryngol. 2007;127:1332-7 pubmed
    ..The observed intratumoral heterogeneity could represent a possible source of conflicting and inconsistent results...
  9. Abdul Rahman P, Lim B, Hashim O. Expression of high-abundance proteins in sera of patients with endometrial and cervical cancers: analysis using 2-DE with silver staining and lectin detection methods. Electrophoresis. 2007;28:1989-96 pubmed
    ..Analysis by using the champedak galactose binding lectin further highlighted an unidentified protein that may be differently glycosylated in the sera of the EACa patients that were studied. ..

More Information


  1. Zhang C, Wang Y, Chen H, Lan X, Lei C. Enhance the efficiency of single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis by short polyacrylamide gel and modified silver staining. Anal Biochem. 2007;365:286-7 pubmed
  2. Adeyemi B, Kolude B, Akang E, Lawoyin J. A study of the utility of silver nucleolar organizer regions in categorization and prognosis of salivary gland tumors. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2006;102:513-20 pubmed
    ..this study aimed at assessing the utility of silver nucleolar organizer region (AgNOR) staining in categorization and prognostication of salivary gland tumors...
  3. Chevallet M, Diemer H, Luche S, Van Dorsselaer A, Rabilloud T, Leize Wagner E. Improved mass spectrometry compatibility is afforded by ammoniacal silver staining. Proteomics. 2006;6:2350-4 pubmed
    ..offer improved sequence coverage over standard silver nitrate methods, while keeping the high sensitivity of silver staining. With the development of 2D-PAGE-based proteomics, another burden is placed on the detection methods used for ..
  4. Chevallet M, Luche S, Rabilloud T. Silver staining of proteins in polyacrylamide gels. Nat Protoc. 2006;1:1852-8 pubmed
    b>Silver staining is used to detect proteins after electrophoretic separation on polyacrylamide gels. It combines excellent sensitivity (in the low nanogram range) with the use of very simple and cheap equipment and chemicals...
  5. Nassar A, Zapata M, Little J, Siddiqui M. Utility of reflex Gomori methenamine silver staining for Pneumocystis jirovecii on bronchoalveolar lavage cytologic specimens: a review. Diagn Cytopathol. 2006;34:719-23 pubmed
    ..Thus, from diagnostic and cost benefit perspectives, GMS staining can be recommended only on cases where Pap stain is negative, and the clinical presentation is consistent with Pneumocystis pneumonia...
  6. Gallyas F, Gasz B, Szigeti A, Mázló M. Pathological circumstances impair the ability of "dark" neurons to undergo spontaneous recovery. Brain Res. 2006;1110:211-20 pubmed
    ..All these features support our previous assumption that the exogenous circumstances existing acutely after the formation of "dark" neurons in neurological diseases decide whether they will recover or die. ..
  7. Chattopadhyay A, Ray J. AgNOR cut-point to distinguish mild and moderate epithelial dysplasia. J Oral Pathol Med. 2008;37:78-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrated earlier that silver-stainable nucleolar organizer region (AgNOR) is a simple, inexpensive and quantifiable method which can standardize this distinction reliably...
  8. Covolan L, Mello L. Assessment of the progressive nature of cell damage in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2006;39:915-24 pubmed
    ..As a consequence of both mechanisms, subsequent insults after an initial insult result in very little damage regardless of their intensity. ..
  9. Han Y, Teng C, Hu Z, Song Y. An optimal method of DNA silver staining in polyacrylamide gels. Electrophoresis. 2008;29:1355-8 pubmed publisher
    DNA silver staining has widely been used to detect DNA fragments in polyacrylamide gels with high sensitivity. We developed an optimal method for DNA silver staining on polyacrylamide gels...
  10. Li W, Gao F, Tang W, Zhang X, Zhang H. Detection of known thalassemia point mutations by snapback single-strand conformation polymorphism: the feasibility analysis. Clin Biochem. 2006;39:833-42 pubmed
  11. Jin L, Hwang S, Yoo G, Choi J. A mass spectrometry compatible silver staining method for protein incorporating a new silver sensitizer in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis gels. Proteomics. 2006;6:2334-7 pubmed
    A quick, sensitive, and MALDI-TOF MS compatible silver staining method, namely Eriochrome black T (EBT)-silver method, is described. The method can detect 0.05-0.2 ng protein within 60 min in SDS-PAGE gels...
  12. Caperta A, Neves N, Viegas W, Pikaard C, Preuss S. Relationships between transcription, silver staining, and chromatin organization of nucleolar organizers in Secale cereale. Protoplasma. 2007;232:55-9 pubmed
    ..To test the relationship between rRNA gene activity, NOR silver staining, and rDNA (genes coding for rRNA) chromatin condensation, we used the DNA methyl-transferase inhibitor 5-..
  13. Jin L, Li X, Cong W, Hwang S, Choi J. Previsible silver staining of protein in electrophoresis gels with mass spectrometry compatibility. Anal Biochem. 2008;383:137-43 pubmed publisher
    A convenient silver staining method for protein in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels is described. The method is previsible, sensitive, and mass spectrometry (MS) compatible...
  14. Ma L, Xu R, Shi J, Zhou W, Xu G, Jiang G, et al. Identification of fungi in fungal ball sinusitis: comparison between MUC5B immunohistochemical and Grocott methenamine silver staining. Acta Otolaryngol. 2013;133:1181-7 pubmed publisher
    ..01). This implies that MUC5B immunohistochemical staining was more sensitive than GMS staining in identifying fungi in fungal ball sinusitis. Mixed infection of Aspergillus and Mucor was present in 146 of 180 patients (81.1%). ..
  15. Pei D, Huang X, Huang C, Wang Y, Ouyang X, Zhang J. Ethanol-wet bonding may improve root dentine bonding performance of hydrophobic adhesive. J Dent. 2012;40:433-41 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Ethanol-wet bonding using a stepwise ethanol application protocol may have potential benefits in the root dentine bonding of hydrophobic adhesive. ..
  16. Chen M, Cong W, Zhou X, Zhu Z, Ye W, LING J, et al. A method for sensitive staining of DNA in polyacrylamide gels using basic fuchsin. Bioanalysis. 2013;5:1545-54 pubmed publisher
    ..sensitive than that of SYBR® Gold stain, the most sensitive commercial fluorescent probe, but similar to silver staining kit from GE Healthcare...
  17. Yeung L, Rudd J, Lam W, Mak Y, Yew D. Mice are prone to kidney pathology after prolonged ketamine addiction. Toxicol Lett. 2009;191:275-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Silver staining revealed a loss of nerve fibers amongst the muscles of the urinary bladder of the treated...
  18. Bakry A, Nakajima M, Otsuki M, Tagami J. Effect of Er:YAG laser on dentin bonding durability under simulated pulpal pressure. J Adhes Dent. 2009;11:361-8 pubmed
    ..Er:YAG laser ablation to dentin adversely affected the microTBS and the sealing ability of SE Bond bonded to dentin under simulated pulpal condition. ..
  19. Themistou E, Singh I, Shang C, Balu Iyer S, Alexandridis P, Neelamegham S. Application of fluorescence spectroscopy to quantify shear-induced protein conformation change. Biophys J. 2009;97:2567-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, this study introduces the fluorescent dye bis-ANS as a tool that may be useful in studies of shear-induced protein conformation change. ..
  20. Wright B, Connon C. Limbal epithelial stem cell identification using immunoblotting analysis. Methods Mol Biol. 2013;1014:79-99 pubmed publisher
  21. Volleth M, Biedermann M, Schorcht W, Heller K. Evidence for two karyotypic variants of the lesser horseshoe bat ( Rhinolophus hipposideros , Chiroptera, Mammalia) in Central Europe. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2013;140:55-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, chromosomal arm homology to the vespertilionid bat species Myotis myotis revealed by chromosome painting is reported. Whether the variants could represent separate species is also discussed. ..
  22. Krey J, Paşca S, Shcheglovitov A, Yazawa M, Schwemberger R, RASMUSSON R, et al. Timothy syndrome is associated with activity-dependent dendritic retraction in rodent and human neurons. Nat Neurosci. 2013;16:201-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Ca(V)1.2 can activate RhoA signaling independently of Ca(2+) and provide insights into the cellular basis of Timothy syndrome and other ASDs. ..
  23. Matsushita A, Pyon G, Kawasaki M. Time disparity sensitive behavior and its neural substrates of a pulse-type gymnotiform electric fish, Brachyhypopomus gauderio. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2013;199:583-99 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that the time-locked neural signals conveyed by the pear-shaped cells and the large cells are decoded by the small cells for detection of time shifts occurring across body areas...
  24. Gross M, Schneider C, Valente G, Martins C, Feldberg E. Variability of 18S rDNA locus among Symphysodon fishes: chromosomal rearrangements. J Fish Biol. 2010;76:1117-27 pubmed publisher
  25. Sharma A, Saxena S. Quantification of AgNOR expression in exfoliated oral mucosal cells of tobacco chewers with and without lesion. Indian J Dent Res. 2012;23:251-6 pubmed publisher
    ..AgNOR enumeration using noninvasive methods, such as the cytobrush appears to be useful technique in distinguishing between normal mucosa, mucosa with and without lesions exposed to carcinogens, such as tobacco and frank oral carcinoma. ..
  26. Iwen P, Schutte S, Florescu D, Noel Hurst R, Sigler L. Invasive Scopulariopsis brevicaulis infection in an immunocompromised patient and review of prior cases caused by Scopulariopsis and Microascus species. Med Mycol. 2012;50:561-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A focus of this report is the diagnostic methods utilized which included histopathology and culture with both micromorphologic and genotypic procedures employed to confirm the species identification. ..
  27. Lee L, Zhou F, Simms A, Wieczorek R, Fang Y, Subietas Mayol A, et al. Metastatic balloon cell malignant melanoma: a case report and literature review. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2011;4:315-21 pubmed
    ..The differential diagnosis of metastatic balloon cell malignant melanoma is broad, and clinicopathologic correlation may play a critical role in achieving the correct diagnosis. ..
  28. Gupta R, Xu S, Sharma P, Capalash N. Characterization of MspNI (G/GWCC) and MspNII (R/GATCY), novel thermostable Type II restriction endonucleases from Meiothermus sp., isoschizomers of AvaII and BstYI. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:5607-14 pubmed publisher
    ..MspNI and MspNII worked optimally at 60 and 70°C, 6 and 5 mM MgCl(2), respectively and showed no star activity in organic solvents. Both were resistant to sequence methylation and were stable up to 25 PCR cycles. ..
  29. Alvarez Castelao B, Goethals M, Vandekerckhove J, Castaño J. Mechanism of cleavage of alpha-synuclein by the 20S proteasome and modulation of its degradation by the RedOx state of the N-terminal methionines. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1843:352-65 pubmed publisher
  30. Hansen C, Faw T, White S, Buford J, Grau J, Basso D. Sparing of Descending Axons Rescues Interneuron Plasticity in the Lumbar Cord to Allow Adaptive Learning After Thoracic Spinal Cord Injury. Front Neural Circuits. 2016;10:11 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, this work identifies a time dependent interaction between spared axonal systems and adaptive plasticity in locomotor networks and highlights a critical window for activity-based rehabilitation. ..
  31. Yang Y, Shu X, Liu D, Shang Y, Wu Y, Pei L, et al. EPAC null mutation impairs learning and social interactions via aberrant regulation of miR-124 and Zif268 translation. Neuron. 2012;73:774-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, EPAC proteins control miR-124 transcription in the brain for processing spatial learning and social interactions. ..
  32. Kim Y, Lee E, Park S, Kim N, Kim C. Proteomic analysis of plasma from a Tau transgenic mouse. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2012;30:277-83 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that these proteins could be used as candidate biomarkers for early diagnosis of AD in combination with previously discovered protein biomarkers. ..
  33. Lesniak A, Pick C, Misicka A, Lipkowski A, Sacharczuk M. Biphalin protects against cognitive deficits in a mouse model of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Neuropharmacology. 2016;101:506-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Biphalin also reduced cortical and hippocampal neurodegeneration, as shown by silver staining. Our data indicates that opioid receptor activation by biphalin may provide neuroprotection of post-traumatic ..
  34. Restivo L, Vetere G, Bontempi B, Ammassari Teule M. The formation of recent and remote memory is associated with time-dependent formation of dendritic spines in the hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex. J Neurosci. 2009;29:8206-14 pubmed publisher
  35. Cho Y, Son H, Kim E, Choi J, Kim S, Ji I, et al. Doxycycline is neuroprotective against nigral dopaminergic degeneration by a dual mechanism involving MMP-3. Neurotox Res. 2009;16:361-71 pubmed publisher
    ..nigral DAergic neurons following MPTP treatment, as assessed by tyrosine hydroxylase immunocytochemistry and silver staining, and suppressed microglial activation and astrogliosis as assessed by Iba-1 and GFAP immunochemistry, ..
  36. Rossi S, Furlan R, De Chiara V, Musella A, Lo Giudice T, Mataluni G, et al. Exercise attenuates the clinical, synaptic and dendritic abnormalities of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Neurobiol Dis. 2009;36:51-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work suggests that life style and experiences can impact the clinical course of inflammatory neurodegenerative diseases by affecting their synaptic bases. ..
  37. Lee S, Joung M, Nam T, Park W, Ji Y, Yu J. Cryptosporidium parvum: radiation-induced alteration of the oocyst proteome. Exp Parasitol. 2011;127:25-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The roles of these two upregulated proteins as related to the radioresistance of C. parvum remain to be evaluated. ..
  38. Addis M, Tanca A, Pagnozzi D, Rocca S, Uzzau S. 2-D PAGE and MS analysis of proteins from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Proteomics. 2009;9:4329-39 pubmed publisher
    ..250 spots were clearly detected in 2-D maps of proteins from FFPE tissue following standard mass-compatible silver staining. Protein spots from both FFPE and frozen tissue 2-D gels were excised, subjected to in situ hydrolysis, and ..
  39. Kunimoto S, Nakamura S, Wada K, Inoue T. Chronic stress-mutated presenilin 1 gene interaction perturbs neurogenesis and accelerates neurodegeneration. Exp Neurol. 2010;221:175-85 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude from these results that diverse responses against stressful experiences among genetically predisposed individuals could lead to cognitive dysfunction through retardation of neuronal maturation and neurodegeneration. ..
  40. Jimenez S, Maren S. Nuclear disconnection within the amygdala reveals a direct pathway to fear. Learn Mem. 2009;16:766-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that neural projections from the BLA to CEA are essential for the expression of learned fear responses. ..
  41. Ladiwala A, Lin J, Bale S, Marcelino Cruz A, Bhattacharya M, Dordick J, et al. Resveratrol selectively remodels soluble oligomers and fibrils of amyloid Abeta into off-pathway conformers. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:24228-37 pubmed publisher
    ..We expect that resveratrol and other small molecules with similar conformational specificity will aid in illuminating the conformational epitopes responsible for Abeta-mediated toxicity. ..
  42. Hundelt M, Fath T, Selle K, Oesterwind K, Jordan J, Schultz C, et al. Altered phosphorylation but no neurodegeneration in a mouse model of tau hyperphosphorylation. Neurobiol Aging. 2011;32:991-1006 pubmed publisher
    ..With our model it becomes possible to study the effects of hyperphosphorylation at conditions which may prevail in an early preaggregation state of the disease. ..
  43. Sadek F, Mazzoni A, Breschi L, Tay F, Braga R. Six-month evaluation of adhesives interface created by a hydrophobic adhesive to acid-etched ethanol-wet bonded dentine with simplified dehydration protocols. J Dent. 2010;38:276-83 pubmed publisher
  44. Kawabe H, Neeb A, Dimova K, Young S, Takeda M, Katsurabayashi S, et al. Regulation of Rap2A by the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-1 controls neurite development. Neuron. 2010;65:358-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that a Nedd4-1/Rap2A/TNIK signaling pathway regulates neurite growth and arborization in mammalian neurons. ..
  45. Christensen A, Dewing P, Micevych P. Membrane-initiated estradiol signaling induces spinogenesis required for female sexual receptivity. J Neurosci. 2011;31:17583-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that estradiol-induced spinogenesis in the ARH is an important cellular mechanism for the regulation of female sexual behavior. ..
  46. Gonzalez J, Romero I, Barquinero J, Garcia O. Automatic analysis of silver-stained comets by CellProfiler software. Mutat Res. 2012;748:60-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work demonstrates that automatic measurement of silver-stained comets with open-source software is possible, providing significant time savings. ..
  47. Rabilloud T. The whereabouts of 2D gels in quantitative proteomics. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;893:25-35 pubmed publisher
  48. Tress O, Maglione M, May D, Pivneva T, Richter N, Seyfarth J, et al. Panglial gap junctional communication is essential for maintenance of myelin in the CNS. J Neurosci. 2012;32:7499-518 pubmed publisher
  49. de Mattos Pimenta Vidal C, Pavan S, Briso A, Bedran Russo A. Effects of three restorative techniques in the bond strength and nanoleakage at gingival wall of Class II restorations subjected to simulated aging. Clin Oral Investig. 2013;17:627-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of an intermediate layer did not improve the dentin bond strength neither reduced nanoleakage at the gingival margins of class II restorations under simulated aging conditions. ..
  50. Lesniak A, Campbell A, Monopoli M, Lynch I, Salvati A, Dawson K. Serum heat inactivation affects protein corona composition and nanoparticle uptake. Biomaterials. 2010;31:9511-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The fact that uptake was correlated with the amount of protein bound into the nanoparticle corona suggests the need for commonly agreed dispersion protocols for in vitro nanoparticle-cell studies. ..
  51. Fry S. High-voltage paper electrophoresis (HVPE) of cell-wall building blocks and their metabolic precursors. Methods Mol Biol. 2011;715:55-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Interested scientists are invited to contact the author about the possibility of accessing the Edinburgh apparatus. ..
  52. Mavrogiorgou P, Gertz H, Ferszt R, Wolf R, Bär K, Juckel G. Are routine methods good enough to stain senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in different brain regions of demented patients?. Psychiatr Danub. 2011;23:334-9 pubmed
    ..The highest number was detected with Gallyas silver stain in cryosections. These results may suggest that Campbell stain for SPs and Gallyas stain for NFTs should be the methods routinely used. ..
  53. Yaman K, Akarsu G, Gungor C, Ataoglu H. [Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii proteins from various strains]. Turkiye Parazitol Derg. 2011;35:133-6 pubmed publisher
    ..RH and Ankara strains have the same protein bands while TS-4 strain has different and fewer protein bands than the others. ..