primed in situ labeling


Summary: A technique that labels specific sequences in whole chromosomes by in situ DNA chain elongation or PCR (polymerase chain reaction).

Top Publications

  1. Koch J. Detection and sizing of telomeric and other simple repeats by dideoxy-PRINS. Methods Mol Biol. 2006;334:81-8 pubmed
    ..g., variant telomeric repeat variants embedded in, or situated next to, the main repeat), provided that they present enough template for the DNA synthesis. ..
  2. Kaczmarek A, Naganowska B, Wolko B. PRINS and C-PRINS: promising tools for the physical mapping of the lupin genome. Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2007;12:16-24 pubmed
    ..These techniques are faster and more sensitive than FISH, and they allowed the mapping of short DNA fragments. The data obtained shows that both types of PRINS are valuable tools for chromosome identification in lupin...
  3. Yang J, Schwinger E, Mennicke K. Primed in situ labeling: sensitivity and specificity for detection of alpha-satellite DNA in the centromere regions of chromosomes 13 and 21. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 2001;95:28-33 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that an interchromosomal exchange of alpha-satellite DNA takes place between chromosomes 13 and 21, possibly due to a concerted evolution process. ..
  4. Kubaláková M, Vrana J, Cihalikova J, Lysak M, Dolezel J. Localisation of DNA sequences on plant chromosomes using PRINS and C-PRINS. Methods Cell Sci. 2001;23:71-82 pubmed
    ..The methods result in clear signals with negligible non-specific labelling. Further work is needed to improve the sensitivity to allow for reliable detection of single- copy DNA sequences. ..
  5. Serakinci N, Pedersen B, Koch J. Expansion of repetitive DNA into cytogenetically visible elements. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 2001;92:182-5 pubmed
    ..It thus seems to represent an expansion from some lowly repetitive AT-rich DNA translocated to the tip of chromosome 22. ..
  6. Hobza R, Lengerova M, Cernohorska H, Rubes J, Vyskot B. FAST-FISH with laser beam microdissected DOP-PCR probe distinguishes the sex chromosomes of Silene latifolia. Chromosome Res. 2004;12:245-50 pubmed
    ..The success of this approach is demonstrated by the differential labeling of the X and Y chromosomes and it could represent a quick method for comparing organization of plant genomes. ..
  7. Xie M, Huang Y, Xiao J, Zhao S, Chen Z, Wang C. [Detection of chromosomal aberrations in nasopharyngeal carcinoma by rapid primed in situ labeling]. Ai Zheng. 2004;23:104-7 pubmed
    ..the present study was to explore the feasibility of detecting chromosomal abnormalities in NPC by rapid primed in situ labeling (RPRINS)...
  8. Liu D, Ding X. [Triple-color primed in situ labeling protocol of human metaphase chromosomes]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi. 2007;24:514-7 pubmed
    ..Numerical chromosome anomalies could be rapidly and exactly detected with this non-ddNTP-blocking multicolor PRINS protocol in peripheral blood lymphocytes. The results of in situ labeling are much clearer with inner control. ..
  9. Knight S, Flint J. The use of subtelomeric probes to study mental retardation. Methods Cell Biol. 2004;75:799-831 pubmed

More Information


  1. Krabchi K, Gadji M, Samassekou O, Grégoire M, Forest J, Drouin R. Quantification of fetal nucleated cells in maternal blood of pregnant women with a male trisomy 21 fetus using molecular cytogenetic techniques. Prenat Diagn. 2006;26:28-34 pubmed
    ..were analyzed by molecular cytogenetic techniques such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and primed in situ labeling (PRINS) using specific probes to chromosomes X, Y and 21...
  2. Mengel Jørgensen J, Jensen S, Rasmussen A, Poehlsgaard J, Iversen J, Kirpekar F. Modifications in Thermus thermophilus 23 S ribosomal RNA are centered in regions of RNA-RNA contact. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:22108-17 pubmed
    ..These findings strongly suggest that the post-transcriptional modifications play a role in modulating intermolecular RNA-RNA contacts, which is the first suggestion on a specific function of endogenous ribosomal RNA modifications. ..
  3. Macas J, Navrátilová A, Kubaláková M, Dolezel J. PRINS on plant chromosomes. Methods Mol Biol. 2006;334:133-9 pubmed
    The introduction of primed in situ labeling (PRINS) into plant cytogenetics provided a novel means for fast and highly specific visualization of DNA sequences on chromosomes and in interphase nuclei...
  4. Pellestor F, Paulasova P. PRINS combined with peptide nucleic acid labeling. Methods Mol Biol. 2006;334:15-22 pubmed
    Both primed in situ labeling (PRINS) and peptide nucleic acid (PNA) technologies have emerged as research techniques, but they have quickly evolved to applications in biological diagnosis assays...
  5. Kadandale J, Wachtel S, Tunca Y, Martens P, Wilroy R, Tharapel A. Deletion of RBM and DAZ in azoospermia: evaluation by PRINS. Am J Med Genet. 2002;107:105-8 pubmed
    ..By primed in situ labeling, we identified translocation of the SRY gene from its original location on Yp to the patient's X ..
  6. Gao J, Ding X, Liu D, Zhu Y. Detection of Klinefelter syndrome by G-banding analysis combined with primed in situ labeling technique. Genet Mol Res. 2011;10:4026-33 pubmed publisher
    ..PRINS proved to be a rapid and reliable method to detect numerical chromosome abnormalities in peripheral blood lymphocytes in metaphase. ..
  7. Koch J. Single-copy and point mutation analysis (rolling-circle PRINS). Methods Mol Biol. 2006;334:41-8 pubmed
    ..In this format, the primed in situ labeling (PRINS) product takes the form of a long-tandem repeat copy of the probe, covalently attached to the site ..
  8. Stuppia L, La Sala D, Cinti C. Combined fluorescence in situ hybridization and PRINS for the analysis of the Dystrophin gene. Methods Mol Biol. 2006;334:115-22 pubmed
    ..Here, we describe an approach based on the combined use of primed in situ labeling and fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques for the detection of single DMD exons in fixed ..
  9. Pellestor F. In situ aneuploidy assessment in human sperm: the use of primed in situ and peptide nucleic acid-fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques. Asian J Androl. 2006;8:387-92 pubmed
  10. Palanduz S, Serakinci N, Cefle K, Aktan M, Tutkan G, Ozturk S, et al. A different approach to telomere analysis with ddPRINS in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Eur J Med Genet. 2006;49:63-9 pubmed
    ..Our findings imply that shortened telomeres in CLL may be reflecting the "history" of the disease and serve as an independent prognostic factor. ..
  11. Tharapel A, Wachtel S. PRINS for the detection of gene deletions in cancer. Methods Mol Biol. 2006;334:105-13 pubmed
    ..Our group modified the primed in situ labeling (PRINS) method to study RB1 and p53 in cultured bone marrow cells from leukemia patients with known ..
  12. Roy S, Biswas D, Vijayachari P, Sugunan A, Sehgal S. A 22-mer primer enhances discriminatory power of AP-PCR fingerprinting technique in characterization of leptospires. Trop Med Int Health. 2004;9:1203-9 pubmed
    ..The discriminatory power of M16 primer adds more specificity to the rapidity of this system of characterization and can be used as an excellent tool in epidemiological studies on Leptospira. ..
  13. Ocalewicz K, Sliwinska A, Jankun M. Autosomal localization of interstitial telomeric sites (ITS) in brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Pisces, Salmonidae). Cytogenet Genome Res. 2004;105:79-82 pubmed
    ..Our observations confirm that GC-rich regions are highly mobile genetic structures, and led to ITS formation on brook trout chromosomes. ..
  14. Krabchi K, Lavoie J, Coullin P, Bronsard M, Pellestor F, Yan J, et al. [From the conception of the PRINS to its coronation]. Med Sci (Paris). 2004;20:465-73 pubmed
  15. Yang X, Cullen S, Li J, Chapman R, Jewell D. Susceptibility to primary sclerosing cholangitis is associated with polymorphisms of intercellular adhesion molecule-1. J Hepatol. 2004;40:375-9 pubmed
    ..04; OR, 0.26). There was no difference between PSC and control groups in the frequencies of the genotype R241G or in allele frequencies of K469E. The E469E homozygote status for ICAM-1 is associated with protection against PSC. ..
  16. Sklenicková M, Fajkus J. [Telomere analysis in tumor cells using in situ techniques]. Cas Lek Cesk. 2003;142:479-82 pubmed
  17. Bel kova N, Driukker V, Xong S, An T. [Study of the aquatic bacterial community composition of Baikal lake by in situ hybridization assay]. Mikrobiologiia. 2003;72:282-3 pubmed
  18. Kaczmarek A, Naganowska B, Wolko B. Karyotyping of the narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) by using FISH, PRINS and computer measurements of chromosomes. J Appl Genet. 2009;50:77-82 pubmed publisher
    ..9 microm to 3.8 microm, and mean relative lengths from 1.6% to 3.3%. Data concerning linkage of resistance to 2 fungal pathogens as well as assignment of the second linkage group to the appropriate chromosome are given for the first time...
  19. Deng L, Ding X, Nie Y, Hu Y, Ren H. [Application of multicolor primed in situ labeling in simultaneous identification of chromosomes 18, X and Y in uncultured amniocytes]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi. 2009;26:439-42 pubmed
    To establish a multicolor primed in situ labeling (PRINS) protocol for chromosome detection in uncultured amniocytes...
  20. Hoshino T, Schramm A. Detection of denitrification genes by in situ rolling circle amplification-fluorescence in situ hybridization to link metabolic potential with identity inside bacterial cells. Environ Microbiol. 2010;12:2508-17 pubmed publisher
    ..While not suitable for quantification because of its low detection frequency, in situ RCA-FISH will allow to link metabolic potential with 16S rRNA (gene)-based identification of single microbial cells. ..
  21. Mozdarani H, Ghoraeian P. Efficient combined FISH and PRINS technique for detection of DAZ microdeletion in human sperm. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2012;29:979-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report we are going to describe a combined Primed in situ labeling (PRINS) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique to show the localization of DAZ gene as ..
  22. Harrer T, Schwinger E, Mennicke K. A new technique for cyclic in situ amplification and a case report about amplification of a single copy gene sequence in human metaphase chromosomes through PCR-PRINS. Hum Mutat. 2001;17:131-40 pubmed
    Since the introduction of PRimed IN Situ labeling (PRINS) as a rapid and extremely sensitive alternative method to conventional fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), its application in clinical cytogenetics has been limited to the ..
  23. Nousiainen H, Kestila M, Pakkasjärvi N, Honkala H, Kuure S, Tallila J, et al. Mutations in mRNA export mediator GLE1 result in a fetal motoneuron disease. Nat Genet. 2008;40:155-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our finding of mutated GLE1 exposes a common pathway connecting the genes implicated in LCCS1, LCCS2 and LCCS3 and elucidates mRNA processing as a critical molecular mechanism in motoneuron development and maturation. ..
  24. Kallistova A, Kevbrina M, Pimenov N, Rusanov I, Rogozin D, Wehrli B, et al. [Sulfate reduction and methanogenesis in the Shira and Shunet meromictic lakes (Khakass Republic, Russia)]. Mikrobiologiia. 2006;75:828-35 pubmed
    ..SRB were found to prevail in the upper sediment layer and archaea in the lower one. This finding correlates with the measured rates of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. ..
  25. Hřibová E, Dolezelová M, Town C, Macas J, Dolezel J. Isolation and characterization of the highly repeated fraction of the banana genome. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2007;119:268-74 pubmed publisher
    ..This work significantly expands the knowledge of the repetitive fraction of the Musa genome and organization of its chromosomes. ..
  26. Koch J. Principles and applications of PRINS in cytogenetics. Curr Protoc Hum Genet. 2004;Chapter 4:Unit 4.12 pubmed publisher
    A flexible, low-cost alternative to FISH, primed in situ labeling (PRINS) has traditionally been used to detect tandemly repeated target sequences in chromosomes and nuclei...
  27. Strzalka W, Kaczmarek A, Naganowska B, Ziemienowicz A. Identification and functional analysis of PCNA1 and PCNA-like1 genes of Phaseolus coccineus. J Exp Bot. 2010;61:873-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Alternatively, the PcPCNA-like1 gene may represent a pseudogene. ..
  28. Musio A, Baroli P, Sbrana I. Primed in situ labeling (PRINS): a method for rapid identification and quantification of human chromosomes in both lymphocytes and sperm nuclei. Genome. 1998;41:739-41 pubmed
    In this work, a specific primer for X alphoid satellite DNA was used to detect chromosome X through primed in situ labeling (PRINS)...
  29. Capim S, Carneiro P, Castro P, Barros M, Marinho B, Vasconcellos M. Design, Prins-cyclization reaction promoting diastereoselective synthesis of 10 new tetrahydropyran derivatives and in vivo antinociceptive evaluations. Eur J Med Chem. 2012;58:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides that the tail-flick tests indicate compounds 7 and 10 as the most actives. All these new compounds showed no toxicity in mice in all biologically studied models. ..
  30. Pudney J, Nguyen H, Xu C, Anderson D. Microscopic evidence against HIV-1 infection of germ cells or attachment to sperm. J Reprod Immunol. 1998;41:105-25 pubmed
    ..In this article we present our results in the context of other related studies, and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the techniques that have been used to address this important research question. ..
  31. Bagasra O, Patel D, Bobroski L, Abbasi J, Bagasra A, Baidouri H, et al. Localization of human herpesvirus type 8 in human sperms by in situ PCR. J Mol Histol. 2005;36:401-12 pubmed
    ..Co-culture studies have further supported the observations that HHV-8 in the sperm cells is infectious and capable of transmission of the virus to uninfected cells. ..
  32. Mennicke K, Yang J, Hinrichs F, Muller A, Diercks P, Schwinger E. Validation of primed in situ labeling for interphase analysis of chromosomes 18, X, and Y in uncultured amniocytes. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2003;18:114-21 pubmed
    b>Primed in situ labeling (PRINS) is an interesting alternative to the traditional fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the in situ detection of specific sequences in chromosome anomalies...
  33. Navrátilová A, Neumann P, Macas J. Karyotype analysis of four Vicia species using in situ hybridization with repetitive sequences. Ann Bot. 2003;91:921-6 pubmed
    ..This fact, together with observed variations in positions and numbers of rDNA loci, suggests considerable divergence between karyotypes of the species studied...
  34. Koch J. Principles and applications of PRINS in cytogenetics. Curr Protoc Cytom. 2004;Chapter 8:Unit 8.11 pubmed publisher
    A flexible, low-cost alternative to FISH, primed in situ labeling (PRINS) has traditionally been used to detect tandemly repeated target sequences in chromosomes and nuclei...
  35. Wachtel S, Tharapel A. FISH and PRINS: competing or complementary technologies?. Am J Med Genet. 2002;107:97-8 pubmed
  36. Pellestor F, Imbert I, Andréo B. Rapid chromosome detection by PRINS in human sperm. Am J Med Genet. 2002;107:109-14 pubmed
    ..The frequency of disomy ranged from 0.28% to 0.36%. There were no significant interchromosomal differences in disomy rate, but chromosome 21 displayed a higher incidence of nondisjunction than did the other chromosomes. ..
  37. Cinti C, Stuppia L, Maraldi N. Combined use of PRINS and FISH in the study of the dystrophin gene. Am J Med Genet. 2002;107:115-8 pubmed
    ..b>Primed in situ labeling (PRINS) is based on specific hybridization of an unlabeled oligonucleotide with a denatured template and ..
  38. Cervantes A, Guevara Yáñez R, Lopez M, Monroy N, Aguinaga M, Valdez H, et al. PCR-PRINS-FISH analysis of structurally abnormal sex chromosomes in eight patients with Turner phenotype. Clin Genet. 2001;60:385-92 pubmed
    ..Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), primed in situ labeling (PRINS), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses were performed in 8 patients with Turner ..
  39. Pellestor F, Malki S, Andreo B, Lefort G. Ultra-rapid multicolor PRINS protocol for chromosome detection in human sperm. Chromosome Res. 2002;10:359-67 pubmed
    ..By simplifying the multicolor PRINS protocol, this new protocol should facilitate the use and adaptation of PRINS to various cytogenetic applications. ..
  40. Pellestor F, Andréo B, Puechberty J, Lefort G, Sarda P. Analysis of sperm aneuploidy by PRINS. Methods Mol Biol. 2006;334:49-59 pubmed
    ..isothiocyanate, tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate, Cascade Blue) incorporated in sequential primed in situ labeling (PRINS) reactions, a new multicolor PRINS procedure is described, allowing the rapid and distinct in situ ..
  41. Wijayanto H, Hirai Y, Kamanaka Y, Katho A, Sajuthi D, Hirai H. Patterns of C-heterochromatin and telomeric DNA in two representative groups of small apes, the genera Hylobates and Symphalangus. Chromosome Res. 2005;13:717-24 pubmed
    ..Although the evolutionary mechanisms in small apes are still unknown, C-banding patterns and distribution of telomeric DNA sequences should provide valuable data to deduce the evolutionary pathways of small apes...
  42. Pellestor F. Development and adaptation of the PRINS technology: an overview. Methods Mol Biol. 2006;334:211-20 pubmed
    ..One of these techniques is the primed in situ labeling (PRINS) procedure, which constitutes a fast and efficient alternative to conventional fluorescence in ..
  43. Yan J, Gadji M, Krabchi K, Drouin R. New rapid multicolor PRINS protocol. Methods Mol Biol. 2006;334:3-13 pubmed
    In the multiple-color primed in situ labeling (multi-PRINS) technique, using ddNTPs between two PRINS reactions can block the free 3'-end generated in the previous PRINS reaction, thus avoiding the next PRINS reaction, using it as a ..
  44. Bed Hom B, Coullin P, Guillier Gencik Z, Moulin S, Bernheim A, Volobouev V. Characterization of the atypical karyotype of the black-winged kite Elanus caeruleus (Falconiformes: Accipitridae) by means of classical and molecular cytogenetic techniques. Chromosome Res. 2003;11:335-43 pubmed
    ..The atypical organization of the karyotype of the black-winged kite is considered in the context of the modes of karyotypic evolution in birds. ..
  45. Ocalewicz K, Woznicki P, Jankun M. Mapping of rRNA genes and telomeric sequences in Danube salmon (Hucho hucho) chromosomes using primed in situ labeling technique (PRINS). Genetica. 2008;134:199-203 pubmed
    ..The chromosomal localization of rRNA genes and telomeric DNA sequences was discussed in the context of Salmonidae karyotype evolution. ..
  46. Wnuk M, Lewinska A, Bugno M, Bartosz G, Slota E. Rapid detection of yeast rRNA genes with primed in situ (PRINS) labeling. FEMS Yeast Res. 2009;9:634-40 pubmed publisher
    ..PRINS, which is as sensitive as PCR and allows cytological localization of analyzed sequences, can be adapted for various screening tests requiring fast labeling of rRNA genes. ..
  47. Stougaard M, Lohmann J, Zajac M, Hamilton Dutoit S, Koch J. In situ detection of non-polyadenylated RNA molecules using Turtle Probes and target primed rolling circle PRINS. BMC Biotechnol. 2007;7:69 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the procedure is easily multiplexed, allowing visualization of several different RNAs. ..
  48. Bull J, Paskins L. Cycling primed in situ amplification. Methods Mol Biol. 2003;226:425-32 pubmed
  49. Wnuk M, Oklejewicz B, Lewinska A, Zabek T, Bartosz G, Slota E, et al. PRINS detection of 18S rDNA in pig, red fox and Chinese raccoon dog, and centromere DNA in horse. Hereditas. 2010;147:320-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Our new PRINS application may be considered as a useful tool for chromosome investigation in the field of domestic and wild animal genetics and evolution...
  50. Pellestor F, Andréo B, Anahory T, Hamamah S. PRINS as an efficient tool for aneuploidy assessment in human oocytes and preimplantation embryos. Methods Mol Biol. 2006;334:151-60 pubmed
  51. Bonifacio S, Centrone C, Da Prato L, Scordo M, Estienne M, Torricelli F. Use of primed in situ labeling (PRINS) for the detection of telomeric deletions associated with mental retardation. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 2001;93:16-8 pubmed
    ..Sixty-five children with unexplained mental retardation were studied using PRINS technology; two of them were shown to have a telomeric deletion. ..
  52. Luo X, Ding X, Chen L, Quan Q. [Rapid detection of SOX2 gene by primed in situ labeling]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi. 2012;29:289-92 pubmed publisher
    To rapidly detect SOX2 gene using primed in situ labeling (PRINS). Human peripheral blood samples were cultured using an optimized method...
  53. Zhu Y, Liu D, Ding X. [Detecting human chromosome anomalies with primed in situ labeling (PRINS)]. Yi Chuan. 2008;30:983-90 pubmed
    ..The present study was to establish a rapid, reliable and reasonable multicolor primed in situ labeling (PRINS) protocol for diagnosing numerical anomaly in human chromosome...