histocytological preparation techniques


Summary: Methods of preparing cells or tissues for examination and study of their origin, structure, function, or pathology. The methods include preservation, fixation, sectioning, staining, replica, or other technique to allow for viewing using a microscope.

Top Publications

  1. Kaletas B, van der Wiel I, Stauber J, Guzel C, Kros J, Luider T, et al. Sample preparation issues for tissue imaging by imaging MS. Proteomics. 2009;9:2622-33 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, we review and discuss the importance of correct sample treatment in case of MALDI and secondary ion MS imaging experiments and describe the experimental requirements for optimal sample preparation. ..
  2. Li X, Ji T, Hu J, Sun J. Optimization of specimen preparation of thin cell section for AFM observation. Ultramicroscopy. 2008;108:826-31 pubmed publisher
    ..In brief, by optimizing the condition of ultrathin cell section preparation, we were able to obtain high resolution intracellular AFM images, which provide an essential basis for further AFM manipulation. ..
  3. Watanabe S, Lehmann M, Hujber E, Fetter R, Richards J, Söhl Kielczynski B, et al. Nanometer-resolution fluorescence electron microscopy (nano-EM) in cultured cells. Methods Mol Biol. 2014;1117:503-26 pubmed publisher
  4. Ke M, Fujimoto S, Imai T. SeeDB: a simple and morphology-preserving optical clearing agent for neuronal circuit reconstruction. Nat Neurosci. 2013;16:1154-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Our simple and efficient method is useful for imaging intact morphological architecture at large scales in both the adult and developing brains. ..
  5. Acs G, Dumoff K, Solin L, Pasha T, Xu X, Zhang P. Extensive retraction artifact correlates with lymphatic invasion and nodal metastasis and predicts poor outcome in early stage breast carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2007;31:129-40 pubmed
    ..Rather, it likely signifies important biologic changes that alter tumor-stromal interactions and contribute to lymphatic spread and tumor progression. ..
  6. Kennedy H, Puth F, van Hoy M, Le Pichon C. A method for removing the brain and spinal cord as one unit from adult mice and rats. Lab Anim (NY). 2011;40:53-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This procedure can also be used to obtain fresh spinal cord samples that are free of bone and can be frozen in optimal cutting temperature medium. ..
  7. Pastoureau P, Hunziker E, Pelletier J. Cartilage, bone and synovial histomorphometry in animal models of osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2010;18 Suppl 3:S106-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Contributing also to the introduction of normative data, it is a major advantage for therapeutic assessments in experimental OA and particularly for the analytical comparison of the efficacy of disease modifying OA drugs (DMOAD). ..
  8. Ananian V, Tozzo P, Ponzano E, Nitti D, Rodriguez D, Caenazzo L. Tumoural specimens for forensic purposes: comparison of genetic alterations in frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Int J Legal Med. 2011;125:327-32 pubmed publisher
    ..However, FFPET showed new alterations. We conclude that the use of FFPET requires greater attention than frozen tissues in the results interpretation and great care in both pre-extraction and extraction processes. ..
  9. Transidico P, Bianchi M, Capra M, Pelicci P, Faretta M. From cells to tissues: fluorescence confocal microscopy in the study of histological samples. Microsc Res Tech. 2004;64:89-95 pubmed

More Information


  1. Phanuphak N, Teeratakulpisarn N, Lim C, Changnam T, Kerr S, Deesua A, et al. Comparable performance of conventional and liquid-based cytology in diagnosing anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected and -uninfected Thai men who have sex with men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013;63:464-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to high prevalence of abnormal anal cytology and AIN, health systems should prepare adequate infrastructure for high-resolution anoscopy services and AIN treatment. ..
  2. Chinga G, Johnsen P, Diserud O. Controlled serial grinding for high-resolution three-dimensional reconstruction. J Microsc. 2004;214:13-21 pubmed
    ..An example of a 3D reconstructed paper volume is presented. The method is suitable for preparation of fibre and paper as well as other materials. ..
  3. Matsuhashi N, Saio M, Matsuo A, Sugiyama Y, Saji S. Expression of p53 protein as a predictor of the response to 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin chemotherapy in human gastrointestinal cancer cell lines evaluated with apoptosis by use of thin layer collagen gel. Int J Oncol. 2004;24:807-13 pubmed
  4. Siddiqi A, Spataro M, McIntire H, Akhtar I, Baliga M, Flowers R, et al. Hybrid capture 2 human papillomavirus DNA testing for women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance Papanicolaou results in SurePath and ThinPrep specimens. Cancer. 2009;117:318-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Hybrid Capture 2 positive rates and CIN2-3 detection rates were comparable for the SurePath and ThinPrep Pap collection systems, thus supporting the use of SurePath for Hybrid Capture 2 testing. ..
  5. Leung A, Kort K, Khurana K. Reparative change with extensive squamous metaplasia: a potential diagnostic pitfall on thyroid aspiration. South Med J. 2010;103:268-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This article discusses a potential pitfall in the interpretation of fine needle aspirates of squamous metaplastic cells in the thyroid. ..
  6. Wisse E, Braet F, Duimel H, Vreuls C, Koek G, Olde Damink S, et al. Fixation methods for electron microscopy of human and other liver. World J Gastroenterol. 2010;16:2851-66 pubmed
  7. Guiselin N, Courcot L, Artigas L, Le Jéloux A, Brylinski J. An optimised protocol to prepare Phaeocystis globosa morphotypes for scanning electron microscopy observation. J Microbiol Methods. 2009;77:119-23 pubmed publisher
    ..For extra colonial cells, critical point drying (CPD) gave satisfactory results while for intra colonial cells, preservation with Lugol's iodine and/or glutaraldehyde followed by air-drying appeared as the most suitable method. ..
  8. Vanhecke D, Graber W, Studer D. Rapidly excised and cryofixed rat tissue. Methods Cell Biol. 2010;96:513-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Cryosectioning of high-pressure frozen samples is optimally preserving the ultrastructure; however, it is not considered to be a routine approach yet. ..
  9. Péry E, Blondel W, Didelon J, Leroux A, Guillemin F. Simultaneous characterization of optical and rheological properties of carotid arteries via bimodal spectroscopy: experimental and simulation results. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2009;56:1267-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Absorption and diffusion coefficients are slightly higher, whatever the wavelengths and strains, for the fresh than for the cryopreserved samples. ..
  10. Chong K, Deng Y. The three dimensionality of cell membranes: lamellar to cubic membrane transition as investigated by electron microscopy. Methods Cell Biol. 2012;108:319-43 pubmed publisher
    ..A 3D analysis of cubic cell membrane topology by electron tomography is described as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to investigate surface contours of isolated mitochondria with cubic membrane arrangement. ..
  11. Nolte T, Kaufmann W, Schorsch F, Soames T, Weber E. Standardized assessment of cell proliferation: the approach of the RITA-CEPA working group. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2005;57:91-103 pubmed
    ..Membership of the CEPA group is open for all industrial organizations who develop chemical, agrochemical, or pharmaceutical products. ..
  12. Brauns T, Goos M. Micromanipulation of single cells from tissue imprints is an alternative to laser-assisted microdissection. J Cutan Pathol. 2005;32:461-6 pubmed
    ..After immunostaining of the imprints, single cells were transferred to a reaction tube using a 27-gauge needle guided by a mechanical micromanipulator. Consequently, we used these cells in a single cell PCR. ..
  13. Pavlov A, Yesev L. [Methodological approaches to the complex study of the functional morphology of the tracheal epithelial lining in the experiment]. Morfologiia. 2012;142:73-6 pubmed
    ..These techniques provide high reproducibility of the results with a maximum efficiency and information value and permit to undertake a comprehensive morpho-functional analysis of the investigated object. ..
  14. Roomans G, Dragomir A. X-ray microanalysis in the scanning electron microscope. Methods Mol Biol. 2014;1117:639-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Aspects of qualitative and quantitative analysis are covered, including limitations of the technique. ..
  15. Vogt S, Schneider Stock R, Klauck S, Roessner A, Rocken C. Detection of hepatitis C virus RNA in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded thin-needle liver biopsy specimens. Am J Clin Pathol. 2003;120:536-43 pubmed
    ..TNB yields enough qualitative suitable material to detect HCV RNA by RT-PCR. ..
  16. Schatten H. Low voltage high-resolution SEM (LVHRSEM) for biological structural and molecular analysis. Micron. 2011;42:175-85 pubmed publisher
  17. Flamminio F, Tosi A, Fellegara G. Crushing artifacts resulting in small blue cellular clusters that simulate small cell carcinoma. Int J Surg Pathol. 2011;19:487-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Here the authors report examples of this phenomenon that have been reported or that they have personally observed and emphasize some diagnostic clue to avoid its overinterpretation and the dire clinical consequences that this may entail...
  18. Aleem A, Alsaleh K, Aljabry M, Aziz S, Iqbal Z, Almomen A. A comparison of two techniques of preparing bone marrow aspirate slides. J Pak Med Assoc. 2016;66:528-7 pubmed
    ..Bone marrow aspirate slides prepared at the end of the procedure from EDTA preserved samples were not inferior to slides prepared directly from the aspirated sample. ..
  19. Løvendorf M, Zibert J, Hagedorn P, Glue C, Ødum N, Røpke M, et al. Comparison of microRNA expression using different preservation methods of matched psoriatic skin samples. Exp Dermatol. 2012;21:299-301 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that microRNA detection in human skin is robust irrespective of preservation method; thus, microRNAs offer an appropriate and flexible approach in clinical practices and for diagnostic purposes in skin disorders. ..
  20. Messer S, Moseley E, Marinescu M, Freeman C, Goddard M, Nair S. Histologic analysis of the right atrioventricular junction in the adult human heart. J Heart Valve Dis. 2012;21:368-73 pubmed
    ..Right ventricular muscle bridges are inserted into the RAVJ, the functional significance of which, both in normal hearts and in the pathogenesis of functional tricuspid regurgitation, requires further investigation. ..
  21. Gustafsson O, Eddes J, Meding S, McColl S, Oehler M, Hoffmann P. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging protocol for in situ characterization of tryptic peptide identity and distribution in formalin-fixed tissue. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2013;27:655-70 pubmed publisher
    ..This protocol provides a detailed and straightforward description of the methods required for groups new to MALDI imaging to begin analysis of formalin-fixed clinical samples. ..
  22. Limberis V, Romanidis C, Galazios G, Koutsougeras G, Papadopoulos N, Lambropoulou M, et al. Intraoperative estimation of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer by imprint cytology. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2009;30:85-7 pubmed
    ..Touch imprint cytology is a fast and reliable alternative for intraoperative evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer patients. ..
  23. Marko M, Hsieh C, Moberlychan W, Mannella C, Frank J. Focused ion beam milling of vitreous water: prospects for an alternative to cryo-ultramicrotomy of frozen-hydrated biological samples. J Microsc. 2006;222:42-7 pubmed
  24. Layfield L, Elsheikh T, Fili A, Nayar R, Shidham V. Review of the state of the art and recommendations of the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology for urinary cytology procedures and reporting : the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology Practice Guidelines Task Force. Diagn Cytopathol. 2004;30:24-30 pubmed
  25. Lydataki S, Tsilimbaris M, Lesniewska E, Bron A, Pallikaris I. Corneal tissue observed by atomic force microscopy. Methods Mol Biol. 2004;242:69-83 pubmed
  26. Wang Y, Dhopeshwarkar R, Najdi R, Waterman M, Sims C, Allbritton N. Microdevice to capture colon crypts for in vitro studies. Lab Chip. 2010;10:1596-603 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study demonstrates the feasibility and potential for rationally microengineered technologies to address the specific needs of the biologic researcher. ..
  27. Coughlin M, Groen A, Mitchison T. Electron microscopy of microtubule cytoskeleton assembly in vitro. Methods Mol Biol. 2014;1117:259-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We developed techniques for immunoelectron microscopy of microtubule structures assembled in perfusion chambers and in solution. ..
  28. Choi Y, Han C, Kim J, Oh I, Lee J, Nam J, et al. Effectiveness of sputum cytology using ThinPrep method for evaluation of lung cancer. Diagn Cytopathol. 2008;36:167-71 pubmed publisher
    ..6% (TP) and 69.4% (CP). Sputum cytology using the TP method improves the diagnostic accuracy for evaluating lung cancer by reducing the unsatisfactory and false-negative rates. ..
  29. de Luna R, Eloubeidi M, Sheffield M, Eltoum I, Jhala N, Jhala D, et al. Comparison of ThinPrep and conventional preparations in pancreatic fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Diagn Cytopathol. 2004;30:71-6 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the current morphologic criteria may need modification for ThinPrep preparation in pancreatic FNA. ..
  30. Wang Q, Zhang Z, Wang S, Liu J. [Significance for the detection of human papillomavirus DNA in cervical atypical glandular cells]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2011;91:911-4 pubmed
    ..HPV DNA test and colposcopic examination are effective in the initial evaluation and subsequent follow-ups of cytological atypical glandular cells. ..
  31. Kasas S. Sample preparation method for observing RNA polymerase activity by atomic force microscopy. Methods Mol Biol. 2004;242:341-8 pubmed
  32. Song M, Kim S, Jung D, Ko H, Kwon K, Kim M. Structural correlations between dermoscopic and histopathological features of juvenile xanthogranuloma. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2011;25:259-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to the use of dermoscopy as an accurate diagnostic tool for differential diagnosis, it could be applied in evaluation of histopathological maturation of JXG. ..
  33. Fullwood L, Griffiths D, Ashton K, Dawson T, Lea R, Davis C, et al. Effect of substrate choice and tissue type on tissue preparation for spectral histopathology by Raman microspectroscopy. Analyst. 2014;139:446-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show a disparity in paraffin retention depending upon the histological identity of the tissue with abnormal tissue retaining more paraffin than normal. ..
  34. Glud M, Klausen M, Gniadecki R, Rossing M, Hastrup N, Nielsen F, et al. MicroRNA expression in melanocytic nevi: the usefulness of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material for miRNA microarray profiling. J Invest Dermatol. 2009;129:1219-24 pubmed publisher
    ..80) between paired FFPE and fresh frozen material. The data were further validated by quantitative RT-PCR. In conclusion, FFPE specimens of melanocytic lesions are suitable as a source for miRNA microarray profiling...
  35. Sincich L, Adams D, Horton J. Complete flatmounting of the macaque cerebral cortex. Vis Neurosci. 2003;20:663-86 pubmed
    ..Flatmounting the cerebral cortex is a simple, efficient method that can be used routinely for mapping areas and connections in the macaque brain, the most widely used primate model of the human brain. ..
  36. Kuwayama K, Tsujikawa K, Miyaguchi H, Kanamori T, Iwata Y, Inoue H. Distribution measurement of amphetamine-type stimulants in organs using micropulverized extraction and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry to complement drug distribution using mass spectrometry imaging. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2011;25:2397-406 pubmed
    ..This method could be applicable to the measurement of the distribution of compounds in various solid samples and could be used as a complementary method for the measurement of the distribution of compounds by MSI. ..
  37. Condel J, Sharbaugh D, Raab S. Error-free pathology: applying lean production methods to anatomic pathology. Clin Lab Med. 2004;24:865-99 pubmed
  38. Ebel J, Shabsigh A, Sharp D, Zynger D. Whole-mount evaluation of penectomies for penile cancer: feasibility, cost and comparison to routine sectioning. Histopathology. 2013;63:64-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Institutions in which whole-mounting is already established for other organs, such as prostate, may wish to consider utilizing this format for penectomy specimens. ..
  39. Lemaire B, Debier C, Calderon P, Thome J, STEGEMAN J, Mork J, et al. Precision-cut liver slices to investigate responsiveness of deep-sea fish to contaminants at high pressure. Environ Sci Technol. 2012;46:10310-6 pubmed publisher
    ..rupestris toward POPs in its native environment. This very first in vitro toxicological investigation on a deep-sea fish opens the route for understanding pollutants effects in this highly exposed fauna. ..
  40. Ricci D, Braga P. How the atomic force microscope works. Methods Mol Biol. 2004;242:3-12 pubmed
  41. Orsini F, Santacroce M, Perego C, Lenardi C, Castagna M, Mari S, et al. Atomic force microscopy characterization of Xenopus laevis oocyte plasma membrane. Microsc Res Tech. 2006;69:826-34 pubmed
    ..These results show that AFM is a useful tool for structural characterization of proteins in a native eukaryotic membrane. ..
  42. Morency E, Anguish L, Coonrod S. Subcellular localization of cytoplasmic lattice-associated proteins is dependent upon fixation and processing procedures. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17226 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, based on our current observations, it appears that PADI6 and MATER are primarily distributed throughout the cytoplasm as opposed to the oocyte subcortex. ..
  43. Steingart K, Ramsay A, Pai M. Optimizing sputum smear microscopy for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2007;5:327-31 pubmed
  44. Dorn D, Dorn A. Structural polarity and dynamics of male germline stem cells in an insect (milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus). Methods Mol Biol. 2008;450:71-94 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that these dynamics indicate a novel type of signal exchange and transduction between stem cells and their niche. ..
  45. Motomura K, Nagumo S, Komoike Y, Koyama H, Inaji H. Accuracy of imprint cytology for intraoperative diagnosis of sentinel node metastases in breast cancer. Ann Surg. 2008;247:839-42 pubmed publisher
    ..6%, and 94.1%, respectively. Only 20 (3.2%) patients required a second axillary operation in the present study. Intraoperative imprint cytology is a useful method for evaluating sentinel node metastasis in patients with breast cancer. ..
  46. Zhao Y, Cui L, Chai G, Wu Y, Zhu K. [Watershed-based segmentation of histiocytic images]. Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi. 2005;22:1151-6 pubmed
    ..To test the performance of the algorithm, different samples of visual quality were tested and the result figures proved successful. ..
  47. Dunstan R, Wharton K, Quigley C, Lowe A. The use of immunohistochemistry for biomarker assessment--can it compete with other technologies?. Toxicol Pathol. 2011;39:988-1002 pubmed publisher
  48. Hafajee Z, Leong A. Ultra-rapid microwave-stimulated tissue processing with a modified protocol incorporating microwave fixation. Pathology. 2004;36:325-9 pubmed
    ..Paraffin-impregnated blocks can be produced very rapidly from fresh small and large tissue blocks in 45 and 100 minutes, respectively. ..
  49. Wu Z, Li H, Rao L, He L, Bao L, Liao J, et al. Derivation and characterization of human embryonic stem cell lines from the Chinese population. J Genet Genomics. 2011;38:13-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The newly established hESCs will be distributed for research purposes. The availability of hESC lines from the Chinese population will facilitate studies on the differences in hESCs from different ethnic groups. ..
  50. Pugliese M, Kohr J, Allison K, Wang N, Tickman R, Beatty J. Accuracy of intraoperative imprint cytology of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer. Am J Surg. 2006;192:516-9 pubmed
    ..IC allowed 49 (55%) of these patients to undergo synchronous completion of ALND. No unnecessary completion ALNDs were performed. The sensitivity of IC decreased with decreasing size of the metastasis. ..
  51. Jaiwong K, Nimmanhaeminda K, Siriaree S, Khunamornpong S. Cytomorphologic comparison between rehydrated air-dried and conventional wet-fixed pap smears. J Med Assoc Thai. 2006;89:1811-6 pubmed
    ..The quality of AD smears was slightly inferior to WF smears but was still satisfactory for cervical cytology. AD technique may be acceptable as an alternative to wet fixation in cytologic cervical cancer screening. ..
  52. Nelson T, Gandotra N, Tausta S. Plant cell types: reporting and sampling with new technologies. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2008;11:567-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent analyses include cell types of developing roots, bundle sheath and mesophyll cells of C4-type leaves, xylem and phloem cells of vascular systems, and specialized regions of embryos and shoot apices. ..
  53. Bradshaw S, Kennedy L, Dexter D, Veinot J. A practical method to rapidly dissolve metallic stents. Cardiovasc Pathol. 2009;18:127-33 pubmed publisher
    ..This practical method may replace the laborious and expensive plastic embedding methods currently utilized. ..