mitotic index


Summary: An expression of the number of mitoses found in a stated number of cells.

Top Publications

  1. Matheus R, Bernardi F, Gallo C, da Silva A, Rodrigues O, Capelozzi M, et al. Nuclear markers (star volume, mitotic index, AgNOR and Ki-67) of the primary tumor and its metastasis in non-small cell lung carcinomas. Pathol Res Pract. 2004;200:13-23 pubmed
    ..variables were examined for differences in the frequency of histological subtypes, nuclear star volume, mitotic index, AgNOR area, and Ki-67 immunohistochemistry indices of expression in subgroups of patients stratified by ..
  2. Attis M, Vollmer R. Mitotic rate in melanoma: a reexamination. Am J Clin Pathol. 2007;127:380-4 pubmed
  3. Kostov M, Mijovic Z, Mihailovic D, Cerovic S, Stojanovic M, Jelić M. Correlation of cell cycle regulatory proteins (p53 and p16(ink)?(a)) and bcl-2 oncoprotein with mitotic index and thickness of primary cutaneous malignant melanoma. Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2010;10:276-81 pubmed
    ..The study involved 53 patients: 27 (51%) male and 26 (49%) female. Mitotic index showed a correlation with p53 protein expression, a negative correlation with p16INK4a protein expression...
  4. Ladstein R, Bachmann I, Straume O, Akslen L. Ki-67 expression is superior to mitotic count and novel proliferation markers PHH3, MCM4 and mitosin as a prognostic factor in thick cutaneous melanoma. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:140 pubmed publisher
    ..Ki-67 was a stronger and more robust prognostic indicator than mitotic count in this series of nodular melanoma. PHH3, MCM4 and mitosin did not predict patient survival. ..
  5. Aloysius M, Hewavisenthi S, Bates T, Rowlands B, Lobo D, Zaitoun A. Predictive value of tumor proliferative indices in periampullary cancers: Ki-67, mitotic activity index (MI) and volume corrected mitotic index (M/V) using tissue microarrays. World J Surg. 2010;34:2115-21 pubmed publisher
    Morphometry [nuclear Ki-67 labelling, mitotic activity index (MI), and volume-corrected mitotic index (M/V)] for periampullary cancers using tissue microarrays has not been performed previously...
  6. Feng W, Hua K, Malpica A, Zhou X, Baak J. Stages I to II WHO 2003-defined low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma: how much primary therapy is needed and how little is enough?. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2013;23:488-93 pubmed publisher
    ..stromal sarcomas (ESS) were classified into 2 categories, low-grade and high-grade ESS, according to the mitotic index. In 2003, the World Health Organization changed the definition and the diagnostic criteria...
  7. Buhmeida A, Al Maghrabi J, Merdad A, Al Thubaity F, Chaudhary A, Gari M, et al. Prognostic value of mitotic counts in breast cancer of Saudi Arabian patients. Anticancer Res. 2011;31:97-103 pubmed
    ..The standardized mitotic index (SMI) recorded the mitotic count as the number of mitotic figures by area of the neoplastic tissue in the ..
  8. Cilekar M, Uysal O, Bal C, Turel S, Yilmaz S. Leptin increases mitotic index and regeneration ratio in hepatectomized rats. Med Sci Monit Basic Res. 2013;19:279-84 pubmed publisher
    ..evaluate the potential effect of intraperitoneal administration of leptin on the hepatic regeneration and the mitotic index. 56 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 7 groups each containing 8 rats...
  9. Karanikas G, Koronakis N, Lagoudianakis E, Grosomanidis D, Karavitis G, Koukoutsis I, et al. The value of proliferation indexes in breast cancer. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2010;31:181-4 pubmed
    ..Further research is warranted in order to standardize the methodology and to reach uniformity in regard with the optimal cut-off value. ..

More Information


  1. Kwok T, Rakha E, Lee A, Grainge M, Green A, Ellis I, et al. Histological grading of breast cancer on needle core biopsy: the role of immunohistochemical assessment of proliferation. Histopathology. 2010;57:212-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunohistochemical markers in NCB showed better concordance with H&E mitotic count in SES (gold standard) than routine H&E mitotic count in NCB. Further refinement of cut-offs and scoring methods is needed. ..
  2. Abdel Fatah T, Powe D, Ball G, Lopez Garcia M, Habashy H, Green A, et al. Proposal for a modified grading system based on mitotic index and Bcl2 provides objective determination of clinical outcome for patients with breast cancer. J Pathol. 2010;222:388-99 pubmed publisher
    We hypothesized that the interaction between mitotic index (M) and Bcl2 could accurately discriminate between low- and high-grade breast cancer (BC) and provide a more objective measure of clinical outcome than histological grade, ..
  3. D Angelo E, Espinosa I, Ali R, Gilks C, Rijn M, Lee C, et al. Uterine leiomyosarcomas: tumor size, mitotic index, and biomarkers Ki67, and Bcl-2 identify two groups with different prognosis. Gynecol Oncol. 2011;121:328-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The rate of CD163 immunoreactive tumor macrophages was also investigated. Tumor size and mitotic index were significant prognostic factors by univariate (p=0.018 and p=0.003, respectively) and multivariate (p=0...
  4. Kim M, Park Y, Choi K, Lee J, Choi K, Kim D, et al. Predictors of recurrence after resection of small gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors of 5 cm or less. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2012;46:130-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Specimens were assessed for tumor size, mitotic index, and microscopic resection margin...
  5. Rossi S, Miceli R, Messerini L, Bearzi I, Mazzoleni G, Capella C, et al. Natural history of imatinib-naive GISTs: a retrospective analysis of 929 cases with long-term follow-up and development of a survival nomogram based on mitotic index and size as continuous variables. Am J Surg Pathol. 2011;35:1646-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Median follow-up was 126 months. On testing for potential prognostic parameters, age, tumor site, size, and mitotic index proved to be predictors of OS on both univariable and multivariable Cox model analyses, whereas necrosis and ..
  6. Sui X, Wang H, Sun X. Expression of DOG1, CD117 and PDGFRA in gastrointestinal stromal tumors and correlations with clinicopathology. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012;13:1389-93 pubmed
    ..DOG1 had a good sensitivity and specificity as a kind of newly discovered marker, especially for KIT negative GISTs. However, DOG1, CD117 and PDGFRA cannot be used for assessing the rish of patients. ..
  7. Lacle M, van der Pol C, Witkamp A, van der Wall E, van Diest P. Prognostic value of mitotic index and Bcl2 expression in male breast cancer. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e60138 pubmed publisher
    ..In a recent study on FBC, a combination of mitotic index and Bcl2 expression proved to be of strong prognostic value...
  8. Yamaguchi T, Fujimori T, Tomita S, Ichikawa K, Mitomi H, Ohno K, et al. Clinical validation of the gastrointestinal NET grading system: Ki67 index criteria of the WHO 2010 classification is appropriate to predict metastasis or recurrence. Diagn Pathol. 2013;8:65 pubmed publisher
    In the WHO 2010 classification, the neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are subdivided by their mitotic index or Ki67 index into either G1 or G2 NETs...
  9. Draganova Tacheva R, Bibbo M, Birbe R, Daskalakis C, Solomides C. The potential value of phosphohistone-h3 mitotic index determined by digital image analysis in the assessment of pancreatic endocrine tumors in fine-needle aspiration cytology specimens. Acta Cytol. 2013;57:291-5 pubmed publisher
    ..0-50% for Ki67). Therefore, to be as accurate, grading on the basis of PHH3 requires evaluation of a larger number of tumor cells for a precise determination of percent PHH3-positive nuclei. ..
  10. Schimming T, Grabellus F, Roner M, Pechlivanis S, Sucker A, Bielefeld N, et al. pHH3 immunostaining improves interobserver agreement of mitotic index in thin melanomas. Am J Dermatopathol. 2012;34:266-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are needed to find out if higher sensitivity in the detection of mitosis by pHH3 immunostaining has additional prognostic relevance. ..
  11. Goodell P, Krasinskas A, Davison J, Hartman D. Comparison of methods for proliferative index analysis for grading pancreatic well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors. Am J Clin Pathol. 2012;137:576-82 pubmed publisher
    ..field average (Ki-67 CFA) using the Ventana image analysis system (Ventana Medical Systems, Tucson, AZ) and mitotic index (MI). These methods resulted in discrepant grades in 30 (67%) of our 45 cases...
  12. Lende T, Janssen E, Gudlaugsson E, Voorhorst F, Smaaland R, van Diest P, et al. In patients younger than age 55 years with lymph node-negative breast cancer, proliferation by mitotic activity index is prognostically superior to adjuvant!. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29:852-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar results occurred for NBCG and MAI. Adjuvant! and NBCG were not prognostic to each other. MAI is superior to Adjuvant! and NBCG in prognostication of patients with LN-negative breast cancer younger than age 55 years. ..
  13. Feng W, Hua K, Gudlaugsson E, Yu Y, Zhou X, Baak J. Prognostic indicators in WHO 2003 low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma. Histopathology. 2013;62:675-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Since 2003, many studies have used the old criteria, and few have focused on WHO 2003-defined ESS low grade (ESS-LG). The aim of this study was to investigate prognosticators in ESS-LG...
  14. Warth A, Fink L, Fisseler Eckhoff A, Jonigk D, Keller M, Ott G, et al. Interobserver agreement of proliferation index (Ki-67) outperforms mitotic count in pulmonary carcinoids. Virchows Arch. 2013;462:507-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the prognostic value needs further validation, Ki-67 might perspectively be considered a helpful diagnostic parameter to optimize the separation of TC from AC...
  15. Darzynkiewicz Z. There's more than one way to skin a cat: yet another way to assess mitotic index by cytometry. Cytometry A. 2008;73:386-7 pubmed publisher
  16. Nolan L, Levy A. Prolonged oestrogen treatment does not correlate with a sustained increase in anterior pituitary mitotic index in ovariectomized Wistar rats. J Endocrinol. 2009;200:301-9 pubmed publisher
    ..An oestrogen dose-dependent increase in mitotic index was seen 7 days after the start of treatment as expected, representing an acceleration in gross mitotic ..
  17. Skaland I, Janssen E, Gudlaugsson E, Klos J, Kjellevold K, Søiland H, et al. Phosphohistone H3 expression has much stronger prognostic value than classical prognosticators in invasive lymph node-negative breast cancer patients less than 55 years of age. Mod Pathol. 2007;20:1307-15 pubmed
    ..Phosphohistone H3 is by far the strongest prognostic variable in early invasive node-negative breast cancer patients less than 55 years old with long-term follow-up. ..
  18. Barabasz A, Foley B, Otto J, Scott A, Rice J. The use of high-content screening for the discovery and characterization of compounds that modulate mitotic index and cell cycle progression by differing mechanisms of action. Assay Drug Dev Technol. 2006;4:153-63 pubmed
  19. Colman H, Giannini C, Huang L, Gonzalez J, Hess K, Bruner J, et al. Assessment and prognostic significance of mitotic index using the mitosis marker phospho-histone H3 in low and intermediate-grade infiltrating astrocytomas. Am J Surg Pathol. 2006;30:657-64 pubmed
    ..pHH3 staining was found to be a simple and reliable method for identifying mitotic figures, allowing a true mitotic index to be determined...
  20. Meyer J, Alvarez C, Milikowski C, Olson N, Russo I, Russo J, et al. Breast carcinoma malignancy grading by Bloom-Richardson system vs proliferation index: reproducibility of grade and advantages of proliferation index. Mod Pathol. 2005;18:1067-78 pubmed
    ..b>Mitotic index predicted best when intervals were lowered to 0-2, 3-10, and >10 mitotic figures per ten 0...
  21. Andre F, Khalil A, Slimane K, Massard C, Mathieu M, Vignot S, et al. Mitotic index and benefit of adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy in patients with early breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23:2996-3000 pubmed
    We have evaluated whether the mitotic index could predict the benefit of adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy in patients with early breast cancer who are eligible for adjuvant chemotherapy according to Saint Gallen guidelines...
  22. Penault Llorca F, Abrial C, Raoelfils I, Chollet P, Cayre A, Mouret Reynier M, et al. Changes and predictive and prognostic value of the mitotic index, Ki-67, cyclin D1, and cyclo-oxygenase-2 in 710 operable breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Oncologist. 2008;13:1235-45 pubmed publisher
    ..we studied phenotypic characteristics of tumors before and after chemotherapy using the following factors: the mitotic index of the Scarff-Bloom-Richardson grade, Ki-67, cyclin D1, and cyclo-oxygenase-2...
  23. Jalava P, Kuopio T, Juntti Patinen L, Kotkansalo T, Kronqvist P, Collan Y. Ki67 immunohistochemistry: a valuable marker in prognostication but with a risk of misclassification: proliferation subgroups formed based on Ki67 immunoreactivity and standardized mitotic index. Histopathology. 2006;48:674-82 pubmed
    ..The standardized mitotic index (SMI) was determined...
  24. Meyer J, Cosatto E, Graf H. Mitotic index of invasive breast carcinoma. Achieving clinically meaningful precision and evaluating tertial cutoffs. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2009;133:1826-33 pubmed publisher
    ..To improve reproducibility and accuracy of the mitotic count. Mitotic index (MI) was defined as the mitotic cell count per 10 high-power fields (HPFs), an area 0.183 mm(2)...
  25. Leme D, Marin Morales M. Allium cepa test in environmental monitoring: a review on its application. Mutat Res. 2009;682:71-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The mitotic index and some nuclear abnormalities are used to evaluate citotoxicity and analyze micronucleus to verify ..
  26. Kovesi G, Szende B. Changes in apoptosis and mitotic index, p53 and Ki67 expression in various types of oral leukoplakia. Oncology. 2003;65:331-6 pubmed
    ..Its potential for malignant transformation is unpredictable. The aim of the present study was to provide data about the processes and molecular genetic background of this disease...
  27. Ceccaroni M, Chieco P, Alboni C, De Laco P, Pagano K, Ceccarelli C, et al. p53 expression, DNA ploidy and mitotic index as prognostic factors in patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Tumori. 2004;90:600-6 pubmed
    ..DNA ploidy was measured by image cytometry in isolated neoplastic cells; the mitotic index was measured in Feulgen-toluidine blue-stained sections and p53 was investigated by immunohistochemistry...
  28. Ribalta T, McCutcheon I, Aldape K, Bruner J, Fuller G. The mitosis-specific antibody anti-phosphohistone-H3 (PHH3) facilitates rapid reliable grading of meningiomas according to WHO 2000 criteria. Am J Surg Pathol. 2004;28:1532-6 pubmed
    ..PHH3 immunostaining facilitates the rapid reliable grading of meningiomas by focusing attention on the most mitotically active areas and by allowing easy and objective differentiation of MFs from apoptotic nuclei. ..
  29. van Diest P, van der Wall E, Baak J. Prognostic value of proliferation in invasive breast cancer: a review. J Clin Pathol. 2004;57:675-81 pubmed
    ..Mitosis counting provides the most reproducible and independent prognostic value, and Ki67/MIB1 labelling and cyclin A index are promising alternatives that need methodological fine tuning. ..
  30. Gillespie D, Walker M. Mitotic index determination by flow cytometry. Subcell Biochem. 2006;40:355-8 pubmed
  31. Fadare O, Yi X, Liang S, Ma Y, Zheng W. Variations of mitotic index in normal and dysplastic squamous epithelium of the uterine cervix as a function of endometrial maturation. Mod Pathol. 2007;20:1000-8 pubmed
    ..specimens from patients with and without dysplastic lesions and investigated a possible relationship between mitotic index and hormonal status, using the endometrial maturation phase as a surrogate indicator of the latter...
  32. Barnhill R, Katzen J, Spatz A, Fine J, Berwick M. The importance of mitotic rate as a prognostic factor for localized cutaneous melanoma. J Cutan Pathol. 2005;32:268-73 pubmed
    ..tumor thickness in millimeters (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.3-1.9) 2. moderate mitotic index (between 1 and 6): (OR = 8.3, 95% CI 2.4-28.7), 3. mitotic index (>6): (OR = 11.6, 95% CI = 3.0-44.6), 4...
  33. Francken A, Shaw H, Thompson J, Soong S, Accortt N, Azzola M, et al. The prognostic importance of tumor mitotic rate confirmed in 1317 patients with primary cutaneous melanoma and long follow-up. Ann Surg Oncol. 2004;11:426-33 pubmed
    ..However, its predictive value was less than it was when assessed according to the 1982 revisions of the 1972 TMR recommendations. ..
  34. Nagore E, Oliver V, Botella Estrada R, Moreno Picot S, Insa A, Fortea J. Prognostic factors in localized invasive cutaneous melanoma: high value of mitotic rate, vascular invasion and microscopic satellitosis. Melanoma Res. 2005;15:169-77 pubmed
    ..Mitotic rate is confirmed as an objective and independent predictor of disease-free survival for melanoma patients that should be considered in further revisions of the mentioned staging system. ..
  35. Terzoudi G, Manola K, Pantelias G, Iliakis G. Checkpoint abrogation in G2 compromises repair of chromosomal breaks in ataxia telangiectasia cells. Cancer Res. 2005;65:11292-6 pubmed
    ..cells which, in contrast to AT cells, exhibit a strong G(2) arrest manifest as an abrupt reduction in the mitotic index. Thus, an active checkpoint facilitates repair of chromosomal breaks in normal cells...
  36. Steigen S, Bjerkehagen B, Haugland H, Nordrum I, Løberg E, Isaksen V, et al. Diagnostic and prognostic markers for gastrointestinal stromal tumors in Norway. Mod Pathol. 2008;21:46-53 pubmed
    ..Expression of p16 was significantly correlated with unfavorable prognosis, whereas L1 expression was not. ..
  37. Lundan T, Juvonen V, Mueller M, Mustjoki S, Lakkala T, Kairisto V, et al. Comparison of bone marrow high mitotic index metaphase fluorescence in situ hybridization to peripheral blood and bone marrow real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction on the International Scale for detecting residual disease in chronic myeloi. Haematologica. 2008;93:178-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, 291 bone marrow samples were analyzed with high mitotic index metaphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (metaphase FISH)...
  38. Polkowski M, Gerke W, Jarosz D, Nasierowska Guttmejer A, Rutkowski P, Nowecki Z, et al. Diagnostic yield and safety of endoscopic ultrasound-guided trucut [corrected] biopsy in patients with gastric submucosal tumors: a prospective study. Endoscopy. 2009;41:329-34 pubmed publisher
    ..31; and 0.95, standard error 0.16, respectively); however, there was no correlation between the mitotic index as determined on EUS-TCB and that determined on the surgical pathology specimen (correlation coefficient, 0...
  39. Veras E, Malpica A, Deavers M, Silva E. Mitosis-specific marker phospho-histone H3 in the assessment of mitotic index in uterine smooth muscle tumors: a pilot study. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2009;28:316-21 pubmed publisher
    The assessment of an accurate mitotic index (MI) is one of the major parameters in the proper classification of uterine smooth muscle tumors...
  40. Uyanoglu M, Canbek M, Aral E, Husnu Can Baser K. Effects of carvacrol upon the liver of rats undergoing partial hepatectomy. Phytomedicine. 2008;15:226-9 pubmed
    ..The liver regeneration, mitotic index and PCNA index increased significantly in rats of Group III over the Group II at the 72nd hour after partial ..
  41. Rindi G, Kloppel G, Alhman H, Caplin M, Couvelard A, de Herder W, et al. TNM staging of foregut (neuro)endocrine tumors: a consensus proposal including a grading system. Virchows Arch. 2006;449:395-401 pubmed
    ..This proposal, which needs to be validated, is meant to help clinicians in the stratification, treatment, and follow-up of patients...
  42. Skaland I, van Diest P, Janssen E, Gudlaugsson E, Baak J. Prognostic differences of World Health Organization-assessed mitotic activity index and mitotic impression by quick scanning in invasive ductal breast cancer patients younger than 55 years. Hum Pathol. 2008;39:584-90 pubmed publisher
  43. Stuart Harris R, Caldas C, Pinder S, Pharoah P. Proliferation markers and survival in early breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 85 studies in 32,825 patients. Breast. 2008;17:323-34 pubmed publisher
    We have performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of proliferation markers (Ki-67, mitotic index (MI), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and thymidine or bromodeoxyuridine labelling index (LI)) with respect to survival in ..
  44. Filiz G, Yalçinkaya O, Gurel S, Yerci O, Memik F. The relationship between MIB-1 proliferative activity and mitotic index in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Hepatogastroenterology. 2007;54:438-41 pubmed
    ..01). MIB-1 PI and presence of necrosis are possible indicators of prognosis especially in GIST cases of the small bowel. ..
  45. Delgrange E, Sassolas G, Perrin G, Jan M, Trouillas J. Clinical and histological correlations in prolactinomas, with special reference to bromocriptine resistance. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2005;147:751-7; discussion 757-8 pubmed
    ..These findings justify the long-term follow up of these tumours, and the use of surgery and/or radiotherapy if there is concern about the control of tumour growth. ..
  46. Kumari M, Mukherjee A, Chandrasekaran N. Genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles in Allium cepa. Sci Total Environ. 2009;407:5243-6 pubmed publisher
    ..75, and 100 ppm) of engineered silver nanoparticles (below 100 nm size) dispersion, to study endpoints like mitotic index, distribution of cells in mitotic phases, different types of chromosomal aberrations, disturbed metaphase, ..
  47. Bogunovic D, O Neill D, Belitskaya Levy I, Vacic V, Yu Y, Adams S, et al. Immune profile and mitotic index of metastatic melanoma lesions enhance clinical staging in predicting patient survival. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:20429-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We used gene expression profiling, mitotic index (MI), and quantification of tumor infiltrating leukocytes (TILs) and CD3+ cells in metastatic lesions to ..
  48. Beresford M, Wilson G, Makris A. Measuring proliferation in breast cancer: practicalities and applications. Breast Cancer Res. 2006;8:216 pubmed
    ..The potential clinical applications of proliferative indices are discussed, including their use as prognostic indicators and predictors of response to systemic therapy. ..
  49. Vitale I, Antoccia A, Crateri P, Leone S, Arancia G, Tanzarella C. Caspase-independent apoptosis is activated by diazepam-induced mitotic failure in HeLa cells, but not in human primary fibroblasts. Apoptosis. 2005;10:909-20 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, we hypothesize that HeLa cells override the prophase block imposed by DZ, producing a high rate of aberrant pro-metaphases, which, in turn, activates caspase-independent, apoptosis-like mitotic catastrophe. ..
  50. Gimotty P, Van Belle P, Elder D, Murry T, Montone K, Xu X, et al. Biologic and prognostic significance of dermal Ki67 expression, mitoses, and tumorigenicity in thin invasive cutaneous melanoma. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23:8048-56 pubmed
    ..Ki67 expression and dermal MR provide independent prognostic information that can potentially be used in risk-based management of patients. ..
  51. Caly M, Genin P, Ghuzlan A A, Elie C, Freneaux P, Klijanienko J, et al. Analysis of correlation between mitotic index, MIB1 score and S-phase fraction as proliferation markers in invasive breast carcinoma. Methodological aspects and prognostic value in a series of 257 cases. Anticancer Res. 2004;24:3283-8 pubmed
    The study was designed in order to evaluate the degree of correlation of mitotic index (MI), Ki67 (MIB1) score and S-phase fraction (SPF) as markers of cell proliferation and prognosis in breast cancer...
  52. Bossard C, Jarry A, Colombeix C, Bach Ngohou K, Moreau A, Loussouarn D, et al. Phosphohistone H3 labelling for histoprognostic grading of breast adenocarcinomas and computer-assisted determination of mitotic index. J Clin Pathol. 2006;59:706-10 pubmed
    ..A new computer-assisted method was also developed for determining the mitotic index. In all tissues tested, PPH3-labelled mitotic figures were easily detected, allowing a rapid identification of ..
  53. Kim Y, Ketter R, Steudel W, Feiden W. Prognostic significance of the mitotic index using the mitosis marker anti-phosphohistone H3 in meningiomas. Am J Clin Pathol. 2007;128:118-25 pubmed
    ..we compared the results from immunostaining for the mitosis-specific antibody anti-phosphohistone H3 (PHH3 mitotic index [MI]) with standard MF counts (H&E MI) and the Ki-67 labeling index (LI)...