viral cytopathogenic effect


Summary: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.

Top Publications

  1. Rivals J, Plattet P, Currat Zweifel C, Zurbriggen A, Wittek R. Adaptation of canine distemper virus to canine footpad keratinocytes modifies polymerase activity and fusogenicity through amino acid substitutions in the P/V/C and H proteins. Virology. 2007;359:6-18 pubmed
  2. Olivieri K, Scoggins R, Bor Y, Matthews A, Mark D, Taylor J, et al. The envelope gene is a cytopathic determinant of CCR5 tropic HIV-1. Virology. 2007;358:23-38 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the enhanced thymic replication and CPE shown by the R5-AIDS clone is due to enhanced efficiency of Env-mediated entry via CCR5. ..
  3. Schildgen O, Jebbink M, de Vries M, Pyrc K, Dijkman R, Simon A, et al. Identification of cell lines permissive for human coronavirus NL63. J Virol Methods. 2006;138:207-10 pubmed
  4. Orlando E, Imbschweiler I, Gerhauser I, Baumgartner W, Wewetzer K. In vitro characterization and preferential infection by canine distemper virus of glial precursors with Schwann cell characteristics from adult canine brain. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2008;34:621-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, this is the first identification of a glial cell type with Schwann cell-like properties in adult canine brain and, more importantly, these cells displayed a high susceptibility to CDV infection. ..
  5. Pyrc K, Bosch B, Berkhout B, Jebbink M, Dijkman R, Rottier P, et al. Inhibition of human coronavirus NL63 infection at early stages of the replication cycle. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006;50:2000-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These agents may be investigated further for the treatment of coronavirus infections...
  6. Beard P, Froggatt G, Smith G. Vaccinia virus kelch protein A55 is a 64 kDa intracellular factor that affects virus-induced cytopathic effect and the outcome of infection in a murine intradermal model. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:1521-9 pubmed
    ..In a murine intradermal model of VACV infection, a virus lacking the A55R gene induced larger lesions than wild-type and revertant control viruses...
  7. García Briones M, Rosas M, González Magaldi M, Martín Acebes M, Sobrino F, Armas Portela R. Differential distribution of non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus in BHK-21 cells. Virology. 2006;349:409-21 pubmed
    ..3D(pol) and its precursor 3CD(pol) were also detected in nuclear fractions of infected cells, suggesting that these proteins can directly interact with the nucleus during FMDV infection. ..
  8. Moll M, Pfeuffer J, Klenk H, Niewiesk S, Maisner A. Polarized glycoprotein targeting affects the spread of measles virus in vitro and in vivo. J Gen Virol. 2004;85:1019-27 pubmed
    ..These data strongly suggest that basolateral targeting of MV glycoproteins helps to overcome the epithelial barrier and thereby facilitates the systemic spread of MV infection in vivo. ..
  9. Kibenge M, Munir K, Kibenge F. Constitutive expression of Atlantic salmon Mx1 protein in CHSE-214 cells confers resistance to infectious salmon anaemia virus. Virol J. 2005;2:75 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Pierce A, DeSalvo J, Foster T, Kosinski A, Weller S, Halford W. Beta interferon and gamma interferon synergize to block viral DNA and virion synthesis in herpes simplex virus-infected cells. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:2421-32 pubmed
    ..It was inferred that IFN-mediated suppression of HSV-1 replication may be a central mechanism by which the host immune system limits the spread of HSV-1 infection in vivo. ..
  2. Hoffmann D, Jogler C, Wildner O. Effects of the Ad5 upstream E1 region and gene products on heterologous promoters. J Gene Med. 2005;7:1356-66 pubmed
  3. Yuan J, Zhang J, Wong B, Si X, Wong J, Yang D, et al. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta suppresses coxsackievirus-induced cytopathic effect and apoptosis via stabilization of beta-catenin. Cell Death Differ. 2005;12:1097-106 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results demonstrate that CVB3 infection stimulates GSK3beta activity via a tyrosine kinase-dependent mechanism, which contributes to CVB3-induced CPE and apoptosis through dysregulation of beta-catenin. ..
  4. Koh W, Ng M. Molecular mechanisms of West Nile virus pathogenesis in brain cell. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:629-32 pubmed
    ..These changes may be useful as potential biomarkers and elucidate novel mechanisms behind the neuropathology of infection with this virus. ..
  5. Rivera A, Davydova J, Schierer S, Wang M, Krasnykh V, Yamamoto M, et al. Combining high selectivity of replication with fiber chimerism for effective adenoviral oncolysis of CAR-negative melanoma cells. Gene Ther. 2004;11:1694-702 pubmed
  6. Larsen R, Røkenes T, Robertsen B. Inhibition of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus replication by atlantic salmon Mx1 protein. J Virol. 2004;78:7938-44 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the list of viruses inhibited by Mx proteins is extended to include double-stranded RNA viruses...
  7. Ceccaldi P, Lucas M, Despres P. New insights on the neuropathology of West Nile virus. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2004;233:1-6 pubmed
    ..In murine neural cell cultures, the selective infection of neurons was accompanied by physiopathological changes and a cytopathic effect, showing the direct effect of infection of neurons as one of the causes of WNV neuropathogenicity. ..
  8. O Shea C, Soria C, Bagus B, McCormick F. Heat shock phenocopies E1B-55K late functions and selectively sensitizes refractory tumor cells to ONYX-015 oncolytic viral therapy. Cancer Cell. 2005;8:61-74 pubmed
    ..Moreover, these data suggest that the concomitant induction of a heat shock response could significantly improve ONYX-015 cancer therapy. ..
  9. Monaghan P, Cook H, Jackson T, Ryan M, Wileman T. The ultrastructure of the developing replication site in foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected BHK-38 cells. J Gen Virol. 2004;85:933-46 pubmed
    ..With conventional fixation, FMDV particles were not seen; however, following high-pressure freezing and freeze-substitution, many clusters of virus-like particles were seen. ..
  10. Wang S, Chang X, Zhou J. [Gene identification of mumps wild virus isolated firstly in Jilin province]. Zhongguo Yi Miao He Mian Yi. 2009;15:432-4 pubmed
    ..There were different kinds of cytopathic effect in one mump outbreak although genotypes were same. ..
  11. Dyachenko N, Nosach L, Povnitsa O, Kuz min V, Artemenko A, Lozitskaya R, et al. Structure--antiadenoviral activity of nitrogen containing macroheterocycles and their analogues. Mikrobiol Z. 2006;68:69-80 pubmed
    ..For the prediction of NCM structure with antiadenoviral activity we have performed the computer modeling using QSAR approach on the basis of simplex representation of molecular structure (SiRMS). ..
  12. Seth S, Skountzou I, Gernert K, Compans R. Fusogenic variants of a noncytopathic paramyxovirus. J Virol. 2007;81:4286-97 pubmed
    ..The structure of the F protein was used to identify residues involved in the mutant phenotypes in terms of their location and proximity to heptad repeat domains. ..
  13. Garmashova N, Atasheva S, Kang W, Weaver S, Frolova E, Frolov I. Analysis of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus capsid protein function in the inhibition of cellular transcription. J Virol. 2007;81:13552-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings can be used in designing a new generation of live, attenuated, recombinant vaccines against the New World alphaviruses...
  14. Chen G, Huang J, Lo Y, Tsao K, Chang S. Mosaic genome structure of echovirus type 30 that circulated in Taiwan in 2001. Arch Virol. 2007;152:1807-17 pubmed
    ..Recombination analysis of these two E30 genomes revealed that their genome structures are mosaic, which might have been formed gradually and frequently over time...
  15. Kaminskyy V, Zhivotovsky B. To kill or be killed: how viruses interact with the cell death machinery. J Intern Med. 2010;267:473-82 pubmed publisher
  16. Velayudhan B, Nagaraja K, Thachil A, Shaw D, Gray G, Halvorson D. Human metapneumovirus in turkey poults. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:1853-9 pubmed
    ..Detailed investigation of cross-species pathogenicity of hMPV and aMPV and its importance for human and animal health is needed. ..
  17. Dillon P, Wansley E, Young V, Alexander Miller M, Parks G. Exchange of P/V genes between two non-cytopathic simian virus 5 variants results in a recombinant virus that kills cells through death pathways that are sensitive to caspase inhibitors. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:3643-8 pubmed
  18. Figova K, Hrabeta J, Eckschlager T. Reovirus - possible therapy of cancer. Neoplasma. 2006;53:457-62 pubmed
    ..Oncolytics Biotech Inc. is currently guiding three Phase I or Phase I/II Reolysin studies, and has completed two clinical studies and concluded enrolment in a third one. ..
  19. Poncet D, Pauleau A, Szabadkai G, Vozza A, Scholz S, Le Bras M, et al. Cytopathic effects of the cytomegalovirus-encoded apoptosis inhibitory protein vMIA. J Cell Biol. 2006;174:985-96 pubmed
    ..Similarly, knockdown of the phosphate carrier reduced cell size. Our data suggest that the cytopathic effect of CMV can be explained by vMIA effects on mitochondrial bioenergetics. ..
  20. Ge Q, Pastey M, Kobasa D, Puthavathana P, Lupfer C, Bestwick R, et al. Inhibition of multiple subtypes of influenza A virus in cell cultures with morpholino oligomers. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006;50:3724-33 pubmed
    ..High efficacy by two of the P-PMO against multiple FLUAV subtypes suggests that these oligomers represent a broad-spectrum therapeutic approach against a high percentage of known FLUAV strains. ..
  21. She R, Crist G, Billetdeaux E, Langer J, Petti C. Comparison of multiple shell vial cell lines for isolation of enteroviruses: a national perspective. J Clin Virol. 2006;37:151-5 pubmed
    ..PMK and BGM cells were effective in isolating coxsackieviruses, and RD and MRC-5 were useful particularly in isolating echoviruses. A combination of shell vial cell lines is still recommended for recovery of enteroviruses. ..
  22. Yamagishi Y, Ueno C, Kato A, Kai H, Sasamura H, Ueno M, et al. Discovery of anti-varicella zoster virus activity of polyether antibiotic CP-44161. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2009;62:89-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, CP-44161 showed lower cytotoxicity than other antiviral polyethers, such as monensin and nigericin. Its better safety margin and strong anti-VZV properties make it a good candidate for a new anti-VZV agent. ..
  23. Quadros V, Mayer S, Vogel F, Weiblen R, Brum M, Arenhart S, et al. A search for RNA insertions and NS3 gene duplication in the genome of cytopathic isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2006;39:935-44 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that processing of NS2-3 without bulk mRNA insertions or NS3 gene duplications seems to be a frequent mechanism leading to NS3 expression and BVDV cytopathology. ..
  24. Nollens H, Gulland F, Jacobson E, Hernandez J, Klein P, Walsh M, et al. In vitro susceptibility of sea lion poxvirus to cidofovir. Antiviral Res. 2008;80:77-80 pubmed publisher
    ..This study confirms the previously proposed therapeutic potential of cidofovir for the treatment of parapoxvirus infections...
  25. Orba Y, Sunden Y, Suzuki T, Nagashima K, Kimura T, Tanaka S, et al. Pharmacological cdk inhibitor R-Roscovitine suppresses JC virus proliferation. Virology. 2008;370:173-83 pubmed
    ..That Roscovitine exhibited antiviral activity in JCV-infected cells suggests that Roscovitine might have therapeutic utility in the treatment of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). ..
  26. Cullen M, Deng B, Hartman T, Watson K, Buckheit R, Pannecouque C, et al. Synthesis and biological evaluation of alkenyldiarylmethane HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors that possess increased hydrolytic stability. J Med Chem. 2007;50:4854-67 pubmed
  27. Blair W, Cao J, Jackson L, Jimenez J, Peng Q, Wu H, et al. Identification and characterization of UK-201844, a novel inhibitor that interferes with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp160 processing. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:3554-61 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that UK-201844 represents the prototype for a unique HIV-1 inhibitor class that directly or indirectly interferes with HIV-1 gp160 processing. ..
  28. Lai C, Chan Z, Yang D, Lo W, Lai Y, Chang M, et al. Accelerated induction of apoptosis in insect cells by baculovirus-expressed SARS-CoV membrane protein. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:3829-34 pubmed
    ..Conversely, the M protein expressed in mammalian cells did not induce apoptosis. This is the first report describing the induction of apoptosis by SARS-CoV M protein in animal cells and possible implications are discussed. ..
  29. Artemenko A, Muratov E, Kuz min V, Kovdienko N, Hromov A, Makarov V, et al. Identification of individual structural fragments of N,N'-(bis-5-nitropyrimidyl)dispirotripiperazine derivatives for cytotoxicity and antiherpetic activity allows the prediction of new highly active compounds. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2007;60:68-77 pubmed
    ..The biological test results confirm the computationally predicted values of these compounds. The established QSAR model is suitable for the design of new antiherpetic compounds and prediction of their activity. ..
  30. Abdul Fattah A, Truong Le V, Yee L, Pan E, Ao Y, Kalonia D, et al. Drying-induced variations in physico-chemical properties of amorphous pharmaceuticals and their impact on Stability II: stability of a vaccine. Pharm Res. 2007;24:715-27 pubmed
    ..Ice appears to be a major destabilizing influence. ..
  31. Chang J, Zhao X, Wu X, Guo Y, Guo H, Cao J, et al. A Phase I study of KH901, a conditionally replicating granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor: armed oncolytic adenovirus for the treatment of head and neck cancers. Cancer Biol Ther. 2009;8:676-82 pubmed
  32. Yan Y, Jung Y, Wu T, Kozak C. Role of receptor polymorphism and glycosylation in syncytium induction and host range variation of ecotropic mouse gammaretroviruses. Retrovirology. 2008;5:2 pubmed publisher
    ..Virus entry is modulated by glycosylation of cellular proteins, and this effect is cell and virus-specific. ..
  33. Huemer H, Nagl M, Irschick E. In vitro prevention of vaccinia and herpesvirus infection spread in explanted human corneas by N-chlorotaurine. Ophthalmic Res. 2010;43:145-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, biocompatible local antiseptics like NCT could also serve as an experimental treatment in other keratitis of suspected viral origin. ..
  34. Daidoji T, Koma T, Du A, Yang C, Ueda M, Ikuta K, et al. H5N1 avian influenza virus induces apoptotic cell death in mammalian airway epithelial cells. J Virol. 2008;82:11294-307 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that avian H5N1 influenza virus leads to substantial cell death in mammalian airway epithelial cells due to the induction of apoptosis. ..
  35. Rodriguez A, Schiffman M, Herrero R, Wacholder S, Hildesheim A, Castle P, et al. Rapid clearance of human papillomavirus and implications for clinical focus on persistent infections. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008;100:513-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the medical community should emphasize persistence of cervical HPV infection, not single-time detection of HPV, in management strategies and health messages. ..
  36. Liu A, Wang H, Lee S, Wang Y, Du G. Structure-activity relationship of flavonoids as influenza virus neuraminidase inhibitors and their in vitro anti-viral activities. Bioorg Med Chem. 2008;16:7141-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings of this study provide important information for the exploitation and utilization of flavonoids as NA inhibitors for influenza treatment. ..
  37. el Sabbagh O, El Sadek M, El Kalyoubi S, Ismail I. Synthesis, DNA binding and antiviral activity of new uracil, xanthine, and pteridine derivatives. Arch Pharm (Weinheim). 2007;340:26-31 pubmed
    ..The antiviral activity of these novel compounds showed that compounds 2e and 2f reduced the cytopathogencity of Peste des petits ruminant virus (PPRV) on Vero cell culture by 60 and 50%, respectively. ..
  38. Liu D, Wang F, Yang L, Zheng Y, Liu J. A new cadinane sesquiterpene with significant anti-HIV-1 activity from the cultures of the basidiomycete Tyromyces chioneus. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2007;60:332-4 pubmed
    ..Its structure was established on the basis of spectral measurements (MS, IR, 1D and 2D NMR experiments). 1 showed significant anti-HIV-1 activity with EC50=3.0 microg/ml (SI=25.4). ..
  39. Phromjai J, Aiba N, Suzuki M, Sato H, Takahara T, Kondo S, et al. Infection and direct injury in human hepatocyte explants and a hepatoblastoma cell line due to hepatiticomimetic (non-hepatitis) viruses. J Med Virol. 2007;79:413-25 pubmed
    ..Consequently hepatocellular injury by viral infection did not reflect the amount or pattern of hepatocellular enzyme release. ..
  40. Smith S, Olson V, Karem K, Jordan R, Hruby D, Damon I. In vitro efficacy of ST246 against smallpox and monkeypox. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:1007-12 pubmed publisher
  41. Mohri H, Markowitz M. In vitro characterization of multidrug-resistant HIV-1 isolates from a recently infected patient associated with dual tropism and rapid disease progression. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008;48:511-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support the hypothesis that MDR HIV-1 can effectively evolve and compensate not only to retain high-level replication but also to exhibit virulence associated with rapid disease progression. ..
  42. Herzer K, Sprinzl M, Galle P. Hepatitis viruses: live and let die. Liver Int. 2007;27:293-301 pubmed
    ..The mechanism and systems are complex. This report aims to provide an overview and intends to cite only a small number of pertinent references. ..
  43. Belov A, Larichev V, Galkina I, Khutoretskaia N, Butenko A, Konstantinova I, et al. [In vitro activity of Russian ribavirin on the models of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus, and Tahyna and Dhori viruses]. Vopr Virusol. 2008;53:34-5 pubmed
  44. Dewitte Orr S, Bols N. Cytopathic effects of chum salmon reovirus to salmonid epithelial, fibroblast and macrophage cell lines. Virus Res. 2007;126:159-71 pubmed
    ..By contrast, RTS11 cultures undergoing HA showed no loss of cell viability. The significance of HA is unclear, but the response suggests that macrophage behaviour in rainbow trout potentially could be modulated by CSV...
  45. Gard J, Givens M, Marley M, Galik P, Riddell K, Stringfellow D, et al. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) associated with single in vivo-derived and in vitro-produced preimplantation bovine embryos following artificial exposure. Theriogenology. 2009;71:1238-44 pubmed publisher
    ..14 and the mean of averages was 0.55/5 microL). Therefore, although many embryos were positive for virus, there were limited numbers of copies, thereby posing doubt regarding their potential for contamination following embryo transfer. ..
  46. Schache P, Gürlevik E, Strüver N, Woller N, Malek N, Zender L, et al. VSV virotherapy improves chemotherapy by triggering apoptosis due to proteasomal degradation of Mcl-1. Gene Ther. 2009;16:849-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our data indicate that VSV virotherapy is an attractive strategy to overcome tumor resistance against conventional chemotherapy by elimination of Mcl-1. ..
  47. Meerbach A, Meier C, Sauerbrei A, Meckel H, Wutzler P. Antiviral activity of cyclosaligenyl prodrugs of the nucleoside analogue bromovinyldeoxyuridine against herpes viruses. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2006;27:423-30 pubmed
    ..Most remarkably, several cycloSal-BVDUMP triesters yielded promising anti-EBV activity whereas the parent compound BVDU was entirely inactive. ..
  48. Li Y, Wu J, Wei D, Zhang D, Feng H, Chen Z, et al. Newcastle disease virus represses the activation of human hepatic stellate cells and reverses the development of hepatic fibrosis in mice. Liver Int. 2009;29:593-602 pubmed publisher
    ..HCC cells promote the activation of HSCs and NDV attenuates the activation and represses the hepatic fibrosis by selective replication in activated HSCs. ..
  49. Ronco G, Giorgi Rossi P, Carozzi F, Confortini M, Dalla Palma P, Del Mistro A, et al. Results at recruitment from a randomized controlled trial comparing human papillomavirus testing alone with conventional cytology as the primary cervical cancer screening test. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008;100:492-501 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, triage test or repeat testing is needed if HPV is to be used for primary testing in this context. ..
  50. Liu Y, Shi S, Mei W, Tan C, Chen L, Liu J, et al. In vitro and in vivo investigations on the antiviral activity of a series of mixed-valence rare earth borotungstate heteropoly blues. Eur J Med Chem. 2008;43:1963-70 pubmed publisher
    ..o.) or intraperitoneally (i.p.), indicates that Pr2 exhibits higher inhibitory activity than that of positive control, virazole, and that it's more effective when administered by i.p. ..
  51. Utsunomiya H, Ichinose M, Uozaki M, Tsujimoto K, Yamasaki H, Koyama A. Antiviral activities of coffee extracts in vitro. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46:1919-24 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the coffee extracts inhibited the multiplication of poliovirus, a non-enveloped RNA virus, but showed no virucidal effect on this virus. ..
  52. Parameswaran V, Shukla R, Bhonde R, Hameed A. Establishment of embryonic cell line from sea bass (Lates calcarifer) for virus isolation. J Virol Methods. 2006;137:309-16 pubmed
    ..Further, this cell line was characterized by immunocytochemistry using confocal-laser-scanning microscopy (CFLSM), transfection with pEGFP-N1, proliferate marker (BrdU). ..
  53. Favacho A, Cintra E, Coelho L, Linhares M. In vitro activity evaluation of Parkia pendula seed lectin against human cytomegalovirus and herpes virus 6. Biologicals. 2007;35:189-94 pubmed
    ..The results obtained with PpeL demonstrate that it may have an impact in the design of pharmacological strategies to infection of cytomegalovirus. ..