immunomagnetic separation


Summary: A cell-separation technique where magnetizable microspheres or beads are first coated with monoclonal antibody, allowed to search and bind to target cells, and are then selectively removed when passed through a magnetic field. Among other applications, the technique is commonly used to remove tumor cells from the marrow (BONE MARROW PURGING) of patients who are to undergo autologous bone marrow transplantation.

Top Publications

  1. Flatmark K, Borgen E, Nesland J, Rasmussen H, Johannessen H, Bukholm I, et al. Disseminated tumour cells as a prognostic biomarker in colorectal cancer. Br J Cancer. 2011;104:1434-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of DTC was associated with adverse prognosis in this cohort of patients curatively resected for CRC, suggesting that DTC detection still holds promise as a biomarker in CRC. ..
  2. Sung Y, Suk H, Sung H, Li T, Poo H, Kim M. Novel antibody/gold nanoparticle/magnetic nanoparticle nanocomposites for immunomagnetic separation and rapid colorimetric detection of Staphylococcus aureus in milk. Biosens Bioelectron. 2013;43:432-9 pubmed publisher
    ..With the use of the appropriate antibodies, our immunomagnetic nanocomposites-based detection strategy can provide an easy, convenient, and rapid sensing method for a wide range of pathogens...
  3. Dertinger S, Bryce S, Phonethepswath S, Avlasevich S. When pigs fly: immunomagnetic separation facilitates rapid determination of Pig-a mutant frequency by flow cytometric analysis. Mutat Res. 2011;721:163-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Beyond considerably enhancing the throughput capacity of the analytical platform, these blood-processing procedures were also shown to enhance the precision of the measurements...
  4. Suesskind D, Ulmer A, Schiebel U, Fierlbeck G, Spitzer B, Spitzer M, et al. Circulating melanoma cells in peripheral blood of patients with uveal melanoma before and after different therapies and association with prognostic parameters: a pilot study. Acta Ophthalmol. 2011;89:17-24 pubmed publisher
    ..05). No changes in CMC values were observed before and after different tumour therapies. In the majority of cases therapy does not lead to a shedding of detectable melanoma cells into the systemic circulation. ..
  5. Foddai A, Elliott C, Grant I. Maximizing capture efficiency and specificity of magnetic separation for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:7550-8 pubmed publisher
    ..3 PFU/ml). This PMS-phage assay represents a novel, rapid method for the detection and enumeration of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis organisms in milk, and potentially other sample matrices, with results available within 48 h...
  6. de Lamo Castellvi S, Männing A, Rodriguez Saona L. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy combined with immunomagnetic separation as a tool to discriminate Salmonella serovars. Analyst. 2010;135:2987-92 pubmed publisher was to develop a method for the rapid detection and differentiation of Salmonella serovars using immunomagnetic separation (IMS) combined with Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy and multivariate analysis...
  7. Stewart L, McNair J, McCallan L, Thompson S, Kulakov L, Grant I. Production and evaluation of antibodies and phage display-derived peptide ligands for immunomagnetic separation of Mycobacterium bovis. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:1598-605 pubmed publisher
    This study describes the development and optimization of an immunomagnetic separation (IMS) method to isolate Mycobacterium bovis cells from lymph node tissues. Gamma-irradiated whole M...
  8. Liu Z, Fusi A, Klopocki E, Schmittel A, Tinhofer I, Nonnenmacher A, et al. Negative enrichment by immunomagnetic nanobeads for unbiased characterization of circulating tumor cells from peripheral blood of cancer patients. J Transl Med. 2011;9:70 pubmed publisher
    ..This potentially leads to a more accurate estimation of the number of CTCs. If detection of CTCs without a classical epithelial phenotype has clinical relevance need to be determined. ..
  9. Wang Z, Yue T, Yuan Y, Cai R, Niu C, Guo C. Development and evaluation of an immunomagnetic separation-ELISA for the detection of Alicyclobacillus spp. in apple juice. Int J Food Microbiol. 2013;166:28-33 pubmed publisher
    The immunomagnetic separation (IMS) technique was used in combination with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedure to shorten the total analysis time and improve the sensitivity for the detection of Alicyclobacillus spp...

More Information


  1. Liandris E, Gazouli M, Andreadou M, Sechi L, Rosu V, Ikonomopoulos J. Detection of pathogenic mycobacteria based on functionalized quantum dots coupled with immunomagnetic separation. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20026 pubmed publisher
    ..The method described here can be easily adjusted for any other protein target of either the pathogen or the host, and once fully developed it will be directly applicable on clinical samples. ..
  2. Stewart L, McNair J, McCallan L, Gordon A, Grant I. Improved detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection in bovine lymph node tissue using immunomagnetic separation (IMS)-based methods. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58374 pubmed publisher
    b>Immunomagnetic separation (IMS) can selectively isolate and concentrate Mycobacterium bovis cells from lymph node tissue to facilitate subsequent detection by PCR (IMS-PCR) or culture (IMS-MGIT)...
  3. Zhang R, Liu S, Zhao W, Zhang W, Yu X, Li Y, et al. A simple point-of-care microfluidic immunomagnetic fluorescence assay for pathogens. Anal Chem. 2013;85:2645-51 pubmed publisher
  4. Sakaizawa K, Goto Y, Kiniwa Y, Uchiyama A, Harada K, Shimada S, et al. Mutation analysis of BRAF and KIT in circulating melanoma cells at the single cell level. Br J Cancer. 2012;106:939-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Melanoma cells show clonal heterogeneity. Therefore, CTC genotyping may be crucial for successful molecular-targeted therapy. ..
  5. Tillman G, Wasilenko J, Simmons M, Lauze T, Minicozzi J, Oakley B, et al. Isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 from ground beef using modified rainbow agar and post-immunomagnetic separation acid treatment. J Food Prot. 2012;75:1548-54 pubmed publisher
    ..A post-immunomagnetic separation (IMS) acid treatment step was additionally used to reduce background microflora and increase recovery of ..
  6. Keserue H, Füchslin H, Egli T. Rapid detection and enumeration of Giardia lamblia cysts in water samples by immunomagnetic separation and flow cytometric analysis. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:5420-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Many different immunomagnetic separation (IMS) procedures have been developed for separation and cyst purification, so far with variable but high ..
  7. Weagant S, Jinneman K, Yoshitomi K, Zapata R, Fedio W. Optimization and evaluation of a modified enrichment procedure combined with immunomagnetic separation for detection of E. coli O157:H7 from artificially contaminated alfalfa sprouts. Int J Food Microbiol. 2011;149:209-17 pubmed publisher
    ..of this study was to develop and optimize an enrichment protocol with and without post-enrichment immunomagnetic separation (IMS) for the rapid detection by real-time PCR (RTiPCR) and cultural recovery of E...
  8. Issadore D, Shao H, Chung J, Newton A, Pittet M, Weissleder R, et al. Self-assembled magnetic filter for highly efficient immunomagnetic separation. Lab Chip. 2011;11:147-51 pubmed publisher
  9. Krebs M, Sloane R, Priest L, Lancashire L, Hou J, Greystoke A, et al. Evaluation and prognostic significance of circulating tumor cells in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29:1556-63 pubmed publisher
    ..65; 95% CI, 3.63 to 67.53; P < .001). CTCs are detectable in patients with stage IV NSCLC and are a novel prognostic factor for this disease. Further validation is warranted before routine clinical application. ..
  10. Lee H, Kwon J, Choi J, Lee K, Yang S, Ko S, et al. Rapid detection of norovirus from fresh lettuce using immunomagnetic separation and a quantum dots assay. J Food Prot. 2013;76:707-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We developed an immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and a quantum dots (QDs) assay to detect norovirus eluted from fresh lettuce with Tris buffer ..
  11. Chen C, Chen K, Pan Y, Lee T, Hsiung L, Lin C, et al. Separation and detection of rare cells in a microfluidic disk via negative selection. Lab Chip. 2011;11:474-83 pubmed publisher
    ..3%) and BD IMagnet (48.3%). The advantages of near-constant yield, roughly 30 min of operation, an acceptable level of cell loss, and potentially low cost system should aid in cyto-analysis of rare cells. ..
  12. Fratamico P, Bagi L, Cray W, Narang N, Yan X, Medina M, et al. Detection by multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assays and isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 in ground beef. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2011;8:601-7 pubmed publisher
    ..stx(1), stx(2), and genes in the O-antigen gene clusters of the six serogroups, [corrected] and then immunomagnetic separation (IMS) followed by plating onto Rainbow® Agar O157 and PCR assays for confirmation of isolates...
  13. Yang W, Gu A, Zeng S, Li D, He M, Shi H. Development of a combined immunomagnetic separation and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assay for sensitive detection of infectious rotavirus in water samples. J Microbiol Methods. 2011;84:447-53 pubmed publisher
    A quantitative and rapid detection method for rotavirus in water samples was developed using immunomagnetic separation combined with quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (IMS-RT-qPCR)...
  14. Eberle D, Schubert S, Postel K, Corbeil D, Ader M. Increased integration of transplanted CD73-positive photoreceptor precursors into adult mouse retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:6462-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Purification via cell surface markers represents a new tool for the separation of transplantable photoreceptor precursors from a heterogeneous cell population, avoiding the need of reporter gene expression in target cells. ..
  15. Keserue H, Baumgartner A, Felleisen R, Egli T. Rapid detection of total and viable Legionella pneumophila in tap water by immunomagnetic separation, double fluorescent staining and flow cytometry. Microb Biotechnol. 2012;5:753-63 pubmed publisher
    We developed a rapid detection method for Legionella pneumophila (Lp) by filtration, immunomagnetic separation, double fluorescent staining, and flow cytometry (IMS-FCM method)...
  16. Yu X, Xia H, Sun Z, Lin Y, Wang K, Yu J, et al. On-chip dual detection of cancer biomarkers directly in serum based on self-assembled magnetic bead patterns and quantum dots. Biosens Bioelectron. 2013;41:129-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The linear ranges were from 10.0 ng/mL to 800.0 ng/mL. With the high sensitivity, high selectivity and short assay time, this approach could be used for rapid, high throughput detection of cancer biomarkers in clinical trials. ..
  17. Pelagiadis I, Relakis K, Kalmanti L, Dimitriou H. CD133 immunomagnetic separation: effectiveness of the method for CD133(+) isolation from umbilical cord blood. Cytotherapy. 2012;14:701-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore quantification of the positive cells should follow each isolation procedure in order to confirm the number of CD133(+) cells. ..
  18. Probst C, Zrazhevskiy P, Gao X. Rapid multitarget immunomagnetic separation through programmable DNA linker displacement. J Am Chem Soc. 2011;133:17126-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Immunomagnetic separation has become an essential tool for high-throughput and low-cost isolation of biomolecules and cells from heterogeneous samples...
  19. Sousa S, Cardoso L, Reed S, Reis A, Martins Filho O, Silvestre R, et al. Development of a fluorescent based immunosensor for the serodiagnosis of canine leishmaniasis combining immunomagnetic separation and flow cytometry. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2371 pubmed publisher
  20. Mendonça M, Conrad N, Conceição F, Moreira A, da Silva W, Aleixo J, et al. Highly specific fiber optic immunosensor coupled with immunomagnetic separation for detection of low levels of Listeria monocytogenes and L. ivanovii. BMC Microbiol. 2012;12:275 pubmed publisher
    b>Immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and immunoassays are widely used for pathogen detection. However, novel technology platforms with highly selective antibodies are essential to improve detection sensitivity, specificity and performance...
  21. Chakraborty R, Hazen T, Joyner D, Küsel K, Singer M, Sitte J, et al. Use of immunomagnetic separation for the detection of Desulfovibrio vulgaris from environmental samples. J Microbiol Methods. 2011;86:204-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Immunomagnetic separation (IMS) has proved highly efficient for recovering microorganisms from heterogeneous samples. Current investigation targeted the separation of viable cells of the sulfate-reducing bacterium, Desulfovibrio vulgaris...
  22. Mercanoglu Taban B, Ben U, Aytac S. Rapid detection of Salmonella in milk by combined immunomagnetic separation-polymerase chain reaction assay. J Dairy Sci. 2009;92:2382-8 pubmed publisher including milk samples was conducted to evaluate the performance of a combination of 2 techniques--immunomagnetic separation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)--for the detection of Salmonella...
  23. Salehi T, Tadjbakhsh H, Atashparvar N, Nadalian M, Mahzounieh M. Detection and identification of Salmonella Typhimurium in bovine diarrhoeic fecal samples by immunomagnetic separation and multiplex PCR assay. Zoonoses Public Health. 2007;54:231-6 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to use the immunomagnetic separation (IMS) test plus a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR) assay to detect Salmonella at genus level and also for the identification of Salmonella enterica serovar ..
  24. Yang L, Lang J, Balasubramanian P, Jatana K, Schuller D, Agrawal A, et al. Optimization of an enrichment process for circulating tumor cells from the blood of head and neck cancer patients through depletion of normal cells. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2009;102:521-34 pubmed publisher
    ..e., does the CTC have predominantly epithelial or mesenchymal characteristics?). ..
  25. Yang Z, Shim W, Kim K, Chung D. Rapid detection of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens in meat samples using immunomagnetic separation polymerase chain reaction (IMS-PCR). J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:7135-40 pubmed publisher
    Rapid detection of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens in meat samples was accomplished with an immunomagnetic separation polymerase chain reaction (IMS-PCR). First, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) specific to C...
  26. Walcher G, Stessl B, Wagner M, Eichenseher F, Loessner M, Hein I. Evaluation of paramagnetic beads coated with recombinant Listeria phage endolysin-derived cell-wall-binding domain proteins for separation of Listeria monocytogenes from raw milk in combination with culture-based and real-time polymerase chain reacti. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2010;7:1019-24 pubmed publisher
    ..987). The detection limit of the combined cell-wall-binding domain proteins/real-time PCR approach ranged from 10(2) to 10(3) colony forming units per milliliter, which is close to the theoretical detection limit of the method. ..
  27. Füchslin H, Kötzsch S, Keserue H, Egli T. Rapid and quantitative detection of Legionella pneumophila applying immunomagnetic separation and flow cytometry. Cytometry A. 2010;77:264-74 pubmed publisher
    ..pneumophila in 180 min with a detection limit of around 500 cells/l and a recovery of Legionella cells of 52.1 % out of spiked tap water. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometric cell-counting correlated well. ..
  28. Negin B, Cohen S. Circulating tumor cells in colorectal cancer: past, present, and future challenges. Curr Treat Options Oncol. 2010;11:1-13 pubmed publisher
    Recent advances in immunomagnetic separation and flow cytometry have made the detection and characterization of circulating tumor cells (CTC) a reality...
  29. Kallergi G, Mavroudis D, Georgoulias V, Stournaras C. Phosphorylation of FAK, PI-3K, and impaired actin organization in CK-positive micrometastatic breast cancer cells. Mol Med. 2007;13:79-88 pubmed
    ..b>Immunomagnetic separation using EpCAM antibody fully confirmed these findings, implying a sound correlation for the co-expression ..
  30. Park Y, Cho Y, Jee Y, Ko G. Immunomagnetic separation combined with real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assays for detection of norovirus in contaminated food. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:4226-30 pubmed publisher
    We developed an immunomagnetic separation (IMS) technique combined with real-time TaqMan reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), which allowed detection of norovirus at a level as low as 3 to 7 RT-PCR units from artificially contaminated ..
  31. Campos M, Prior C, Warleta F, Zudaire I, Ruiz Mora J, Catena R, et al. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of circulating tumor cells by combining immunomagnetic selection and FICTION techniques. J Histochem Cytochem. 2008;56:667-75 pubmed publisher
  32. Urwyler S, Finsel I, Ragaz C, Hilbi H. Isolation of Legionella-containing vacuoles by immuno-magnetic separation. Curr Protoc Cell Biol. 2010;Chapter 3:Unit 3.34 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of D. discoideum producing a fluorescent LCV marker and fluorescently labeled L. pneumophila allow tracking the enrichment of LCVs by light microscopy. ..
  33. Wadud S, Leon Velarde C, Larson N, Odumeru J. Evaluation of immunomagnetic separation in combination with ALOA Listeria chromogenic agar for the isolation and identification of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods. J Microbiol Methods. 2010;81:153-9 pubmed publisher
    A study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the ALOA (chromogenic media) in combination with immunomagnetic separation (IMS) for the detection of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat food products...
  34. Grützkau A, Radbruch A. Small but mighty: how the MACS-technology based on nanosized superparamagnetic particles has helped to analyze the immune system within the last 20 years. Cytometry A. 2010;77:643-7 pubmed publisher
  35. Otsuka K, Hirabayashi Y, Tsuboi I, Inoue T. Regeneration capability of Lin-/c-Kit+/Sca-1+ cells with or without radiation exposure for repopulation of peripheral blood in lethally irradiated mice monitored using Ly5.1 isotype on days 35, 90, and 270 after transplantation. Exp Hematol. 2010;38:417-25 pubmed publisher
    ..However, limited long-term regeneration capability (up to 270 days) of steady-state LKS cells than that of unfractionated rescue bone marrow cells suggests that LKS cells do not seem to be true hematopoietic stem cells. ..
  36. Labarriere N, Gervois N, Bonnin A, Bouquié R, Jotereau F, Lang F. PBMC are as good a source of tumor-reactive T lymphocytes as TIL after selection by Melan-A/A2 multimer immunomagnetic sorting. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2008;57:185-95 pubmed
    ..However, the conditions of peptide stimulation should be improved to prevent a possible loss of reactive clonotypes...
  37. Qiu J, Zhou Y, Chen H, Lin J. Immunomagnetic separation and rapid detection of bacteria using bioluminescence and microfluidics. Talanta. 2009;79:787-95 pubmed publisher
    This paper describes an immunomagnetic separation of target bacterial cells from others by using magnetic bead. The surface of bead was coated with antibodies which can capture specific organism...
  38. Chen J, Bai G, Cao Y, Gao Z, Zhang Q, Zhu Y, et al. One-step purification of a fusion protein of glucagon-like peptide-1 and human serum albumin expressed in pichia pastoris by an immunomagnetic separation technique. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2007;71:2655-62 pubmed
    ..Overall, this study illustrates the development of a long-acting GLP-1/HSA fusion protein expressed in Pichia pastoris. ..
  39. Himathongkham S, Dodd M, Yee J, Lau D, Bryant R, Badoiu A, et al. Recirculating immunomagnetic separation and optimal enrichment conditions for enhanced detection and recovery of low levels of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from fresh leafy produce and surface water. J Food Prot. 2007;70:2717-24 pubmed
    ..of low levels of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from leafy produce and surface water using recirculating immunomagnetic separation (RIMS) coupled with real-time PCR and a standard culture method...
  40. Yang S, Chieh J, Wang W, Yu C, Lan C, Chen J, et al. Ultra-highly sensitive and wash-free bio-detection of H5N1 virus by immunomagnetic reduction assays. J Virol Methods. 2008;153:250-2 pubmed publisher
    ..The results confirmed the ultra-high sensitivity of the immunomagnetic reduction assay on H5N1. ..
  41. Zhao Y, Ye M, Chao Q, Jia N, Ge Y, Shen H. Simultaneous detection of multifood-borne pathogenic bacteria based on functionalized quantum dots coupled with immunomagnetic separation in food samples. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:517-24 pubmed publisher
    ..This method, of which the detection procedures are completed within 2 h, can be applied to the rapid and cost-effective monitoring of bacterial contamination in food samples. ..
  42. Eide N, Faye R, Høifødt H, Øvergaard R, Jebsen P, Kvalheim G, et al. Immunomagnetic detection of micrometastatic cells in bone marrow in uveal melanoma patients. Acta Ophthalmol. 2009;87:830-6 pubmed publisher
    Our objective was to introduce immunomagnetic separation (IMS) in ocular research by evaluating the possibility of detecting tumour cells in bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) samples and validating the captured cells as ..
  43. Bushon R, Brady A, Likirdopulos C, Cireddu J. Rapid detection of Escherichia coli and enterococci in recreational water using an immunomagnetic separation/adenosine triphosphate technique. J Appl Microbiol. 2009;106:432-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Water samples were assayed for E. coli and enterococci by traditional and immunomagnetic separation/adenosine triphosphate (IMS/ATP) methods...
  44. Tveito S, Maelandsmo G, Hoifodt H, Rasmussen H, Fodstad O. Specific isolation of disseminated cancer cells: a new method permitting sensitive detection of target molecules of diagnostic and therapeutic value. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2007;24:317-27 pubmed
    ..By use of the CellPick system it is possible to specifically isolate bead-rosetted or otherwise labelled target cells from a heterogeneous cell population for further molecular characterization. ..
  45. Wang L, Li Y, Mustaphai A. Rapid and simultaneous quantitation of Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Salmonella, and Shigella in ground beef by multiplex real-time PCR and immunomagnetic separation. J Food Prot. 2007;70:1366-72 pubmed
    ..coli O157:H7, 10(3) CFU/g for Salmonella, and 10(4) CFU/g for Shigella. Immunomagnetic separation (IMS) was further used to separate E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella from the beef samples...
  46. Yang H, Qu L, Wimbrow A, Jiang X, Sun Y. Rapid detection of Listeria monocytogenes by nanoparticle-based immunomagnetic separation and real-time PCR. Int J Food Microbiol. 2007;118:132-8 pubmed
    The objective of this study was to develop a method combining nanoparticle-based immunomagnetic separation (IMS) with real-time PCR for a rapid and quantitative detection of Listeria monocytogenes...
  47. Jamur M, Moreno A, Mello L, Souza Júnior D, Campos M, Pastor M, et al. Mast cell repopulation of the peritoneal cavity: contribution of mast cell progenitors versus bone marrow derived committed mast cell precursors. BMC Immunol. 2010;11:32 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was undertaken to determine the mast cell response in the peritoneal cavity and bone marrow during repopulation of the peritoneal cavity in rats...
  48. Attard G, Swennenhuis J, Olmos D, Reid A, Vickers E, A Hern R, et al. Characterization of ERG, AR and PTEN gene status in circulating tumor cells from patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer. Cancer Res. 2009;69:2912-8 pubmed publisher
    ..007) in CRPC patients treated with abiraterone acetate. These data confirm that CTCs are malignant in origin and indicate that hormone-regulated expression of ERG persists in CRPC. ..
  49. Lee H, Kim B, Kim K, Kim Y, Kim J, Oh M. A sensitive method to detect Escherichia coli based on immunomagnetic separation and real-time PCR amplification of aptamers. Biosens Bioelectron. 2009;24:3550-5 pubmed publisher
    ..It is anticipated that the present approach will be easily expanded and employed in various types of microorganism detection. ..
  50. Pestrin M, Bessi S, Galardi F, Truglia M, Biggeri A, Biagioni C, et al. Correlation of HER2 status between primary tumors and corresponding circulating tumor cells in advanced breast cancer patients. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009;118:523-30 pubmed publisher
    ..278). Our study suggests that a subset of patients with HER2-negative primary tumors develops HER2-positive CTCs during disease progression. ..
  51. Cristofanilli M. The biological information obtainable from circulating tumor cells. Breast. 2009;18 Suppl 3:S38-40 pubmed publisher
    ..detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is possible by using immunomagnetic separation and subsequent characterization with the CellSpotter analyzer (Veridex LLC, a Johnson & Johnson ..
  52. Flores L, Kindelberger D, Ligon A, Capelletti M, Fiorentino M, Loda M, et al. Improving the yield of circulating tumour cells facilitates molecular characterisation and recognition of discordant HER2 amplification in breast cancer. Br J Cancer. 2010;102:1495-502 pubmed publisher
    ..Circulating tumour cells obtained using CPK technology demonstrate that significant discordance exists between HER2 amplification of a patient's CTCs and that of the primary and metastatic tumour. ..
  53. Balasubramanian P, Yang L, Lang J, Jatana K, Schuller D, Agrawal A, et al. Confocal images of circulating tumor cells obtained using a methodology and technology that removes normal cells. Mol Pharm. 2009;6:1402-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies will involve the investigation if cancer stem cell and mesenchymal markers are present on these CTCs and correlations of patient outcome to the number and type of CTC present. ..