clinical laboratory techniques


Summary: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.

Top Publications

  1. Daskalakis D. HIV diagnostic testing: evolving technology and testing strategies. Top Antivir Med. 2011;19:18-22 pubmed
    ..This article summarizes a lecture by Demetre Daskalakis, MD, at the New York City IAS-USA continuing medical education program held in November 2009 and re-presented in December 2010. ..
  2. Plebani M, Laposata M, Lundberg G. The brain-to-brain loop concept for laboratory testing 40 years after its introduction. Am J Clin Pathol. 2011;136:829-33 pubmed publisher
    ..This review describes the changes and their implications for analysis of errors associated with laboratory testing. ..
  3. Wilson M. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;54:1637-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The emphasis will be on the performance and use of MRDTs in regions of endemicity, particularly sub-Saharan Africa, where most malaria-related deaths occur. ..
  4. Plebani M, Chiozza M, Sciacovelli L. Towards harmonization of quality indicators in laboratory medicine. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2013;51:187-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of valuable QIs is a key step in paving the way towards quality and patient safety in laboratory medicine. ..
  5. Zhi M, Ding E, Theisen Toupal J, Whelan J, Arnaout R. The landscape of inappropriate laboratory testing: a 15-year meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e78962 pubmed publisher
    ..Underutilization is also widespread, but understudied. Expanding the current focus on reducing repeat testing to include ordering the right test during initial evaluation may lead to fewer errors and better care. ..
  6. Estrade C, Menoud P, Nardelli Haefliger D, Sahli R. Validation of a low-cost human papillomavirus genotyping assay based on PGMY PCR and reverse blotting hybridization with reusable membranes. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:3474-81 pubmed publisher
    ..40 per sample using the least expensive yet proficient genotyping algorithm that also included quality control. This assay may be used in low-resource laboratories that have sufficient manpower and PCR expertise...
  7. Pisani G, Pupella S, Marino F, Gaggioli A, Sambri V, Rossini G, et al. Interlaboratory study to evaluate the performance of laboratories involved in West Nile virus RNA screening of blood and blood components by nucleic acid amplification testing in Italy. Blood Transfus. 2011;9:425-9 pubmed publisher
    ..No pre- or post-analytical errors were observed. The interlaboratory study run in 2010 allowed participants to assess the performance of the NAT methods applied in their seasonal routine screening of blood donations. ..
  8. Lippi G, Becan McBride K, Behulova D, Bowen R, Church S, Delanghe J, et al. Preanalytical quality improvement: in quality we trust. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2013;51:229-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Auditing of the preanalytical phase by ISO assessors and external quality assessment for preanalytical phase are also discussed. ..
  9. Moges B, Amare B, Belyhun Y, Tekeste Z, Gizachew M, Workineh M, et al. Comparison of CareStart™ HRP2/pLDH COMBO rapid malaria test with light microscopy in north-west Ethiopia. Malar J. 2012;11:234 pubmed publisher
    ..The RDT could therefore be used in place of light microscopy, which in poor set-ups cannot be used routinely. ..

More Information


  1. Blacksell S, Jarman R, Gibbons R, Tanganuchitcharnchai A, Mammen M, Nisalak A, et al. Comparison of seven commercial antigen and antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of acute dengue infection. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19:804-10 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides strong evidence of the value of combining dengue virus antigen- and antibody-based test results in the ELISA format for the diagnosis of acute dengue infection. ..
  2. Lippi G, Avanzini P, Cosmai M, Aloe R, Ernst D. Incomplete filling of lithium heparin tubes affects the activity of creatine kinase and gamma-glutamyltransferase. Br J Biomed Sci. 2012;69:67-70 pubmed
    ..3% and 16.6% for the half-draw and low-draw tubes, respectively. These results suggest that short-draw lithium heparin tubes might be unsuitable for testing GGT and CK using specific combinations of reagents and instrumentation. ..
  3. Hawkins R. Managing the pre- and post-analytical phases of the total testing process. Ann Lab Med. 2012;32:5-16 pubmed publisher
  4. Emukah E, Gutman J, Eguagie J, Miri E, Yinkore P, Okocha N, et al. Urine heme dipsticks are useful in monitoring the impact of praziquantel treatment on Schistosoma haematobium in sentinel communities of Delta State, Nigeria. Acta Trop. 2012;122:126-31 pubmed publisher
    ..5% (p<0.001), and history and NVD identified only one of two villages still needing treatment. The study suggests that dipsticks should be the recommended method for launching and monitoring mass treatment for S. haematobium...
  5. Xiaodong S, Tambo E, Chun W, Zhibin C, Yan D, Jian W, et al. Diagnostic performance of CareStart™ malaria HRP2/pLDH (Pf/pan) combo test versus standard microscopy on falciparum and vivax malaria between China-Myanmar endemic borders. Malar J. 2013;12:6 pubmed publisher
  6. Baricchi R, Zini M, Nibali M, Vezzosi W, Insegnante V, Manfuso C, et al. Using pathology-specific laboratory profiles in clinical pathology to reduce inappropriate test requesting: two completed audit cycles. BMC Health Serv Res. 2012;12:187 pubmed publisher
    ..The combined strategy used in this study improved the prescriptive compliance of most of the GPs involved. The presence of the clinical pathologist is seen as an added value. ..
  7. Jartti T, Hedman K, Jartti L, Ruuskanen O, Allander T, Soderlund Venermo M. Human bocavirus-the first 5 years. Rev Med Virol. 2012;22:46-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The best currently available diagnostic approaches are quantitative PCR and serology. This concise review summarizes the current clinical knowledge on HBoV species...
  8. Luchavez J, Baker J, Alcantara S, Belizario V, Cheng Q, McCarthy J, et al. Laboratory demonstration of a prozone-like effect in HRP2-detecting malaria rapid diagnostic tests: implications for clinical management. Malar J. 2011;10:286 pubmed publisher
  9. Cohen Bacrie S, Ninove L, Nougairede A, Charrel R, Richet H, Minodier P, et al. Revolutionizing clinical microbiology laboratory organization in hospitals with in situ point-of-care. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22403 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical microbiology may direct decisions regarding hospitalization, isolation and anti-infective therapy, but it is not effective at the time of early care. Point-of-care (POC) tests have been developed for this purpose...
  10. McMorrow M, Aidoo M, Kachur S. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests in elimination settings--can they find the last parasite?. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011;17:1624-31 pubmed publisher
  11. Becker S, Vogt J, Knopp S, Panning M, Warhurst D, Polman K, et al. Persistent digestive disorders in the tropics: causative infectious pathogens and reference diagnostic tests. BMC Infect Dis. 2013;13:37 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide an overview of pathogens causing digestive disorders in the tropics and evaluate available reference tests...
  12. Sousa Figueiredo J, Betson M, Kabatereine N, Stothard J. The urine circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) dipstick: a valid substitute for microscopy for mapping and point-of-care diagnosis of intestinal schistosomiasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2008 pubmed publisher
    ..The diagnostic performance of this test was not significantly impacted by treatment history or co-infections with other intestinal helminths. ..
  13. Rachow A, Clowes P, Saathoff E, Mtafya B, Michael E, Ntinginya E, et al. Increased and expedited case detection by Xpert MTB/RIF assay in childhood tuberculosis: a prospective cohort study. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;54:1388-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Rapid turnaround times should reduce treatment delay and improve patient outcome, although sensitivity remains suboptimal and access is dependent on local laboratory infrastructure. ..
  14. Spinazzi M, Casarin A, Pertegato V, Ermani M, Salviati L, Angelini C. Optimization of respiratory chain enzymatic assays in muscle for the diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders. Mitochondrion. 2011;11:893-904 pubmed publisher
    ..These data will be useful for quality control in both clinical and research laboratories. ..
  15. Blacksell S, Jarman R, Bailey M, Tanganuchitcharnchai A, Jenjaroen K, Gibbons R, et al. Evaluation of six commercial point-of-care tests for diagnosis of acute dengue infections: the need for combining NS1 antigen and IgM/IgG antibody detection to achieve acceptable levels of accuracy. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2011;18:2095-101 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides strong evidence of the value of combining dengue antigen- and antibody-based test results in the rapid diagnostic test (RDT) format for the acute diagnosis of dengue. ..
  16. Kahama Maro J, D Acremont V, Mtasiwa D, Genton B, Lengeler C. Low quality of routine microscopy for malaria at different levels of the health system in Dar es Salaam. Malar J. 2011;10:332 pubmed publisher
  17. Vassall A, van Kampen S, Sohn H, Michael J, John K, den Boon S, et al. Rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis with the Xpert MTB/RIF assay in high burden countries: a cost-effectiveness analysis. PLoS Med. 2011;8:e1001120 pubmed publisher
    ..The extent of cost-effectiveness gain to TB programmes from deploying Xpert is primarily dependent on current TB diagnostic practices. Further work is required during scale-up to validate these findings. ..
  18. Coulibaly J, Knopp S, N Guessan N, Silué K, Fürst T, Lohourignon L, et al. Accuracy of urine circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) test for Schistosoma mansoni diagnosis in different settings of Côte d'Ivoire. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1384 pubmed publisher
    ..We assessed the accuracy of a commercially available CCA cassette test (designated CCA-A) and an experimental formulation (CCA-B) for S. mansoni diagnosis...
  19. McCarthy J, Lustigman S, Yang G, Barakat R, García H, Sripa B, et al. A research agenda for helminth diseases of humans: diagnostics for control and elimination programmes. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1601 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, the diagnostic technologies relevant to control of helminth infections, either available or in development, are reviewed. Critical gaps are identified and opportunities to improve needed technologies are discussed. ..
  20. Kinkel H, Dittrich S, Bäumer B, Weitzel T. Evaluation of eight serological tests for diagnosis of imported schistosomiasis. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19:948-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Serological tests are useful instruments for diagnosing imported schistosomiasis in countries where the disease is not endemic, but due to limitations in test sensitivities, we recommend the use of two or more assays in parallel...
  21. Marquart L, Butterworth A, McCarthy J, Gatton M. Modelling the dynamics of Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 in human malaria to better understand malaria rapid diagnostic test performance. Malar J. 2012;11:74 pubmed publisher
    ..The duration of a positive test result following curative treatment is dependent on the duration and density of parasitaemia prior to treatment and the presence and affinity of anti-PfHRP2 antibodies. ..
  22. Schupbach J, Bisset L, Regenass S, Burgisser P, Gorgievski M, Steffen I, et al. High specificity of line-immunoassay based algorithms for recent HIV-1 infection independent of viral subtype and stage of disease. BMC Infect Dis. 2011;11:254 pubmed publisher
    ..Specificity should be good in any group of untreated HIV-1 patients. ..
  23. Auger M, Nayar R, Khalbuss W, Barkan G, Benedict C, Tambouret R, et al. Implementation of the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology: observations from the 2011 thyroid supplemental questionnaire of the College of American Pathologists. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2013;137:1555-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, because approximately a third of those not using this terminology are not aware of it, additional educational efforts regarding TBSRTC are warranted. ..
  24. Sire J, Garin B, Chartier L, Fall N, Tall A, Seck A, et al. Community-acquired infectious diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age in Dakar, Senegal. Paediatr Int Child Health. 2013;33:139-44 pubmed publisher
    ..In developing countries, there is a need to develop reliable, easy-to-use, inexpensive rapid diagnostic tests to guide the management of diarrhoea in infants and children and thereby prevent over-use of antimicrobial agents. ..
  25. Banugaria S, Prater S, Patel T, Dearmey S, Milleson C, Sheets K, et al. Algorithm for the early diagnosis and treatment of patients with cross reactive immunologic material-negative classic infantile pompe disease: a step towards improving the efficacy of ERT. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e67052 pubmed publisher
    ..An algorithm such as this substantiates the benefits of accelerated diagnosis and management of CN IPD patients, thus, further supporting the importance of early identification and treatment initiation with newborn screening for IPD. ..
  26. Min J, Lee H, Lee J, Lee J, Chung J, Han S, et al. Effect of prolonged incubation time on results of the QuantiFERON TB gold in-tube assay for diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2013;20:1377-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The manufacturer-recommended incubation time of 16 to 24 h should be respected because prolonged incubation can cause indeterminate or false-positive results. ..
  27. Esteban J, van Helden J, Alborino F, Burgisser P, Cellerai C, Pantaleo G, et al. Multicenter evaluation of the Elecsys® anti-HCV II assay for the diagnosis of hepatitis C virus infection. J Med Virol. 2013;85:1362-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the Elecsys® Anti-HCV II assay is a sensitive and specific assay suitable for routine use in the reliable detection of anti-HCV antibodies. ..
  28. Reigadas E, Alcalá L, Marín M, Muñoz Pacheco P, Catalán P, Martin A, et al. Clinical significance of direct cytotoxicity and toxigenic culture in Clostridium difficile infection. Anaerobe. 2016;37:38-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that a positive test by toxigenic culture with a negative result for cytotoxicity should not be interpreted as colonization. ..
  29. Qiao T, Ma R, Luo X, Zheng P, Luo Z, Yang L. Microscopic examination of gallbladder stones improves rate of detection of Clonorchis sinensis infection. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:2551-5 pubmed publisher
    ..sinensis infection, which is important for developing individualized treatments to prevent the recurrence of gallbladder stones and to prevent the occurrence of severe liver damage and cholangiocarcinoma. ..
  30. Neace C, Alderete J. Epitopes of the highly immunogenic Trichomonas vaginalis ?-actinin are serodiagnostic targets for both women and men. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:2483-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings identify epitopes of ?-actinin as candidate serodiagnostic targets and suggest strongly that a highly seropositive reaction to ?-actinin suggests exposure to T. vaginalis. ..
  31. Bunyaratavej S, Pattanaprichakul P, Leeyaphan C, Rujitharanawong C, Muanprasart C, Matthapan L, et al. The Use of Adhesive Tapes to Transfer Skin-scrapings for Sequential Laboratory Diagnosis of Dermatophytosis. Med Mycol J. 2016;57:E9-13 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, the sensitivity of fungal cultures gradually declines as storage time is extended. ..
  32. Westblade L, Jennemann R, Branda J, Bythrow M, Ferraro M, Garner O, et al. Multicenter study evaluating the Vitek MS system for identification of medically important yeasts. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:2267-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of clinically relevant yeasts using MS is superior to the phenotypic identification systems currently employed in clinical microbiology laboratories. ..
  33. Price C, Christenson R. Ask the right question: a critical step for practicing evidence-based laboratory medicine. Ann Clin Biochem. 2013;50:306-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Asking the right question is crucial to improving the quality of evidence, and practice, in laboratory medicine, and should be used in routine laboratory medicine practice and management throughout healthcare. ..
  34. Lier H, Schlembach D, Korte W, von Heymann C, Steppat S, Kuhnert M, et al. [The new German guideline on postpartum haemorrhage (PPH): essential aspects for coagulation and circulatory therapy]. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther. 2016;51:526-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, recommendations are given on the topics of cell salvage, controlled hypotension and restrictive transfusion triggers. ..
  35. Wang X, Gao J, Du C, An J, Li M, Ma H, et al. A novel pretreatment method combining sealing technique with direct injection technique applied for improving biosafety. Bioanalysis. 2017;9:173-182 pubmed
    ..With these highly practical and desirable characteristics, the novel method may become a feasible platform in bioanalysis. ..
  36. Schwarz N, Loderstaedt U, Hahn A, Hinz R, Zautner A, Eibach D, et al. Microbiological laboratory diagnostics of neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs). Acta Trop. 2017;165:40-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Cheap and easy to use tests, usually called "rapid diagnostic tests" (RDTs) may impact disease control measures, but should not preclude developing countries from state of the art diagnostics. ..
  37. Beltran L, Koenig M, Egner W, Howard M, Butt A, Austin M, et al. High-titre circulating tissue transglutaminase-2 antibodies predict small bowel villous atrophy, but decision cut-off limits must be locally validated. Clin Exp Immunol. 2014;176:190-8 pubmed publisher
    ..TTG2 antibody assay harmonization is a priority, in order to meet the evolving requirements of laboratory users in this field. ..
  38. Bhadange Y, Sharma S, Das S, Sahu S. Role of liquid culture media in the laboratory diagnosis of microbial keratitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2013;156:745-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Owing to overlap in clinical diagnosis of bacterial and fungal keratitis, we recommend inclusion of both solid and liquid culture media in the laboratory diagnosis of nonviral keratitis. ..
  39. Dolci A, Giavarina D, Pasqualetti S, Szoke D, Panteghini M. Total laboratory automation: Do stat tests still matter?. Clin Biochem. 2017;50:605-611 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, to warrant effectiveness and not only efficiency, all the processes, e.g. specimen integrity check, should be managed by middleware through a predefined set of rules defined in light of the clinical governance. ..
  40. De Santis O, Kilowoko M, Kyungu E, Sangu W, Cherpillod P, Kaiser L, et al. Predictive value of clinical and laboratory features for the main febrile diseases in children living in Tanzania: A prospective observational study. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0173314 pubmed publisher
    ..These predictors have been used to construct a new algorithm for the management of childhood illnesses called ALMANACH. ..
  41. Plumelle D, Lombard E, Nicolay A, Portugal H. Influence of diet and sample collection time on 77 laboratory tests on healthy adults. Clin Biochem. 2014;47:31-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Fasting is necessary for some laboratory tests. Clinicians should be aware of variations due to sampling time before ordering non-fasting tests, and in the subsequent interpretation of results. ..
  42. Cureau F, Bloch K, Henz A, Schaan C, Klein C, Oliveira C, et al. Challenges for conducting blood collection and biochemical analysis in a large multicenter school-based study with adolescents: lessons from ERICA in Brazil. Cad Saude Publica. 2017;33:e00122816 pubmed publisher
  43. Mahmood K, Akhtar T, Naeem M, Talib A, Haider I, Siraj Us Salikeen -. Fever of unknown origin at a teritiary care teaching hospital in Pakistan. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2013;44:503-11 pubmed
    ..Common diseases should be suspected first when investigating FUO. Factors causing delay in diagnosis should be identified and overcome to improve outcomes. ..
  44. Pang Z, Li D. [Laboratory diagnosis of viral hemorrhagic fevers]. Bing Du Xue Bao. 2013;29:349-56 pubmed
    ..Prospects for novel diagnostic tools are also discussed. ..
  45. Register K, Sacco R, Olsen S. Evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of Mycoplasma bovis-specific antibody in bison sera. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2013;20:1405-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Optimal performance was obtained when the capture antigen was derived from bison isolates rather than cattle isolates and when a protein G conjugate rather than an anti-bovine IgG conjugate was used for the detection of bison IgG. ..
  46. Owen L, Adaway J, Davies S, Neale S, El Farhan N, Ducroq D, et al. Development of a rapid assay for the analysis of serum cortisol and its implementation into a routine service laboratory. Ann Clin Biochem. 2013;50:345-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The availability of this assay will give more reliable results in patients receiving exogenous steroid therapy. ..
  47. Khandelwal C, Kistler C. Diagnosis of urinary incontinence. Am Fam Physician. 2013;87:543-50 pubmed
    ..If the type of urinary incontinence is still not clear, or if red flags such as hematuria, obstructive symptoms, or recurrent urinary tract infections are present, referral to a urologist or urogynecologist should be considered. ..
  48. Takahashi H, Mizuta T, Oeda S, Isoda H, Nakashita S, Kawaguchi Y, et al. An automated rapid detection system using the quenching probe method for detecting interleukin 28B and inosine triphosphatase single nucleotide polymorphisms in chronic hepatitis C. J Viral Hepat. 2013;20:e124-6 pubmed publisher
    ..5%, 29.6% and 1.9%, respectively. These results indicate that the i-densy using the QP method can automatically, quickly and easily identify genotypes of IL28B and ITPA. ..
  49. Funk A, Boisson S, Clasen T, Ensink J. Comparison of Kato-Katz, ethyl-acetate sedimentation, and Midi Parasep® in the diagnosis of hookworm, Ascaris and Trichuris infections in the context of an evaluation of rural sanitation in India. Acta Trop. 2013;126:265-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The conventional ethyl-acetate technique produced smaller pellets and showed lower pellet mobility as compared to the Midi Parasep(®)...
  50. Bettigole C. The thousand-dollar Pap smear. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:1486-7 pubmed publisher
  51. Hawgood B. Rosemary Biggs MD FRCP (1912-2001) and Katharine Dormandy MD FRCP (1926-78): from laboratory to treatment and care of people with haemophilia. J Med Biogr. 2013;21:41-8 pubmed publisher
  52. Holmberg S, Lu M, Rupp L, Lamerato L, Moorman A, Vijayadeva V, et al. Noninvasive serum fibrosis markers for screening and staging chronic hepatitis C virus patients in a large US cohort. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;57:240-6 pubmed publisher
    ..It can be useful in screening patients who need biopsy and therapy, for monitoring patients with less advanced disease, and for longitudinal studies. ..
  53. Berkow L. Factors affecting hemoglobin measurement. J Clin Monit Comput. 2013;27:499-508 pubmed publisher
    ..This article discusses both the physiologic factors that influence hemoglobin levels and the technical aspects and variability among the different measurement methodologies currently available. ..