rotarod performance test


Summary: A performance test based on forced MOTOR ACTIVITY on a rotating rod, usually by a rodent. Parameters include the riding time (seconds) or endurance. Test is used to evaluate balance and coordination of the subjects, particular in experimental animal models for neurological disorders and drug effects.

Top Publications

  1. Cobacho N, De la Calle J, González Escalada J, Paíno C. Levodopa analgesia in experimental neuropathic pain. Brain Res Bull. 2010;83:304-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide experimental support on the antiallodynic effect of levodopa in neuropathic pain and suggest that at least part of the analgesic action takes place in the spinal cord and involves dopaminergic D2-type receptors. ..
  2. Rising A, Xu J, Carlson A, Napoli V, Denovan Wright E, Mandel R. Longitudinal behavioral, cross-sectional transcriptional and histopathological characterization of a knock-in mouse model of Huntington's disease with 140 CAG repeats. Exp Neurol. 2011;228:173-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, striatal neuronal intranuclear inclusion density increases with age. Lastly these CAG 140 mice show slight cortical thinning compared to non-transgenic mice, similarly to the cortical thinning recently reported in HD. ..
  3. Mizutani K, Sonoda S, Karasawa N, Yamada K, Shimpo K, Chihara T, et al. Effects of exercise after focal cerebral cortex infarction on basal ganglion. Neurol Sci. 2013;34:861-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, at least some of the alterations of monoamines associated with the improvement of paralysis in the basal ganglion related to motor control might have been detected...
  4. El Akabawy G, Rattray I, Johansson S, Gale R, Bates G, Modo M. Implantation of undifferentiated and pre-differentiated human neural stem cells in the R6/2 transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease. BMC Neurosci. 2012;13:97 pubmed publisher
    ..However, a combination of treatments is likely needed to affect outcome in transgenic models of HD. ..
  5. Abada Y, Schreiber R, Ellenbroek B. Motor, emotional and cognitive deficits in adult BACHD mice: a model for Huntington's disease. Behav Brain Res. 2013;238:243-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that BACHD mice represent an animal model with a high degree of face validity for HD and may be very useful for testing novel therapeutic strategies. ..
  6. Yang E, Jiang J, Lee S, Yang S, Hwang H, Lee M, et al. Bee venom attenuates neuroinflammatory events and extends survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis models. J Neuroinflammation. 2010;7:69 pubmed publisher
    ..From these findings, our research suggests BV could be a potential therapeutic agent for anti-neuroinflammatory effects in an animal model of ALS. ..
  7. Menalled L, Kudwa A, Miller S, Fitzpatrick J, Watson Johnson J, Keating N, et al. Comprehensive behavioral and molecular characterization of a new knock-in mouse model of Huntington's disease: zQ175. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49838 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that the zQ175 knock-in line could be a suitable model for the evaluation of therapeutic approaches and early events in the pathogenesis of HD. ..
  8. Duvick L, Barnes J, Ebner B, Agrawal S, ANDRESEN M, Lim J, et al. SCA1-like disease in mice expressing wild-type ataxin-1 with a serine to aspartic acid replacement at residue 776. Neuron. 2010;67:929-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Ser776 is critical for the pathway to neuronal dysfunction, while an expanded polyglutamine tract is essential for neuronal death. ..
  9. Goddyn H, Leo S, Meert T, D Hooge R. Differences in behavioural test battery performance between mice with hippocampal and cerebellar lesions. Behav Brain Res. 2006;173:138-47 pubmed
    ..By and large, the present battery of tests does allow differentiation between the effects of cerebellar and hippocampal lesions in laboratory mice. ..

More Information


  1. Ebert A, Barber A, Heins B, Svendsen C. Ex vivo delivery of GDNF maintains motor function and prevents neuronal loss in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease. Exp Neurol. 2010;224:155-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data show that mNPCs(GDNF) can survive transplantation, secrete GDNF for several weeks and are able to maintain motor function in this model of HD. ..
  2. Kumar P, Kumar A. Protective effect of rivastigmine against 3-nitropropionic acid-induced Huntington's disease like symptoms: possible behavioural, biochemical and cellular alterations. Eur J Pharmacol. 2009;615:91-101 pubmed publisher
    ..The results show that rivastigmine could be used as an effective therapeutic agent in the management of Huntington's disease and related conditions...
  3. Pallier P, Drew C, Morton A. The detection and measurement of locomotor deficits in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease are task- and protocol-dependent: influence of non-motor factors on locomotor function. Brain Res Bull. 2009;78:347-55 pubmed publisher
  4. Mandillo S, Tucci V, Holter S, Meziane H, Banchaabouchi M, Kallnik M, et al. Reliability, robustness, and reproducibility in mouse behavioral phenotyping: a cross-laboratory study. Physiol Genomics. 2008;34:243-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The EUMORPHIA SOPs described here are an important start-point for the ongoing development of increasingly robust phenotyping platforms and their application in large-scale, multicentre mouse phenotyping programs. ..
  5. Kumar P, Kumar A. Possible role of sertraline against 3-nitropropionic acid induced behavioral, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions in rat brain. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2009;33:100-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study suggests the possible antioxidant role of sertraline against 3-nitropropionic acid induced alterations in animals. ..
  6. Zhao Y, DeCuypere M, Ledoux M. Abnormal motor function and dopamine neurotransmission in DYT1 DeltaGAG transgenic mice. Exp Neurol. 2008;210:719-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased striatal dopamine turnover in hMT1 mice suggests that the nigrostriatal pathway may be a site of functional neuropathology in DYT1 dystonia. ..
  7. Alvarez Fischer D, Henze C, Strenzke C, Westrich J, Ferger B, Höglinger G, et al. Characterization of the striatal 6-OHDA model of Parkinson's disease in wild type and alpha-synuclein-deleted mice. Exp Neurol. 2008;210:182-93 pubmed
    ..In summary, we propose that the striatal 6-OHDA model may be a valuable addition and/or alternative in genetically modified mice models used in the study of PD pathophysiology. ..
  8. Niimi K, Takahashi E, Itakura C. Analysis of motor function and dopamine systems of SAMP6 mouse. Physiol Behav. 2009;96:464-9 pubmed publisher
  9. Dai Y, Dudek N, Li Q, Fowler S, Muma N. Striatal expression of a calmodulin fragment improved motor function, weight loss, and neuropathology in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease. J Neurosci. 2009;29:11550-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results suggest that disrupting CaM-htt interaction may provide a new therapeutic strategy for HD. ..
  10. Meziane H, Ouagazzal A, Aubert L, Wietrzych M, Krezel W. Estrous cycle effects on behavior of C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ female mice: implications for phenotyping strategies. Genes Brain Behav. 2007;6:192-200 pubmed
    ..In addition, strain differences were evident even for behaviors that were susceptible to estrous cycle modulations, although their detection might necessitate the constitution of large experimental groups. ..
  11. Cendelin J, Korelusová I, Vozeh F. The effect of repeated rotarod training on motor skills and spatial learning ability in Lurcher mutant mice. Behav Brain Res. 2008;189:65-74 pubmed publisher
  12. van der Burg J, Bacos K, Wood N, Lindqvist A, Wierup N, Woodman B, et al. Increased metabolism in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease. Neurobiol Dis. 2008;29:41-51 pubmed
    ..Together, these data demonstrate that weight loss in R6/2 mice is associated with increased metabolism and changes in several weight-regulating factors. ..
  13. Boltze J, Kowalski I, Forschler A, Schmidt U, Wagner D, Lobsien D, et al. The stairway: a novel behavioral test detecting sensomotoric stroke deficits in rats. Artif Organs. 2006;30:756-63 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, development of lesions was monitored by magnetic resonance imaging. The results reveal the Stairway test as a simple, highly reproducible, and easy manageable test system thus reflecting therapeutic benefits precisely. ..
  14. Han E, Chun M, Kim S, Lim D. Injection time-dependent effect of adult human bone marrow stromal cell transplantation in a rat model of severe traumatic brain injury. Curr Stem Cell Res Ther. 2013;8:172-81 pubmed
  15. Ye J, Chen X, Su L, Liu Y, Cai Q, Zhan X, et al. Progesterone alleviates neural behavioral deficits and demyelination with reduced degeneration of oligodendroglial cells in cuprizone-induced mice. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54590 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that progesterone can alleviate neural behavioral deficits and demyelination against oligodendroglial cell degeneration in cuprizone-induced mice. ..
  16. Cha H, Kim Y, Jeon S, Kim Y, Shin J, Yun J, et al. Neurotoxicity induced by alkyl nitrites: Impairment in learning/memory and motor coordination. Neurosci Lett. 2016;619:79-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, isoamyl nitrite affected the rodents' motor coordination ability. Collectively, our findings suggest that alkyl nitrites may induce neurotoxicity, especially on the aspect of learning and memory function. ..
  17. Yang E, Kim S, Yang S, Lee S, Choi S. Melittin restores proteasome function in an animal model of ALS. J Neuroinflammation. 2011;8:69 pubmed publisher
    ..Our research suggests a potential functional link between melittin and the inhibition of neuroinflammation in an ALS animal model. ..
  18. Rizzi A, Molinari S, Marti M, Marzola G, Calo G. Nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor knockout rats: in vitro and in vivo studies. Neuropharmacology. 2011;60:572-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations are relevant for defining the therapeutic indications (and contraindications) of NOP receptor antagonists. ..
  19. Pratte M, Panayotis N, Ghata A, Villard L, Roux J. Progressive motor and respiratory metabolism deficits in post-weaning Mecp2-null male mice. Behav Brain Res. 2011;216:313-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Subsequently, motor functions and respiratory metabolism are severally impaired. A detailed description of these gradual defects may help to identify their neuronal origin and to elaborate novel therapeutic strategies. ..
  20. Rios E, Rocha N, Carvalho A, Vasconcelos L, Dias M, de Sousa D, et al. TRP and ASIC channels mediate the antinociceptive effect of citronellyl acetate. Chem Biol Interact. 2013;203:573-9 pubmed publisher
  21. Giralt A, Sanchis D, Cherubini M, Gines S, Cañas X, Comella J, et al. Neurobehavioral characterization of Endonuclease G knockout mice reveals a new putative molecular player in the regulation of anxiety. Exp Neurol. 2013;247:122-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether these findings suggest that EndoG could play a highly specific role in the regulation of anxiety by modulating synaptic components. ..
  22. Tuon T, Valvassori S, Lopes Borges J, Luciano T, Trom C, Silva L, et al. Physical training exerts neuroprotective effects in the regulation of neurochemical factors in an animal model of Parkinson's disease. Neuroscience. 2012;227:305-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects of exercise on PD indicate the possibility that exercise, to a certain extent, modulates neurochemical status in the striatum of rats, possibly by improving the oxidative stress parameters. ..
  23. Dayger C, Villasana L, Pfankuch T, Davis M, Raber J. Effects of the SARM ACP-105 on rotorod performance and cued fear conditioning in sham-irradiated and irradiated female mice. Brain Res. 2011;1381:134-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, there are relatively early radiation-induced behavioral changes in female mice and reduced MAP-2 levels in the sensorimotor cortex following ACP-105 treatment might contribute to enhanced rotorod performance. ..
  24. Ishola I, Chatterjee M, Tota S, Tadigopulla N, Adeyemi O, Palit G, et al. Antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of amentoflavone isolated from Cnestis ferruginea in mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2012;103:322-31 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded from the results obtained that amentoflavone produces its antidepressant effect through interaction with 5-HT2 receptor and ?1-, and ?2-adrenoceptors while the anxiolytic effect involved the ionotropic GABA receptor...
  25. Lu X, Shear D, Deng Bryant Y, Leung L, Wei G, Chen Z, et al. Comprehensive Evaluation of Neuroprotection Achieved by Extended Selective Brain Cooling Therapy in a Rat Model of Penetrating Ballistic-Like Brain Injury. Ther Hypothermia Temp Manag. 2016;6:30-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These "proof-of-concept" results suggest that SBC may provide an attractive neuroprotective approach for clinical considerations. ..
  26. Higgins G, Silenieks L, Rossmann A, Rizos Z, Noble K, Soko A, et al. The 5-HT2C receptor agonist lorcaserin reduces nicotine self-administration, discrimination, and reinstatement: relationship to feeding behavior and impulse control. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012;37:1177-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings highlight a therapeutic potential for 5-HT(2C) agonists such as lorcaserin beyond obesity into addictive behaviors, such as nicotine dependence. ..
  27. Imani S, Zagari Z, Rezaei Zarchi S, Jorjani M, Nasri S. Functional Recovery of Carbon Nanotube/Nafion Nanocomposite in Rat Model of Spinal Cord Injury. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol. 2016;44:144-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that the CNT/Nafion nanocomposite may be an effective material to promote axonal repair and regeneration after SCI. ..
  28. Schmitt U, Kirschbaum K, Poller B, Kusch Poddar M, Drewe J, Hiemke C, et al. In vitro P-glycoprotein efflux inhibition by atypical antipsychotics is in vivo nicely reflected by pharmacodynamic but less by pharmacokinetic changes. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2012;102:312-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Pharmacodynamic effects otherwise were at most correlated to drug brain levels, which however, were present only to a limited extent (by positron emission tomography) accessible in humans. ..
  29. Mohammed E, Snella E, Rutz Mendicino M, Echevarria F, Awedikian R, Whitley E, et al. Accelerated clinical disease and pathology in mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB and GalNAc transferase double knockout mice. Mol Genet Metab. 2012;107:129-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite this, the accelerated pathology and clinical signs represent a potentially improved system to study MPS IIIB neuropathogenesis as well as the role of complex gangliosides in normal CNS function. ..
  30. Schulz K, Vulpe C, Harris L, David S. Iron efflux from oligodendrocytes is differentially regulated in gray and white matter. J Neurosci. 2011;31:13301-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that gray and white matter oligodendrocytes can use different iron efflux mechanisms to maintain iron homeostasis. Dysregulation of such efflux mechanisms leads to iron accumulation in the CNS. ..
  31. Kostic S, Puljak L, Sapunar D. Attenuation of pain-related behaviour evoked by carrageenan injection through blockade of neuropeptide Y Y1 and Y2 receptors. Eur J Pain. 2013;17:493-504 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate an important link between pain-related behaviour and neuroimmune actions of NPY Y1 and Y2 receptors. ..
  32. Mievis S, Blum D, Ledent C. Worsening of Huntington disease phenotype in CB1 receptor knockout mice. Neurobiol Dis. 2011;42:524-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that functional changes in CB1R may contribute to the physiopathological development of HD. ..
  33. Gore B, Zweifel L. Genetic reconstruction of dopamine D1 receptor signaling in the nucleus accumbens facilitates natural and drug reward responses. J Neurosci. 2013;33:8640-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results highlight dissociated circuit requirements of D1R for dopamine-dependent behaviors. ..
  34. Benoit C, Bastianetto S, Brouillette J, Tse Y, Boutin J, Delagrange P, et al. Loss of quinone reductase 2 function selectively facilitates learning behaviors. J Neurosci. 2010;30:12690-700 pubmed publisher
    ..enhanced learning abilities in various tasks, including Morris water maze, object recognition, and rotarod performance test. Other behaviors related to anxiety (elevated plus maze), depression (forced swim), and schizophrenia (..
  35. Miyazaki T, Yamasaki M, Takeuchi T, Sakimura K, Mishina M, Watanabe M. Ablation of glutamate receptor GluR?2 in adult Purkinje cells causes multiple innervation of climbing fibers by inducing aberrant invasion to parallel fiber innervation territory. J Neurosci. 2010;30:15196-209 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, GluR?2 fuels heterosynaptic competition and gives PFs the competitive advantages over CFs throughout the animal's life. ..
  36. Liu J, Wang H, Zhang L, Xu Y, Deng W, Zhu H, et al. S100B transgenic mice develop features of Parkinson's disease. Arch Med Res. 2011;42:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, S100B may be a potential cause of pathogenesis in PD. ..
  37. Viana S, Fernandes R, Canas P, Silva A, Carvalho F, Ali S, et al. Presymptomatic MPTP Mice Show Neurotrophic S100B/mRAGE Striatal Levels. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2016;22:396-403 pubmed publisher
  38. Kumar S, Bawa S, Drabu S, Gupta H, Machwal L, Kumar R. Synthesis, antidepressant and antifungal evaluation of novel 2-chloro-8-methylquinoline amine derivatives. Eur J Med Chem. 2011;46:670-5 pubmed publisher
    ..All the compounds were also screened for antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger MTCC 281, Aspergillus flavus MTCC 277, Monascus purpureus MTCC 369 and Penicillium citrinum NCIM 768 strains. ..
  39. Michot B, Bourgoin S, Viguier F, Hamon M, Kayser V. Differential effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor blockade by olcegepant on mechanical allodynia induced by ligation of the infraorbital nerve vs the sciatic nerve in the rat. Pain. 2012;153:1939-48 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that CGRP receptor blockade might be of potential interest to alleviate trigeminal neuropathic pain. ..
  40. Chauhan A, Sharma U, Jagannathan N, Reeta K, Gupta Y. Rapamycin protects against middle cerebral artery occlusion induced focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Behav Brain Res. 2011;225:603-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of the present study indicate neuroprotective effect of rapamycin in MCAo model of stroke. Therefore, rapamycin might be considered as a therapeutic strategy for stroke management. ..
  41. Kumar K, Patro N, Patro I. Impaired structural and functional development of cerebellum following gestational exposure of deltamethrin in rats: role of reelin. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2013;33:731-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Such impaired cerebellar development leads to motor coordination deficits. ..
  42. Morris M, Mahgoub M, Na E, Pranav H, Monteggia L. Loss of histone deacetylase 2 improves working memory and accelerates extinction learning. J Neurosci. 2013;33:6401-11 pubmed publisher
    ..HDAC2 may be an intriguing target for cognitive and psychiatric disorders that are characterized by an inability to inhibit behavioral responsiveness to maladaptive or no longer relevant associations. ..
  43. Li W, Zhou Y, Tian X, Kim T, Ito N, Watanabe K, et al. New ataxic tottering-6j mouse allele containing a Cacna1a gene mutation. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44230 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that tottering-6j is a useful model for functional studies of the Ca(v)2.1 channel. ..
  44. van Tijn P, Hobo B, Verhage M, Oitzl M, van Leeuwen F, Fischer D. Alzheimer-associated mutant ubiquitin impairs spatial reference memory. Physiol Behav. 2011;102:193-200 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, our results demonstrate that the subtle defect in spatial reference memory formation, caused by a decrease in forebrain proteasome activity, is a persistent defect and not a structural defect. ..
  45. Kim M, Akhtar M, Adachi M, Mahgoub M, Bassel Duby R, Kavalali E, et al. An essential role for histone deacetylase 4 in synaptic plasticity and memory formation. J Neurosci. 2012;32:10879-86 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that HDAC4 is a crucial positive regulator of learning and memory, both behaviorally and at the cellular level, and that inhibition of Hdac4 activity may have unexpected detrimental effects to these processes. ..
  46. Lu S, Higgins G, Hodgson R, Hyde L, Del Vecchio R, Guthrie D, et al. The anxiolytic-like profile of the nociceptin receptor agonist, endo-8-[bis(2-chlorophenyl)methyl]-3-phenyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane-3-carboxamide (SCH 655842): comparison of efficacy and side effects across rodent species. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011;661:63-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, SCH 655842 may represent a NOP receptor agonist with improved tolerability compared to other members of this class although further studies are necessary to establish whether this extends to higher species. ..
  47. Skardelly M, Gaber K, Burdack S, Scheidt F, Hilbig H, Boltze J, et al. Long-term benefit of human fetal neuronal progenitor cell transplantation in a clinically adapted model after traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. 2011;28:401-14 pubmed publisher
    ..This therapeutic effect was not likely due to cell replacement, but was associated with transiently increased angiogenesis and reduced astrogliosis. ..
  48. L Episcopo F, Tirolo C, Caniglia S, Testa N, Serra P, Impagnatiello F, et al. Combining nitric oxide release with anti-inflammatory activity preserves nigrostriatal dopaminergic innervation and prevents motor impairment in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine model of Parkinson's disease. J Neuroinflammation. 2010;7:83 pubmed publisher
    ..HCT1026 provides a novel promising approach towards the development of effective pharmacological neuroprotective strategies against PD. ..
  49. Zhang X, Zhang Q, Li W, Nie D, Chen W, Xu C, et al. Therapeutic effect of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells on neonatal rat hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. J Neurosci Res. 2014;92:35-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Ganglioside treatment further enhanced the recovery of neurological function following hUCMSC transplantation. ..
  50. Sauerbeck A, Hunter R, Bing G, Sullivan P. Traumatic brain injury and trichloroethylene exposure interact and produce functional, histological, and mitochondrial deficits. Exp Neurol. 2012;234:85-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies provide further evidence for the connection between TCE, TBI, and PD and lend support to the concept that PD develops from a multifactorial injury scenario. ..
  51. Zhang S, Shao S, Song X, Xia C, Yang Y, Zhang P, et al. Protective effects of Forsythia suspense extract with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in a model of rotenone induced neurotoxicity. Neurotoxicology. 2016;52:72-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, FS8 protected dopamine neurons against rotenone toxicity via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, which suggested the promising application of FS8 in the prevention and treatment of Parkinson disease. ..
  52. Philibin S, Cameron A, Schlumbohm J, Metten P, Crabbe J. Ethanol withdrawal-induced motor impairment in mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012;220:367-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Multiple assays of behavioral impairment are affected, but the effects depend on the assay employed. Genetic contributions to withdrawal-induced ARR impairment appear largely distinct from those leading to severe or mild HICs. ..
  53. Compton D, Dietrich K, Selinger M, Testa E. 5-methoxy-N,N-di(iso)propyltryptamine hydrochloride (Foxy)-induced cognitive deficits in rat after exposure in adolescence. Physiol Behav. 2011;103:203-9 pubmed publisher