animal identification systems


Summary: Procedures for recognizing individual animals and certain identifiable characteristics pertaining to them; includes computerized methods, ear tags, etc.

Top Publications

  1. Saraux C, Le Bohec C, Durant J, Viblanc V, Gauthier Clerc M, Beaune D, et al. Reliability of flipper-banded penguins as indicators of climate change. Nature. 2011;469:203-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, our understanding of the effects of climate change on marine ecosystems based on flipper-band data should be reconsidered...
  2. Makiguchi Y, Ueda H. Effects of external and surgically implanted dummy radio transmitters on mortality, swimming performance and physiological status of juvenile masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou. J Fish Biol. 2009;74:304-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Although plasma cortisol, plasma glucose and haematocrit values did not differ significantly among groups, it appeared that the most suitable transmitter attachment method for juvenile O. masou may be surgical implantation...
  3. Carlson J, Ribera M, Conrath C, Heupel M, Burgess G. Habitat use and movement patterns of bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas determined using pop-up satellite archival tags. J Fish Biol. 2010;77:661-75 pubmed publisher
    ..While some individuals made large-scale movements over open ocean areas, the results emphasize the importance of the coastal zone for this species as potential essential habitat, particularly in areas of high freshwater inflow. ..
  4. Childs J, Robinson L, Sadek R, Madden A, Miranda M, Miranda N. Density estimates of rural dog populations and an assessment of marking methods during a rabies vaccination campaign in the Philippines. Prev Vet Med. 1998;33:207-18 pubmed
  5. Stein F, Geller S, Carter J. Evaluation of microchip migration in horses, donkeys, and mules. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2003;223:1316-9 pubmed
    ..Microchips implanted in the nuchal ligament < or = 4 years earlier did not migrate in horses. Microchips may be useful for identification in horses. ..
  6. Palsbøll P, Bérubé M, Skaug H, Raymakers C. DNA registers of legally obtained wildlife and derived products as means to identify illegal takes. Conserv Biol. 2006;20:1284-93 pubmed
    ..Our study also highlights a number of methodological problems such as laboratory errors and interlaboratory data standardization, which need be addressed to ensure a successful implementation of wildlife DNA registers. ..
  7. Brunnschweiler J, Queiroz N, Sims D. Oceans apart? Short-term movements and behaviour of adult bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas in Atlantic and Pacific Oceans determined from pop-off satellite archival tagging. J Fish Biol. 2010;77:1343-58 pubmed publisher
    ..leucas tagged in Fiji spent most of their time below 20 m in water usually >26° C. The results highlight the importance of coastal inshore habitats for this species. ..
  8. Weng K, Castilho P, Morrissette J, Landeira Fernandez A, Holts D, Schallert R, et al. Satellite tagging and cardiac physiology reveal niche expansion in salmon sharks. Science. 2005;310:104-6 pubmed
  9. Legallet C, Mankin K, Spaulding K, Mansell J. Granulomatous Inflammatory Response to a Microchip Implanted in a Dog for Eight Years. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2017;53:227-229 pubmed publisher
    ..This case represents the first report of a granulomatous inflammatory response to a microchip 8 yr after implantation in a dog and highlights an important differential diagnosis. ..

More Information


  1. Cusdin P. Identifying juvenile tortoises. Vet Rec. 2008;163:128 pubmed
  2. Turner J, Rutberg A. From the pens to the field: real-world wildlife contraception. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2013;44:S102-10 pubmed
    ..In this assessment, we will highlight the capability for coincident pursuit of research and management and will explore field considerations applicable to many species where fertility control has potential as a management tool. ..
  3. Boiteau G, Vincent C, Meloche F, Leskey T, Colpitts B. Evaluation of tag entanglement as a factor in harmonic radar studies of insect dispersal. Environ Entomol. 2011;40:94-102 pubmed publisher
    ..The nuisance factor generated by appropriately sized tags was small relative to that of vegetation. ..
  4. Morales Mávil J, Vogt R, Gadsden Esparza H. [Displacements of the green iguana (Iguana iguana) (Squamata: Iguanidae) during the dry season in La Palma, Veracruz, Mexico]. Rev Biol Trop. 2007;55:709-15 pubmed
    ..The females display two strategies for nesting: 1) moving to the sandy area near the sea or, 2) laying eggs near the river, in loam. Iguanas responded to habitat fragmentation and reduction by modifying their nesting strategy. ..
  5. McMahon C. Branding the seal branders: what does the research say about seal branding?. Aust Vet J. 2007;85:482-4 pubmed
  6. Laurence C. Concurrent tail docking and microchipping in puppies. Vet Rec. 2007;160:347 pubmed
  7. Weller J, Seroussi E, Ron M. Estimation of the number of genetic markers required for individual animal identification accounting for genotyping errors. Anim Genet. 2006;37:387-9 pubmed
    ..25 SNPs. At least eight SNPs were required to achieve a 99% probability of rejection for a match between two individuals, while with 25 SNPs there was a <1% chance for a match between any of five million individuals. ..
  8. Taylor S, Buergelt C, Roelke Parker M, Homer B, Rotstein D. Causes of mortality of free-ranging Florida panthers. J Wildl Dis. 2002;38:107-14 pubmed
    ..This study documents the causes of mortality and the age, sex, and seasonal mortality trends for both radiocollared and uncollared free-ranging endangered Florida panthers over a 21-yr-period. ..
  9. Elcock L, Stuart B, Wahle B, Hoss H, Crabb K, Millard D, et al. Tumors in long-term rat studies associated with microchip animal identification devices. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2001;52:483-91 pubmed
    ..The following diagnostic techniques were employed: light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry. The mechanism of carcinogenicity appeared to be that of foreign-body induced tumorigenesis. ..
  10. Chapinal N, Veira D, Weary D, von Keyserlingk M. Technical note: validation of a system for monitoring individual feeding and drinking behavior and intake in group-housed cattle. J Dairy Sci. 2007;90:5732-6 pubmed
    ..This difference could be attributed to changes in feed moisture during the 24-h period. In conclusion, this electronic system is a useful tool for monitoring intakes and feeding and drinking behavior of loose-housed cows. ..
  11. Castro N, Martin D, Castro Alonso A, Arguello A, Capote J, Caja G. Suitability of electronic mini-boluses for the early identification of goat kids and effects on growth performance and development of the reticulorumen. J Anim Sci. 2010;88:3464-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the use of properly designed boluses as a unique identification device for the entire lifespan of goats. ..
  12. Lee J, Park D, Sung H. Large-scale habitat association modeling of the endangered Korean ratsnake (Elaphe schrenckii). Zoolog Sci. 2012;29:281-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study suggests that a created habitat model can provide valuable contributions to conservation and management efforts directed towards ratsnake populations. ..
  13. Capoferri R, Bongioni G, Galli A, Aleandri R. Genetic control of conventional labeling through the bovine meat production chain by single nucleotide polymorphisms using real-time PCR. J Food Prot. 2006;69:1971-7 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates that despite the precautions adopted over the meat production chain, some critical points still exist that cause the loss of a correct association between registration numbers and samples. ..
  14. Huntingford F, Borçato F, Mesquita F. Identifying individual common carp Cyprinus carpio using scale pattern. J Fish Biol. 2013;83:1453-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Images were identified correctly on 95·76% of occasions. Thus, scale patterns can be used for non-invasive identification of C. carpio over a period of time. ..
  15. Shaffer S, Tremblay Y, Weimerskirch H, Scott D, Thompson D, Sagar P, et al. Migratory shearwaters integrate oceanic resources across the Pacific Ocean in an endless summer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:12799-802 pubmed
    ..Sooty shearwater populations today are declining, and because they operate on a global scale, they may serve as an important indicator of climate change and ocean health. ..
  16. Shalev M. New USDA animal identification system; OHS partnership continues. Lab Anim (NY). 2005;34:16 pubmed
  17. Bailey H, Benson S, Shillinger G, Bograd S, Dutton P, Eckert S, et al. Identification of distinct movement patterns in Pacific leatherback turtle populations influenced by ocean conditions. Ecol Appl. 2012;22:735-47 pubmed
    ..The EP leatherbacks have more limited foraging grounds than the WP leatherbacks, which could make them more susceptible to any temperature or prey changes that occur in response to climate change. ..
  18. Pearce K. Identification and microchips. Vet Rec. 2004;154:64 pubmed
  19. Horning M. Re: hot iron branding of seals and sea lions. Aust Vet J. 2008;86:113 pubmed publisher
  20. Sugiura K, Smith G. A comparison of the risk of bovine spongiform encephalopathy infectivity in beef from cattle younger than 21 months in Japan with that in beef from the United States as assessed by the carcass maturity score. J Food Prot. 2008;71:802-6 pubmed
  21. Correia M, Palma J, Koldewey H, Andrade J. The use of a non-invasive tool for capture-recapture studies on a seahorse Hippocampus guttulatus population. J Fish Biol. 2014;84:872-84 pubmed publisher
    ..guttulatus aged 6?months or older in consecutive years. This could be of great value when considering the assessment of H. guttulatus populations and understanding changes over time. ..
  22. Johnston P, Berube F, Bergeron N. Development of a flatbed passive integrated transponder antenna grid for continuous monitoring of fishes in natural streams. J Fish Biol. 2009;74:1651-61 pubmed publisher
    ..A range of applications of the system is presented. ..
  23. Deecke V, Barrett Lennard L, Spong P, Ford J. The structure of stereotyped calls reflects kinship and social affiliation in resident killer whales (Orcinus orca). Naturwissenschaften. 2010;97:513-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results therefore support the hypothesis that increasing social complexity plays a role in the evolution of learned vocalisations in some mammalian species. ..
  24. Stark K. [Food safety achieved through herd management]. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd. 2000;142:673-8 pubmed
    ..This principle is a key element in the ongoing discussion about visual meat inspection in Europe and elsewhere. ..
  25. Kasanen I, Voipio H, Leskinen H, Luodonpää M, Nevalainen T. Comparison of ear tattoo, ear notching and microtattoo in rats undergoing cardiovascular telemetry. Lab Anim. 2011;45:154-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, microtattoo appears to cause the mildest changes in HR and blood pressure. Based on these results, ear tattoo and ear notching should be replaced by microtattoo whenever possible. ..
  26. Matos M, Alves M, Reichmann M, Dominguez M. [São Paulo Pasteur Institute Technique for estimating a canine population]. Cad Saude Publica. 2002;18:1423-8 pubmed
    ..A total of 498 dogs were recorded in two census tracts, 5% of which were classified as without owners and unrestricted. ..
  27. Troyk P. Injectable electronic identification, monitoring, and stimulation systems. Annu Rev Biomed Eng. 1999;1:177-209 pubmed
    ..Uses include stimulation of paralyzed muscle, therapeutic functional-neuromuscular stimulation, and neuromodulatory functions such as laryngeal stimulation and sleep apnea. ..
  28. Schmidt Posthaus H, Breitenmoser Würsten C, Posthaus H, Bacciarini L, Breitenmoser U. Causes of mortality in reintroduced Eurasian lynx in Switzerland. J Wildl Dis. 2002;38:84-92 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that even a few cases of infections in a small population like the lynx, which are additionally threatened by noninfectious causes, may threaten the long term survival of the population. ..
  29. Quinn J, Gaffney P, Gilardi K, Murray M, Jessup D, Johnson C. Complication associated with abdominal surgical implantation of a radio transmitter in an American badger (Taxidea taxus). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2010;41:174-7 pubmed
    ..American badger, omental adhesion, peritoneal implant, telemetry, Taxidea taxus. ..
  30. Byers J, Wiseman P, Jones L, Roffe T. A large cost of female mate sampling in pronghorn. Am Nat. 2005;166:661-8 pubmed
  31. van Herten J. [Round table discussion continued: animal identification systems]. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 2006;131:453 pubmed
  32. Nolen R. Washington state dairy cow nation's first case of BSE. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2004;224:345-6 pubmed
  33. Clemins P, Johnson M, Leong K, Savage A. Automatic classification and speaker identification of African elephant (Loxodonta africana) vocalizations. J Acoust Soc Am. 2005;117:956-63 pubmed
    ..Classification accuracy, statistical significance tests on the model parameters, and qualitative analysis support the effectiveness and robustness of this approach for vocalization analysis in nonhuman species. ..
  34. McMahon C, Bradshaw C, Hays G. Branding can be justified in vital conservation research. Nature. 2006;439:392 pubmed
  35. Ramírez Macías D, Meekan M, de la Parra Venegas R, Remolina Suárez F, Trigo Mendoza M, Vazquez Juarez R. Patterns in composition, abundance and scarring of whale sharks Rhincodon typus near Holbox Island, Mexico. J Fish Biol. 2012;80:1401-16 pubmed publisher
    ..typus in this area and for designing better management programmes for R. typus conservation...
  36. Bagla P. Conservation biology. Experts say big cats don't leave useful tracks. Science. 2003;300:1355 pubmed
  37. Boiteau G, Meloche F, Vincent C, Leskey T. Effectiveness of glues used for harmonic radar tag attachment and impact on survival and behavior of three insect pests. Environ Entomol. 2009;38:168-75 pubmed
    ..However, the toxicity of the glues against the corn rootworms suggests that similar toxicity or sublethal effects may exist with other insects. ..
  38. Mbuku S, Kosgey I, Kahi A. Identification systems and selection criteria for small ruminants among pastoralist communities in northern Kenya: prospects for a breeding programme. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2010;42:1487-92 pubmed publisher
    Data on animal identification systems and selection criteria for sheep and goats were collected from the Rendille and Gabra communities in northern Kenya...
  39. Jaffé R, Moritz R. Mating flights select for symmetry in honeybee drones (Apis mellifera). Naturwissenschaften. 2010;97:337-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore conclude that selection during honeybee drone mating flights may confer some fitness advantages to the queens. ..
  40. Honorio N, Silva W, Leite P, Gonçalves J, Lounibos L, Lourenco de Oliveira R. Dispersal of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in an urban endemic dengue area in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2003;98:191-8 pubmed
    ..Results from this study suggest that females can fly at least 800 m in 6 days and, if infected, potentially spread virus rapidly. ..
  41. Aurich J, Wohlsein P, Wulf M, Nees M, Baumgartner W, Becker Birck M, et al. Readability of branding symbols in horses and histomorphological alterations at the branding site. Vet J. 2013;195:344-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, hot iron branding in horses causes lesions compatible with third degree thermal injury but does not always allow identification of horses. ..
  42. Humphries N, Queiroz N, Dyer J, Pade N, Musyl M, Schaefer K, et al. Environmental context explains Lévy and Brownian movement patterns of marine predators. Nature. 2010;465:1066-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are consistent with the Lévy-flight foraging hypothesis, supporting the contention that organism search strategies naturally evolved in such a way that they exploit optimal Lévy patterns. ..
  43. Chaves L, Hall J, Feitosa J, Côté I. Photo-identification as a simple tool for studying invasive lionfish Pterois volitans populations. J Fish Biol. 2016;88:800-4 pubmed publisher
    ..volitans distribution, movement patterns and recolonization rates after removals. ..
  44. Kleinhappel T, Al Zoubi A, Al Diri B, Burman O, Dickinson P, John L, et al. A method for the automated long-term monitoring of three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus shoal dynamics. J Fish Biol. 2014;84:1228-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Because large numbers of fish can be individually tagged, it can be used to monitor individual- and group-level dynamics within fish shoals. ..
  45. Nolen R. A work in progress. Agriculture stakeholders discuss national ID plan. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2004;225:345-6 pubmed
  46. Hasegawa E. Chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta respond to moonlight during homeward migrations. J Fish Biol. 2012;81:632-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the circadian rhythm suggests a biological clock. These observations are all consistent with the view that O. keta make use of moonlight in order to navigate at night-time during homeward migration...
  47. Rivest L, Baillargeon S. Applications and extensions of Chao's moment estimator for the size of a closed population. Biometrics. 2007;63:999-1006 pubmed
    ..Its impact on the estimation of the population sizes and of the survival rates is evaluated in a Monte Carlo experiment. ..
  48. Ren S, Li M, Cai H, Hudgins S, Furth P. A simplified method to prepare PCR template DNA for screening of transgenic and knockout mice. Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci. 2001;40:27-30 pubmed
    ..In addition, using ear instead of tail tissue can reduce distress of animals because the samples can be obtained when the mice are labeled by ear punch. ..
  49. Gilroy J, Virzi T, Boulton R, Lockwood J. A new approach to the "apparent survival" problem: estimating true survival rates from mark-recapture studies. Ecology. 2012;93:1509-16 pubmed
    ..Our approach is applicable to any capture-mark-recapture study design and should be particularly valuable for organisms with dispersive juvenile life stages. ..
  50. Chin A, Tobin A, Heupel M, Simpfendorfer C. Population structure and residency patterns of the blacktip reef shark Carcharhinus melanopterus in turbid coastal environments. J Fish Biol. 2013;82:1192-210 pubmed publisher
    ..These data also highlight the potential ecosystem functions performed by coastal habitats in sustaining C. melanopterus populations. ..
  51. Sura R, French R, Goldman B, Schwartz D. Neoplasia and granulomas surrounding microchip transponders in Damaraland mole rats (Cryptomys damarensis). Vet Pathol. 2011;48:896-902 pubmed publisher
    ..After an additional 9 months, these masses were found to be granulomas. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of neoplasia in this species. Both the tumors and the granulomas surrounded the microchip transponder. ..
  52. Peniche G, Vaughan Higgins R, Carter I, Pocknell A, Simpson D, Sainsbury A. Long-term health effects of harness-mounted radio transmitters in red kites (Milvus milvus) in England. Vet Rec. 2011;169:311 pubmed publisher
    ..009) longer duration of deployment compared to those without lesions (n=14). No lesions were reported in those red kites fitted with tail-transmitters. ..
  53. Schembri N, Sithole F, Toribio J, Hernandez Jover M, Holyoake P. Lifetime traceability of weaner pigs in concrete-based and deep-litter production systems in Australia. J Anim Sci. 2007;85:3123-30 pubmed
    ..The identification devices did not induce production-limiting adverse effects after they were applied. Under conditions of this study, FDX electronic ear tags were the most efficacious for lifetime identification of weaner pigs on-farm. ..