animal experimentation


Summary: The use of animals as investigational subjects.

Top Publications

  1. Korevaar D, Hooft L, ter Riet G. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of preclinical studies: publication bias in laboratory animal experiments. Lab Anim. 2011;45:225-30 pubmed publisher
    ..A statistically significant proportion of MAs considered publication bias (26/35) and tried to formally assess it (21/35). ..
  2. Reeve R, Cox S, Smitsaart E, Beascoechea C, Haas B, Maradei E, et al. Reducing animal experimentation in foot-and-mouth disease vaccine potency tests. Vaccine. 2011;29:5467-73 pubmed publisher
  3. Lonjon N, Prieto M, Haton H, Brøchner C, Bauchet L, Costalat V, et al. Minimum information about animal experiments: supplier is also important. J Neurosci Res. 2009;87:403-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of our communication is to alert researchers on how crucial it is to control experimental parameters as closely as possible and to establish a standard for animal experiment in order to avoid unexpected biases. ..
  4. Leenaars M, Savenije B, Nagtegaal A, van der Vaart L, Ritskes Hoitinga M. Assessing the search for and implementation of the Three Rs: a survey among scientists. Altern Lab Anim. 2009;37:297-303 pubmed
  5. Ramalli E, Ho W, Alves M, Rocha E. Progress in animal experimentation ethics: a case study from a Brazilian medical school and from the international medical literature. Acta Cir Bras. 2012;27:659-63 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, in Brazil it was anticipated that laws were needed to protect animal research welfare from being not upheld. ..
  6. Fenwick N, Danielson P, Griffin G. Survey of Canadian animal-based researchers' views on the Three Rs: replacement, reduction and refinement. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22478 pubmed publisher
    ..Encouragement and financial support for Three Rs initiatives may result in valuable contributions to Three Rs knowledge and improve welfare for animals used in science. ..
  7. Taylor K, Gordon N, Langley G, Higgins W. Estimates for worldwide laboratory animal use in 2005. Altern Lab Anim. 2008;36:327-42 pubmed
    b>Animal experimentation continues to generate public and political concern worldwide...
  8. Greek R, Greek J. Is the use of sentient animals in basic research justifiable?. Philos Ethics Humanit Med. 2010;5:14 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the use of sentient animals in basic research cannot be justified in light of society's priorities. ..
  9. Kilkenny C, Browne W, Cuthill I, Emerson M, Altman D. Animal research: reporting in vivo experiments: the ARRIVE guidelines. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;160:1577-9 pubmed publisher

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. McGrath J, Drummond G, McLachlan E, Kilkenny C, Wainwright C. Guidelines for reporting experiments involving animals: the ARRIVE guidelines. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;160:1573-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We also invite feedback via the British Pharmacological Society website. ..
  2. Lee G, Choe B, Kim J, Hart L, Han J. The current status of animal use and alternatives in Korean veterinary medical schools. Altern Lab Anim. 2010;38:221-30 pubmed
    ..The information presented represents the first such data gathered in Korea, which should prove useful for monitoring the implementation of replacement, reduction, and refinement measures in animal use for education purposes. ..
  3. Hooijmans C, Tillema A, Leenaars M, Ritskes Hoitinga M. Enhancing search efficiency by means of a search filter for finding all studies on animal experimentation in PubMed. Lab Anim. 2010;44:170-5 pubmed publisher
    ..SRs in laboratory animal science is the fact that searching for all available literature concerning animal experimentation is rather difficult...
  4. Ter Riet G, Korevaar D, Leenaars M, Sterk P, Van Noorden C, Bouter L, et al. Publication bias in laboratory animal research: a survey on magnitude, drivers, consequences and potential solutions. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43404 pubmed publisher
    ..If statistical significance is indeed a main driver of publication, the collective literature on animal experimentation will be biased. This will impede the performance of valid literature syntheses...
  5. Knight A. The beginning of the end for chimpanzee experiments?. Philos Ethics Humanit Med. 2008;3:16 pubmed publisher
    ..It could even result in the first global moratorium on invasive research, for any non-human species, unless conducted in the best interests of the individual or species. ..
  6. Bracken M. Why are so many epidemiology associations inflated or wrong? Does poorly conducted animal research suggest implausible hypotheses?. Ann Epidemiol. 2009;19:220-4 pubmed publisher
  7. Houde L, Dumas C, Leroux T. Ethics: views from IACUC members. Altern Lab Anim. 2009;37:291-6 pubmed
    ..The study suggests that IACUC members should be provided with more up-to-date information on topics such as animal ethics and animal use in research. ..
  8. Osborne N, Payne D, Newman M. Journal editorial policies, animal welfare, and the 3Rs. Am J Bioeth. 2009;9:55-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper aims to provide editors and publishers with the information they need to review their own editorial policies to ensure they are fulfilling their potential to promote animal welfare and dissemination of the 3Rs. ..
  9. Hooijmans C, Leenaars M, Ritskes Hoitinga M. A gold standard publication checklist to improve the quality of animal studies, to fully integrate the Three Rs, and to make systematic reviews more feasible. Altern Lab Anim. 2010;38:167-82 pubmed
    ..However, they are not yet widely used nor undertaken in the field of animal experimentation, even though there is a lot to be gained from the process...
  10. Kilkenny C, Browne W, Cuthill I, Emerson M, Altman D. Improving bioscience research reporting: the ARRIVE guidelines for reporting animal research. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000412 pubmed publisher
  11. Shanks N, Greek R, Greek J. Are animal models predictive for humans?. Philos Ethics Humanit Med. 2009;4:2 pubmed publisher
    ..This is not surprising considering what we have learned from fields such evolutionary and developmental biology, gene regulation and expression, epigenetics, complexity theory, and comparative genomics. ..
  12. Horner J, Minifie F. Research ethics I: Responsible conduct of research (RCR)--historical and contemporary issues pertaining to human and animal experimentation. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2011;54:S303-29 pubmed publisher
    ..a historical overview of the evolution of RCR in the United States then examine the evolution of human and animal experimentation from the birth of scientific medicine through World War II to the present day...
  13. Kurosawa T. [Alternatives to animal experimentation v.s. animal rights terrorism]. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2008;128:741-6 pubmed
    Systematic modern animal experimentation was established by Bernard Claude who wrote "An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine" in 1865...
  14. Nyika A. Animal research ethics in Africa: an overview. Acta Trop. 2009;112 Suppl 1:S48-52 pubmed publisher
    ..globally that has led to the development of guidelines and in some instances national laws governing animal experimentation. Although there may not be empirical data on the existence or adequacy of national and/or institutional ..
  15. Ideland M. Different views on ethics: how animal ethics is situated in a committee culture. J Med Ethics. 2009;35:258-61 pubmed publisher
    Research that includes non-human animal experimentation is fundamentally a dilemmatic enterprise. Humans use other animals in research to improve life for their own species. Ethical principles are established to deal with this dilemma...
  16. Tsolis R, Xavier M, Santos R, BAUMLER A. How to become a top model: impact of animal experimentation on human Salmonella disease research. Infect Immun. 2011;79:1806-14 pubmed publisher
    ..This article reviews important milestones in the use of animal models to study human Salmonella disease and identify research needs to guide future work...
  17. Blache D, Martin G, Maloney S. Towards ethically improved animal experimentation in the study of animal reproduction. Reprod Domest Anim. 2008;43 Suppl 2:8-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The outcome is a better experimental design, on both ethical and scientific grounds. ..
  18. Festing S, Wilkinson R. The ethics of animal research. Talking Point on the use of animals in scientific research. EMBO Rep. 2007;8:526-30 pubmed
  19. Auer J, Goodship A, Arnoczky S, Pearce S, Price J, Claes L, et al. Refining animal models in fracture research: seeking consensus in optimising both animal welfare and scientific validity for appropriate biomedical use. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2007;8:72 pubmed
    ..Specific new requirements and mandates related both to improving the welfare and scientific rigour of animal-based research models are urgently needed as part of international harmonization of standards. ..
  20. Cohen J. Animal studies. NIH to end chimp breeding for research. Science. 2007;316:1265 pubmed
  21. Khan K, Mignini L. Surveying the literature from animal experiments: avoidance of bias is objective of systematic reviews, not meta-analysis. BMJ. 2005;331:110-1 pubmed
  22. Hagelin J, Hau J, Carlsson H. The refining influence of ethics committees on animal experimentation in Sweden. Lab Anim. 2003;37:10-8 pubmed
    ..In order to have maximal influence on the refinement of scientific protocols it is important that the scientists in the committees are continuously updated on developments in laboratory animal science. ..
  23. Pound P, Ebrahim S, Sandercock P, Bracken M, Roberts I. Where is the evidence that animal research benefits humans?. BMJ. 2004;328:514-7 pubmed
  24. Gruber F, Dewhurst D. Alternatives to animal experimentation in biomedical education. ALTEX. 2004;21 Suppl 1:33-48 pubmed
    ..The global situation is probably worse with animals still being used in high school teaching in some countries such as the USA. ..
  25. Houde L, Dumas C, Leroux T. Animal ethical evaluation: an observational study of Canadian IACUCs. Ethics Behav. 2003;13:333-50 pubmed
    ..The results are discussed in relation to previous nonobservational research that identified potential pitfalls and bias in animal ethical evaluation. ..
  26. Lindl T, Voelkel M, Kolar R. [Animal experiments in biomedical research. An evaluation of the clinical relevance of approved animal experimental projects]. ALTEX. 2005;22:143-51 pubmed
    ..The implications of our findings may lead to demands concerning improvement of the licensing practice in Germany. ..
  27. Schuppli C, Fraser D. The interpretation and application of the three Rs by animal ethics committee members. Altern Lab Anim. 2005;33:487-500 pubmed
  28. Bayne K. Potential for unintended consequences of environmental enrichment for laboratory animals and research results. ILAR J. 2005;46:129-39 pubmed
  29. Schuppli C, Fraser D, McDonald M. Expanding the three Rs to meet new challenges in humane animal experimentation. Altern Lab Anim. 2004;32:525-32 pubmed
    The Three Rs are the main principles used by Animal Ethics Committees in the governance of animal experimentation, but they appear not to cover some ethical issues that arise today...
  30. Pollo S, Vitale A, Gayle V, Zucco F. The '3Rs' model and the concept of alternatives in animal research: a questionnaire survey. Lab Anim (NY). 2004;33:47-53 pubmed
    ..The authors used a questionnaire survey to determine how well-known experts judged issues related to the 3Rs. ..
  31. Giles J. Animal experiments under fire for poor design. Nature. 2006;444:981 pubmed
  32. Brent L. Solutions for research chimpanzees. Lab Anim (NY). 2004;33:37-43 pubmed
    ..The author provides an overview of efforts to improve chimpanzee welfare, and describes a facility dedicated to providing lifelong care for these nonhuman primates following retirement from research. ..
  33. Hackam D. Translating animal research into clinical benefit. BMJ. 2007;334:163-4 pubmed
  34. Sells P. Animal experimentation in snake venom research and in vitro alternatives. Toxicon. 2003;42:115-33 pubmed
    ..In the meantime, the principles of Reduce, Refine and Replace relating to animals in research are increasingly endorsed by those working in the field and the many agencies regulating ethical and research policy. ..
  35. Lemon R, Dunnett S. Surveying the literature from animal experiments. BMJ. 2005;330:977-8 pubmed
  36. Brune K. Animal experimentation in sciences: sadistic nonsense or indispensable necessity?. ALTEX. 2002;19:130-6 pubmed
    ..Without such a development, biomedical research is bound for deficits in one way or another. It will be loosing it's medical and economical opportunities and with it, it's meaning for man. ..
  37. Roberts I, Kwan I, Evans P, Haig S. Does animal experimentation inform human healthcare? Observations from a systematic review of international animal experiments on fluid resuscitation. BMJ. 2002;324:474-6 pubmed
  38. Kolar R. Animal experimentation. Sci Eng Ethics. 2006;12:111-22 pubmed
    ..Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or ..
  39. Mignini L, Khan K. Methodological quality of systematic reviews of animal studies: a survey of reviews of basic research. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2006;6:10 pubmed
    ..There is a need for rigour when reviewing animal research. ..
  40. Dombrowski D. Is the argument from marginal cases obtuse?. J Appl Philos. 2006;23:223-32 pubmed
    ..The purpose of the present article is to argue that, despite Anderson's and Diamond's nuanced and perceptive treatments of the argument from marginal cases, this argument is not obtuse in either sense of the term. ..
  41. Foex B. The ethics of animal experimentation. Emerg Med J. 2007;24:750-1 pubmed
  42. Cohen J. Biomedical research. The endangered lab chimp. Science. 2007;315:450-2 pubmed
  43. Gaines Das R, North D. Implications of experimental technique for analysis and interpretation of data from animal experiments: outliers and increased variability resulting from failure of intraperitoneal injection procedures. Lab Anim. 2007;41:312-20 pubmed
    ..p. injection failure in the analysis and interpretation of laboratory animal experiments involving this technique. ..
  44. Aldhous P, Coghlan A, Copley J. Animal experiments -- where do you draw the line?: let the people speak. New Sci. 1999;162:26-31 pubmed
  45. Schuppli C, Fraser D. Factors influencing the effectiveness of research ethics committees. J Med Ethics. 2007;33:294-301 pubmed
    ..These results, together with results from the literature on research ethics committees, suggested potential ways to improve the effectiveness of research ethics committees. ..
  46. Macleod M, Ebrahim S, Roberts I. Surveying the literature from animal experiments: systematic review and meta-analysis are important contributions. BMJ. 2005;331:110 pubmed
  47. Alfaro V. Specification of laboratory animal use in scientific articles: current low detail in the journals' instructions for authors and some proposals. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2005;27:495-502 pubmed
    ..These proposals are classified into major and minor issues, and they are located in the corresponding parts of the article, as defined by the Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion (IMRAD) method. ..
  48. Peters J, Sutton A, Jones D, Rushton L, Abrams K. A systematic review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of animal experiments with guidelines for reporting. J Environ Sci Health B. 2006;41:1245-58 pubmed
    ..Further consideration of the use and methodological quality and reporting of such studies is needed. ..
  49. Perel P, Roberts I, Sena E, Wheble P, Briscoe C, Sandercock P, et al. Comparison of treatment effects between animal experiments and clinical trials: systematic review. BMJ. 2007;334:197 pubmed
    ..8% to 11.2%) and in the combined results for the forearms (baboons only) was 1.7% (-1.4% to 4.7%). Discordance between animal and human studies may be due to bias or to the failure of animal models to mimic clinical disease adequately. ..
  50. Narciso S, Nadziejko E, Chen L, Gordon T, Nadziejko C. Adaptation to stress induced by restraining rats and mice in nose-only inhalation holders. Inhal Toxicol. 2003;15:1133-43 pubmed
    ..Rats and mice restrained for 4 h/day every day showed a gradual decrease in heart rate and temperature over time. Full adaptation to restraint required 14 days of fixed-duration daily restraint. ..
  51. Bebarta V, Luyten D, Heard K. Emergency medicine animal research: does use of randomization and blinding affect the results?. Acad Emerg Med. 2003;10:684-7 pubmed
    ..2 (95% CI = 2.0 to 13.5). These results suggest that animal studies that do not utilize RND and BLD are more likely to report a difference between study groups than studies that employ these methods. ..
  52. Goodman S, Check E. The great primate debate. Nature. 2002;417:684-7 pubmed
  53. Regan H, Lynch J, Regan C. Long term assessment of blood pressure transducer drift in rhesus monkeys chronically instrumented with telemetry implants. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 2009;59:35-8 pubmed publisher