Summary: The determination of the concentration of a given component in solution (the analyte) by addition of a liquid reagent of known strength (the titrant) until an equivalence point is reached (when the reactants are present in stoichiometric proportions). Often an indicator is added to make the equivalence point visible (e.g., a change in color).

Top Publications

  1. Golovanov A, Blankley R, Avis J, Bermel W. Isotopically discriminated NMR spectroscopy: a tool for investigating complex protein interactions in vitro. J Am Chem Soc. 2007;129:6528-35 pubmed
    ..The proposed method can be combined easily with traditional protein NMR techniques and incorporated in a variety of applications. ..
  2. Upadhyay A, Wu H, Williams C, Field T, Galyov E, van den Elsen J, et al. The guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor BopE from Burkholderia pseudomallei adopts a compact version of the Salmonella SopE/SopE2 fold and undergoes a closed-to-open conformational change upon interaction with Cdc42. Biochem J. 2008;411:485-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Requirement for closed-to-open conformational change explains the 10-40-fold lower k(cat) of BopE compared with SopE and SopE2...
  3. D Errico G, D Ursi A, Marsh D. Interaction of a peptide derived from glycoprotein gp36 of feline immunodeficiency virus and its lipoylated analogue with phospholipid membranes. Biochemistry. 2008;47:5317-27 pubmed publisher
  4. Wu Y, Przysiecki C, Flanagan E, Bello Irizarry S, Ionescu R, Muratova O, et al. Sustained high-titer antibody responses induced by conjugating a malarial vaccine candidate to outer-membrane protein complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:18243-8 pubmed
    ..Protein antigen conjugation to OMPC or other protein carrier may have general application to a spectrum of protein subunit vaccines to increase immunogenicity without the need for potentially reactogenic adjuvants. ..
  5. Carlén A, Hassan H, Lingstrom P. The 'strip method': a simple method for plaque pH assessment. Caries Res. 2010;44:341-4 pubmed publisher
    ..99). Since the 'strip method' is inexpensive and easy to handle, it may be applicable for assessment of plaque acidogenicity in the clinic. ..
  6. Murphy J, Knutson K, Hinderliter A. Protein-lipid interactions role of membrane plasticity and lipid specificity on peripheral protein interactions. Methods Enzymol. 2009;466:431-53 pubmed publisher
    ..A model is also provided using the binding partition function formalism where protein dimerization, and by extension, oligomerization is enhanced at the membrane compared to in solution. ..
  7. Agrawal A. Effectiveness of the early addition of rosiglitazone to control hyperglycemia after unsuccessful submaximal sulphonylurea monotherapy: the Rosiglitazone Early Versus SULphonylurea Titration (RESULT) Study. Phys Sportsmed. 2009;37:146-8 pubmed publisher
    ..RESULT Study Group. Effect of early addition of rosiglitazone to sulphonylurea therapy in older type 2 diabetes patients (> 60 years): the Rosiglitazone Early vs. SULphonylurea Titration (RESULT) study. ..
  8. Teng K, Chen A, Kuo C, Li Y, Liu H, Chen C, et al. Fluorescent substrate analog for monitoring chain elongation by undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase in real time. Anal Biochem. 2011;417:136-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Using this assay, the IC(50) of a known UPPS inhibitor farnesyl thiopyrophosphate (FsPP) was confirmed. Our studies provide a convenient and environmentally friendly alternative for kinetics and inhibition studies on UPPS drug target. ..
  9. Zillner K, Jerabek Willemsen M, Duhr S, Braun D, Längst G, Baaske P. Microscale thermophoresis as a sensitive method to quantify protein: nucleic acid interactions in solution. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;815:241-52 pubmed publisher
    ..This section provides a detailed protocol describing the analysis of DNA-protein interactions, using the AT-hook peptides as a model system that bind to short double-stranded DNA. ..

More Information


  1. Baker M, Lalonde S, Konhauser K, Foght J. Role of extracellular polymeric substances in the surface chemical reactivity of Hymenobacter aerophilus, a psychrotolerant bacterium. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:102-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the presence of EPS corresponds to an increase in the number and type of functional groups on the surface of H. aerophilus that is reflected by increased metal adsorption relative to that for EPS-free cells. ..
  2. Joshi P, Aldersley M, Delano J, Ferris J. Mechanism of montmorillonite catalysis in the formation of RNA oligomers. J Am Chem Soc. 2009;131:13369-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Of the 22 montmorillonites investigated, 12 were catalysts. This research provides insight into the mechanism of the catalytic process. ..
  3. Diamant M, Van Gaal L, Stranks S, Guerci B, MacConell L, Haber H, et al. Safety and efficacy of once-weekly exenatide compared with insulin glargine titrated to target in patients with type 2 diabetes over 84 weeks. Diabetes Care. 2012;35:683-9 pubmed publisher
    ..6% and 15 vs. 1%, respectively). After 84 weeks, patients treated with EQW continued to experience better glycemic control with sustained overall weight loss and a lower risk of hypoglycemia than patients treated with IG. ..
  4. Romero E, Fedkenheuer M, Chocklett S, Qi J, Oppenheimer M, Sobrado P. Dual role of NADP(H) in the reaction of a flavin dependent N-hydroxylating monooxygenase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1824:850-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results are consistent with NADPH having a role in flavin reduction and in the modulation of conformational changes, which positions NADP(+) to also play a role in stabilization of the C4a-hydroperoxyflavin. ..
  5. Jain P, Hall May E, Golabek K, Agustin M. A comparison of sports and energy drinks--Physiochemical properties and enamel dissolution. Gen Dent. 2012;60:190-7; quiz 198-9 pubmed
    ..The data from the current study can be used to educate patients about the differences between sports and energy drinks and the effects of these drinks on tooth enamel. ..
  6. Morel J, Marmier N, Hurel C, Morel Desrosiers N. Acid-base properties of the alumina surface: influence of the titration procedures on the microcalorimetric results. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2009;338:10-5 pubmed publisher
  7. Devaraj S, Tsui Y, Chiang C, Yen Y. A new dual functional sensor: highly selective colorimetric chemosensor for Fe3+ and fluorescent sensor for Mg2+. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2012;96:594-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The selectivity of either Fe(3+) or Mg(2+) was not interfered by the presence of other metal ions such as Cr(3+), Mn(2+), Co(3+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Ag(+), Cd(2+), Pb(2+), Ca(2+) and K(+) ions. ..
  8. Shen H, Gu Z, Jian K, Qi J. In vitro study on the binding of gemcitabine to bovine serum albumin. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2013;75:86-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis proved high probability of energy transfer from Trp residue to the drug molecule. ..
  9. Kowalski J, Kalb O, Joshi Y, Serajuddin A. Application of melt granulation technology to enhance stability of a moisture sensitive immediate-release drug product. Int J Pharm. 2009;381:56-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The granules had good flow properties and good compressibility and tablets prepared from them exhibited low weight variation and low friability. ..
  10. Zhao P, Lu J, Hong F, Ou B, Zhang F, Ma L, et al. Shedding light on the interactions of guanine quadruplexes with tricationic metalloporphyrins. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2013;108:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Free base porphyrin and porphyrin without axial ligands are able to stabilize the quadruplex structure to a greater extent than the other metal complexes and thus may be potential anti-cancer drugs. ..
  11. Lu R, Sheng G, Liang Y, Li W, Tong Z, Chen W, et al. Characterizing the interactions between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and fulvic acids in water. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2013;20:2220-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The conditional stability constants and binding capacities show that both PAHs bind to FA tightly. ..
  12. Malecek K, Ruthenburg A. Validation of histone-binding partners by peptide pull-downs and isothermal titration calorimetry. Methods Enzymol. 2012;512:187-220 pubmed publisher
    ..Ultimately, precise determination of a binding affinity not only illuminates the biochemical and structural properties of an interface, but also informs investigation of function. ..
  13. Franco T, Rostirolla D, Ducati R, Lorenzini D, Basso L, Santos D. Biochemical characterization of recombinant guaA-encoded guanosine monophosphate synthetase (EC from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2012;517:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Sequence comparison analysis showed conservation of both Cys-His-Glu catalytic triad of N-terminal Class I amidotransferase and of amino acid residues of the P-loop of the N-type ATP pyrophosphatase family. ..
  14. Patterson C, Pernil R, Dainty S, Chakrabarti B, Henry C, Money V, et al. Co(ll)-detection does not follow Kco(ll) gradient: channelling in Co(ll)-sensing. Metallomics. 2013;5:352-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The Co(ll)-requiring vitamin B12 biosynthetic pathway is also membrane associated suggesting putative mechanisms by which Co(ll)-containing tetrapyrroles and/or Co(ll) ions are channelled to CoaR. ..
  15. Omoike A, Brandt B. Interaction between bisphenol A and tannic acid: spectroscopic titration approach. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2011;79:185-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, hydrogen and van der Waals interactions seem to be the major driving forces for the formation of the nonfluorescent TA-BPA complex. ..
  16. Yang Q, Fan L, Huang S, Zhang W, Cao C. Equivalence-point electromigration acid-base titration via moving neutralization boundary electrophoresis. Electrophoresis. 2011;32:1015-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The experimental results achieved herein showed a new general guidance for the development of classic volumetric analysis and element (e.g. nitrogen) content analysis in protein chemistry. ..
  17. Fang L, Cai P, Li P, Wu H, Liang W, Rong X, et al. Microcalorimetric and potentiometric titration studies on the adsorption of copper by P. putida and B. thuringiensis and their composites with minerals. J Hazard Mater. 2010;181:1031-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The thermodynamic data implied that Cu(II) mainly bound to the carboxyl and phosphoryl groups as inner-sphere complexes on bacteria and mineral-bacteria composites. ..
  18. Glavas Obrovac L, Piantanida I, Marczi S, Masić L, Timcheva I, Deligeorgiev T. Minor structural differences of monomethine cyanine derivatives yield strong variation in their interactions with DNA, RNA as well as on their in vitro antiproliferative activity. Bioorg Med Chem. 2009;17:4747-55 pubmed publisher
    ..A detailed mechanism of antitumor activity of tested molecules remains to be investigated. ..
  19. Hessell A, Poignard P, Hunter M, Hangartner L, Tehrani D, Bleeker W, et al. Effective, low-titer antibody protection against low-dose repeated mucosal SHIV challenge in macaques. Nat Med. 2009;15:951-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the results imply that lower amounts of antibody than previously considered protective may provide benefit in the context of typical human exposure to HIV-1. ..
  20. de Foresta B, Vincent M, Gallay J, Garrigos M. Interaction with membrane mimics of transmembrane fragments 16 and 17 from the human multidrug resistance ABC transporter 1 (hMRP1/ABCC1) and two of their tryptophan variants. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1798:401-14 pubmed publisher
  21. Tiwari A, Liba A, Sohn S, Seetharaman S, Bilsel O, Matthews C, et al. Metal deficiency increases aberrant hydrophobicity of mutant superoxide dismutases that cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:27746-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our findings support the notion that misfolding associated with metal deficiency may facilitate aberrant interactions of SOD1 with itself or with other cellular constituents and may thereby contribute to neuronal toxicity. ..
  22. Ashebir D, Jezik K, Weingartemann H, Gretzmacher R. Change in color and other fruit quality characteristics of tomato cultivars after hot-air drying at low final-moisture content. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2009;60 Suppl 7:308-15 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows that it is possible to hot-air dry tomato slices to a final moisture content of 12% maintaining quality that is comparable with studies where the final-moisture content was higher (15% or more). ..
  23. Murrell S, Marshall T, Moynihan P, Qian F, Wefel J. Comparison of in vitro erosion potentials between beverages available in the United Kingdom and the United States. J Dent. 2010;38:284-9 pubmed publisher
    ..010) and country of origin (p=0.002). Under similar laboratory conditions, the physiochemical properties and erosion potentials on enamel surfaces differed between some, but not all, beverages available in the UK and the US. ..
  24. Plazolles N, Humbert J, Vachot L, Verrier B, Hocke C, Halary F. Pivotal advance: The promotion of soluble DC-SIGN release by inflammatory signals and its enhancement of cytomegalovirus-mediated cis-infection of myeloid dendritic cells. J Leukoc Biol. 2011;89:329-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our results confirm that sDC-SIGN, like its well-known, counterpart mDC-SIGN, may play a pivotal role in CMV-mediated pathogenesis. ..
  25. Arnott Z, Nozaki S, Monteiro D, Morgan H, Pearson A, Niki H, et al. The Mechanism of Regulation of Pantothenate Biosynthesis by the PanD-PanZ·AcCoA Complex Reveals an Additional Mode of Action for the Antimetabolite N-Pentyl Pantothenamide (N5-Pan). Biochemistry. 2017;56:4931-4939 pubmed publisher
    ..This both demonstrates that the PanDZ complex regulates pantothenate biosynthesis in a cellular context and validates the complex as a target for antibiotic development. ..
  26. Lee S, Krishnan H, Jez J. Structural basis for regulation of rhizobial nodulation and symbiosis gene expression by the regulatory protein NolR. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:6509-14 pubmed publisher
  27. Clarkson R, Smith T, Kidd B, Evans G, Moule A. Assessment of residual active chlorine in sodium hypochlorite solutions after dissolution of porcine incisor pulpal tissue. Aust Dent J. 2013;58:428-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Depletion of active chlorine is not the reason for differences in tissue dissolving capabilities of Milton. Thermometric ammonium ion titration gives more accurate measurement of active chlorine content than iodometric titration. ..
  28. Seutter von Loetzen C, Hoffmann T, Hartl M, Schweimer K, Schwab W, Rosch P, et al. Secret of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1: identification of the physiological ligand. Biochem J. 2014;457:379-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We postulate that the binding of Q3OS to Bet v 1 plays an important, but as yet unclear, role during the inflammation response and Bet v 1 recognition by IgE...
  29. Vermeire J, Naessens E, Vanderstraeten H, Landi A, Iannucci V, Van Nuffel A, et al. Quantification of reverse transcriptase activity by real-time PCR as a fast and accurate method for titration of HIV, lenti- and retroviral vectors. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50859 pubmed publisher
    ..We consider this test to be an accurate, fast and relatively cheap method for retroviral quantification that is easily implemented for use in routine and research laboratories. ..
  30. Bruzzese F, Tsu C, Ma J, Loke H, Wu D, Li Z, et al. Development of a charcoal paper adenosine triphosphate:pyrophosphate exchange assay: kinetic characterization of NEDD8 activating enzyme. Anal Biochem. 2009;394:24-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To demonstrate this, we reproduce and extend the characterization of the NEDD8 activating enzyme. ..
  31. Min J, Kwon H, Kim B. The addition of nano-sized hydroxyapatite to a sports drink to inhibit dental erosion: in vitro study using bovine enamel. J Dent. 2011;39:629-35 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, dental erosion was effectively prevented with increase of adding concentration of nano-HA, and a sports drink containing 0.25% nano-HA might prevent dental erosion. ..
  32. Zhang J, Roddy T, Ho P, Horvath C, Vickers C, Stout S, et al. Assay development and screening of human DGAT1 inhibitors with an LC/MS-based assay: application of mass spectrometry for large-scale primary screening. J Biomol Screen. 2010;15:695-702 pubmed publisher
    ..Results indicated that, through these innovative approaches, the LC/MS-based screening method is both feasible and suitable for high-throughput primary screening. ..
  33. Radu I, Budyak I, Hoomann T, Kim Y, Engelhard M, Labahn J, et al. Signal relay from sensory rhodopsin I to the cognate transducer HtrI: assessing the critical change in hydrogen-bonding between Tyr-210 and Asn-53. Biophys Chem. 2010;150:23-8 pubmed publisher
    ..From this FT-IR spectroscopic result, we conclude that Y210 of SRI and N53 of HtrI interact via a hydrogen bond which is crucial for the signal transfer from the light receptor to the transducer. ..
  34. Airenne K, Makkonen K, Mähönen A, Yla Herttuala S. Baculoviruses mediate efficient gene expression in a wide range of vertebrate cells. Methods Mol Biol. 2011;737:279-301 pubmed publisher
  35. Huynh C, Nguyen M, Lee D. Biodegradable pH/temperature-sensitive oligo(?-amino ester urethane) hydrogels for controlled release of doxorubicin. Acta Biomater. 2011;7:3123-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This injectable biodegradable pH/temperature-sensitive OAEU hydrogel is a potential candidate as a drug/protein carrier and in biomedical applications. ..
  36. Mertens J, Casentini B, Masion A, Pöthig R, Wehrli B, Furrer G. Polyaluminum chloride with high Al30 content as removal agent for arsenic-contaminated well water. Water Res. 2012;46:53-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of silica in the well water improved As(III) removal by typically 10%. This study revealed that the Al(30) nanoclusters are most efficient for the removal of As(V) from water resources at near-neutral pH. ..
  37. Cui Y, Nan T, Tan G, Li Q, Wang B, Liu S. Production of monoclonal antibody to herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl. Hybridoma (Larchmt). 2011;30:463-7 pubmed publisher
    ..6-29?ng/mL, respectively. This assay is also sensitive to R-fenoxaprop, S-(-)-fenoxaprop-ethyl, and metamifop with IC(50) of 3.4, 2.7, and 3.5?ng/mL, respectively. The recoveries of R-FE in soil samples with the icELISA were 86-102%. ..
  38. Xiao Z, Lopez R, Parsi M, Dodig M, Stevens T. Comparison of autoanalyzer and back titration for measurement of bicarbonate concentration in endoscopically collected pancreatic fluid. Pancreas. 2011;40:237-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The bicarbonate concentrations obtained by AA are highly concordant with those obtained by BT. Secretin pancreatic function testing fluid analysis may now be performed in any hospital. ..
  39. Hendricks J, Marshall T, Harless J, Hogan M, Qian F, Wefel J. Erosive potentials of brewed teas. Am J Dent. 2013;26:278-82 pubmed
    ..To measure the pH, titratable acidity, fluoride concentration and erosive potential of brewed teas...
  40. Gong W, Wang J, Perrett S, Feng Y. Retinoblastoma-binding protein 1 has an interdigitated double Tudor domain with DNA binding activity. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:4882-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide further insights into the structure and function of RBBP1. ..
  41. Chernorizov K, Elkina J, Semenyuk P, Svedas V, Muronetz V. Novel inhibitors of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: covalent modification of NAD-binding site by aromatic thiols. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2010;75:1444-9 pubmed
  42. Salonen K, Leisola M, Eerikäinen T. Developing a multipoint titration method with a variable dose implementation for anaerobic digestion monitoring. Water Sci Technol. 2009;59:2395-403 pubmed publisher
    ..98 and 1.00 and average standard deviations of 0.6% and 0.8%, respectively. Furthermore, insensitivity of the presented method for overlapping buffer capacity curves was shown. ..
  43. Meints C, Simtchouk S, Wolthers K. Aromatic substitution of the FAD-shielding tryptophan reveals its differential role in regulating electron flux in methionine synthase reductase and cytochrome P450 reductase. FEBS J. 2013;280:1460-74 pubmed publisher
    ..By contrast, the bulky indole ring of W676 accelerates catalysis in CPR by lowering the energy barrier for displacement of the oxidized nicotinamide ring coplanar with the FAD. ..
  44. Janot N, Reiller P, Korshin G, Benedetti M. Using spectrophotometric titrations to characterize humic acid reactivity at environmental concentrations. Environ Sci Technol. 2010;44:6782-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Spectrophotometric titrations are then used to determine the changes of humic acid protonation after adsorption onto alpha-alumina. ..
  45. Baier G, Costa C, Zeller A, Baumann D, Sayer C, Araujo P, et al. BSA adsorption on differently charged polystyrene nanoparticles using isothermal titration calorimetry and the influence on cellular uptake. Macromol Biosci. 2011;11:628-38 pubmed publisher
    ..The cellular uptake of particles before and after BSA adsorption was studied using HeLa cells in the presence and absence of supplemented FCS in the cell culture medium. ..
  46. Ruan Q, Skinner J, Tetin S. Using nonfluorescent Förster resonance energy transfer acceptors in protein binding studies. Anal Biochem. 2009;393:196-204 pubmed publisher
    ..26+/-0.04, 1.25+/-0.05, and 1.14+/-0.04 nM at IRs of 1.7, 4.7, and 8.1, respectively. We conclude that this FRET-based method offers high sensitivity, practical simplicity, and versatility in protein binding studies. ..
  47. Wu H, Zeng H, Lam R, Tempel W, Amaya M, Xu C, et al. Structural and histone binding ability characterizations of human PWWP domains. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18919 pubmed publisher
    ..Please note that a web plugin is required to access this enhanced functionality. Instructions for the installation and use of the web plugin are available in Text S1. ..
  48. Kandeel M, Miyamoto T, Kitade Y. Bioinformatics, enzymologic properties, and comprehensive tracking of Plasmodium falciparum nucleoside diphosphate kinase. Biol Pharm Bull. 2009;32:1321-7 pubmed
    ..The enzyme showed specific activity that was within the average of known enzymes; however, it was at least two-fold higher than that of the human enzyme...
  49. Brocato R, Josleyn M, Ballantyne J, Vial P, Hooper J. DNA vaccine-generated duck polyclonal antibodies as a postexposure prophylactic to prevent hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35996 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report demonstrating the in vivo efficacy of any antiviral product produced using DNA vaccine-duck/egg system...
  50. Blacker S, Creanor S, Creanor S. An in vitro investigation of the initial pH and titratable acidity of a selection of fruit smoothies. Dent Update. 2011;38:604-6, 608-9 pubmed
    ..It is recommended that they be consumed through a straw, similar to the advice given for other acidic soft drinks. ..
  51. Becker A, Welsch N, Schneider C, Ballauff M. Adsorption of RNase A on cationic polyelectrolyte brushes: a study by isothermal titration calorimetry. Biomacromolecules. 2011;12:3936-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The additional contributions to the measured enthalpy are potentially sourced from unlinked equilibria such as conformational changes that do not contribute to the binding equilibrium. ..
  52. Lindhoud S, Voorhaar L, de Vries R, Schweins R, Cohen Stuart M, Norde W. Salt-induced disintegration of lysozyme-containing polyelectrolyte complex micelles. Langmuir. 2009;25:11425-30 pubmed publisher
    ..12 M NaCl the lysozyme-PAA42-PAAm417 complex has disintegrated. One may expect that the driving force for the formation of the complex in this salt range is other than electrostatic. ..
  53. Kim K, Edgington A, Klaine S, Cho J, Kim S. Influence of multiwalled carbon nanotubes dispersed in natural organic matter on speciation and bioavailability of copper. Environ Sci Technol. 2009;43:8979-84 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests the bioavailability of Cu is enhanced by the presence of MWNTs interacting with NOM. ..