spin trapping


Summary: A technique for detecting short-lived reactive FREE RADICALS in biological systems by providing a nitrone or nitrose compound for an addition reaction to occur which produces an ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY-detectable aminoxyl radical. In spin trapping, the compound trapping the radical is called the spin trap and the addition product of the radical is identified as the spin adduct. (Free Rad Res Comm 1990;9(3-6):163)

Top Publications

  1. Detweiler C, Lardinois O, Deterding L, de Montellano P, Tomer K, Mason R. Identification of the myoglobin tyrosyl radical by immuno-spin trapping and its dimerization. Free Radic Biol Med. 2005;38:969-76 pubmed
    5,5-Dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) spin trapping in conjunction with antibodies specific for the DMPO nitrone epitope was used on hydrogen peroxide-treated sperm whale and horse heart myoglobins to determine the site of protein ..
  2. Reis A, Domingues P, Ferrer Correia A, Domingues M. Identification of free radicals of glycerophosphatidylcholines containing omega-6 fatty acids using spin trapping coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Free Radic Res. 2007;41:432-43 pubmed
    ..Free radical oxidation products were trapped by spin trapping with 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrrolidine-N-oxide (DMPO) and identified by electrospray mass spectrometry (ES-MS)...
  3. Khoo N, Cantú Medellín N, Devlin J, St Croix C, Watkins S, Fleming A, et al. Obesity-induced tissue free radical generation: an in vivo immuno-spin trapping study. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012;52:2312-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, immuno-spin trapping, a newly developed immunohistochemical technique for detection of free radical formation, is garnering ..
  4. Bacić G, Mojovic M. EPR spin trapping of oxygen radicals in plants: a methodological overview. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1048:230-43 pubmed
    ..difficulties involved in detection of oxygen free radicals in plants and give a rationale for using the EPR spin trapping technique in such studies...
  5. Renew S, Heyno E, Schopfer P, Liszkay A. Sensitive detection and localization of hydroxyl radical production in cucumber roots and Arabidopsis seedlings by spin trapping electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Plant J. 2005;44:342-7 pubmed
    ..Here, it is shown that spin trapping electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy allows the detection and quantitative estimation of OH* ..
  6. Ramirez D, Mejiba S, Mason R. Immuno-spin trapping of DNA radicals. Nat Methods. 2006;3:123-7 pubmed
    The detection of DNA radicals by immuno-spin trapping (IST) is based on the trapping of radicals with 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO), forming stable nitrone adducts that are then detected using an anti-DMPO serum...
  7. Sueishi Y, Yoshioka D, Yoshioka C, Yamamoto S, Kotake Y. High static pressure alters spin trapping rates in solution. Dependence on the structure of nitrone spin traps. Org Biomol Chem. 2006;4:896-901 pubmed
    Using a competitive spin trapping method, relative spin trapping rates were quantified for various short-lived radicals (methyl, ethyl, and phenyl radicals)...
  8. Arato A, Bondarava N, Krieger Liszkay A. Production of reactive oxygen species in chloride- and calcium-depleted photosystem II and their involvement in photoinhibition. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1608:171-80 pubmed
    ..reduction involving the prior formation of O(2)(-?), the production of reactive oxygen species was followed by spin trapping EPR spectroscopy. All samples investigated, i.e...
  9. Gomez Mejiba S, Zhai Z, Akram H, Deterding L, Hensley K, Smith N, et al. Immuno-spin trapping of protein and DNA radicals: "tagging" free radicals to locate and understand the redox process. Free Radic Biol Med. 2009;46:853-65 pubmed publisher
    ..In this regard, we have developed and validated immuno-spin trapping to tag the redox process, tracing the oxidatively generated modification of biomolecules, in situ and in real ..

More Information


  1. Ranguelova K, Mason R. New insights into the detection of sulfur trioxide anion radical by spin trapping: radical trapping versus nucleophilic addition. Free Radic Biol Med. 2009;47:128-34 pubmed publisher
    ..that the radical adduct (DMPO/()SO(3)(-)) formation in biological systems is an artifact and not the result of spin trapping of sulfur trioxide anion radical (()SO(3)(-))...
  2. Ranguelova K, Chatterjee S, Ehrenshaft M, Ramirez D, Summers F, Kadiiska M, et al. Protein Radical Formation Resulting from Eosinophil Peroxidase-catalyzed Oxidation of Sulfite. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:24195-205 pubmed publisher
    ..We used immuno-spin trapping and confocal microscopy to study protein oxidation by EPO/H(2)O(2) in the presence of bisulfite in a pure ..
  3. Kitchin K, Prasad R, Wallace K. Oxidative stress studies of six TiO? and two CeO? nanomaterials: immuno-spin trapping results with DNA. Nanotoxicology. 2011;5:546-56 pubmed publisher
    ..trap agent 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyroline N-oxide (DMPO) to DNA as measured by the experimental technique of immuno-spin trapping. The eight nanomaterials differed considerably in their potency, slope, and active concentration...
  4. Gunther M, Tschirret Guth R, Lardinois O, Ortiz de Montellano P. Tryptophan-14 is the preferred site of DBNBS spin trapping in the self-peroxidation reaction of sperm whale metmyoglobin with a single equivalent of hydrogen peroxide. Chem Res Toxicol. 2003;16:652-60 pubmed
  5. Villamena F, Locigno E, Rockenbauer A, Hadad C, Zweier J. Theoretical and experimental studies of the spin trapping of inorganic radicals by 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO). 2. Carbonate radical anion. J Phys Chem A. 2007;111:384-91 pubmed
    ..Electron paramagnetic resonance spin trapping with the commonly used spin trap, DMPO, has been employed in the detection of CO(3)(.-)...
  6. Pignitter M, Gorren A, Nedeianu S, Schmidt K, Mayer B. Inefficient spin trapping of superoxide in the presence of nitric-oxide: implications for studies on nitric-oxide synthase uncoupling. Free Radic Biol Med. 2006;41:455-63 pubmed
    ..Discrimination between these two compounds is usually achieved by spin trapping of superoxide...
  7. Villamena F, Hadad C, Zweier J. Comparative DFT study of the spin trapping of methyl, mercapto, hydroperoxy, superoxide, and nitric oxide radicals by various substituted cyclic nitrones. J Phys Chem A. 2005;109:1662-74 pubmed
    The thermodynamics of the spin trapping of various cyclic nitrones with biologically relevant radicals such as methyl, mercapto, hydroperoxy, superoxide anion, and nitric oxide was investigated using computational methods...
  8. Cho S, Park U, Chung J, Gwag B. Neu2000, an NR2B-selective, moderate NMDA receptor antagonist and potent spin trapping molecule for stroke. Drug News Perspect. 2010;23:549-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Neu2000 is an NR2B-selective, moderate NMDA receptor antagonist with potent cell-permeable, spin trapping antioxidant action even at nanomolar concentrations...
  9. Dodd N, Jha A. Photoexcitation of aqueous suspensions of titanium dioxide nanoparticles: an electron spin resonance spin trapping study of potentially oxidative reactions. Photochem Photobiol. 2011;87:632-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Hydroxyl radicals formed at the surface of the TiO(2) readily react with substrates containing an abstractable hydrogen to produce secondary radicals that, in biological systems, could lead to cell damage. ..
  10. Simões C, Domingues P, Domingues M. Identification of free radicals in oxidized and glycoxidized phosphatidylethanolamines by spin trapping combined with tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2012;26:931-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Glycated PEs are more easily oxidized, enhancing oxidative stress. This study aims to evaluate the influence of glycation on the formation of intermediate radical species during oxidation of glycated PEs...
  11. Shi H, Timmins G, Monske M, Burdick A, Kalyanaraman B, Liu Y, et al. Evaluation of spin trapping agents and trapping conditions for detection of cell-generated reactive oxygen species. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2005;437:59-68 pubmed
    Electron paramagnetic resonance with spin trapping is a useful technique to detect reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide radical anion (O2*-), a key species in many biological processes...
  12. Ramirez D, Gomez Mejiba S, Mason R. Mechanism of hydrogen peroxide-induced Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase-centered radical formation as explored by immuno-spin trapping: the role of copper- and carbonate radical anion-mediated oxidations. Free Radic Biol Med. 2005;38:201-14 pubmed
    ..the biochemistry of H2O2-induced Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1)-centered radicals, detecting them by immuno-spin trapping. These radicals are involved in H2O2-induced structural and functional damage to SOD1, and their mechanism of ..
  13. Ranguelova K, Suarez J, Magliozzo R, Mason R. Spin trapping investigation of peroxide- and isoniazid-induced radicals in Mycobacterium tuberculosis catalase-peroxidase. Biochemistry. 2008;47:11377-85 pubmed publisher
    A new approach, the immuno-spin trapping assay, used a novel rabbit polyclonal anti-DMPO (5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide) antiserum to detect protein radical-derived DMPO nitrone adducts in the hemoprotein Mycobacterium tuberculosis ..
  14. Yadav D, Kruk J, Sinha R, Pospisil P. Singlet oxygen scavenging activity of plastoquinol in photosystem II of higher plants: electron paramagnetic resonance spin-trapping study. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1797:1807-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations reveal that plastoquinol exogenously added to PQ-depleted PSII membranes serves as efficient scavenger of ¹O?...
  15. Miller L, Shapiro A, Cheng J, Wells P. The free radical spin trapping agent phenylbutylnitrone reduces fetal brain DNA oxidation and postnatal cognitive deficits caused by in utero exposure to a non-structurally teratogenic dose of ethanol: a role for oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med. 2013;60:223-32 pubmed publisher
    ..gestational day 17 with 4g/kg EtOH or its saline vehicle, with or without pretreatment with the free radical spin trapping agent ?-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN; 40mg/kg)...
  16. Yue Qian S, Kadiiska M, Guo Q, Mason R. A novel protocol to identify and quantify all spin trapped free radicals from in vitro/in vivo interaction of HO(.-) and DMSO: LC/ESR, LC/MS, and dual spin trapping combinations. Free Radic Biol Med. 2005;38:125-35 pubmed
    ..CH(3)) that can be spin trapped and detected by electron spin resonance (ESR). This ESR spin trapping technique has been widely used in many biological systems to indicate in vivo HO(.-) formation...
  17. Jones C, Lawrence A, Wardman P, Burkitt M. Electron paramagnetic resonance spin trapping investigation into the kinetics of glutathione oxidation by the superoxide radical: re-evaluation of the rate constant. Free Radic Biol Med. 2002;32:982-90 pubmed
    ..Taking these factors into consideration, we estimate the second order rate constant for the oxidation of glutathione by superoxide to be approximately 200 M(-1) s(-1). ..
  18. Mason R. Using anti-5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (anti-DMPO) to detect protein radicals in time and space with immuno-spin trapping. Free Radic Biol Med. 2004;36:1214-23 pubmed
    ..spin traps in conjunction with nitrone-antibody sensitivity and specificity greatly expands the utility of the spin trapping technique, which is no longer dependent on the quantum mechanical electron spin resonance (ESR)...
  19. Khan N, Grinberg O, Wilmot C, Kiefer H, Swartz H. "Distant spin trapping": a method for expanding the availability of spin trapping measurements. J Biochem Biophys Methods. 2005;62:125-30 pubmed
    The technique of spin trapping is used to study a wide range of free radicals in various systems, including those generated in vitro and in vivo...
  20. Rinalducci S, Pedersen J, Zolla L. Formation of radicals from singlet oxygen produced during photoinhibition of isolated light-harvesting proteins of photosystem II. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1608:63-73 pubmed
    ..Thus, monomerization of antennae as well as their incorporation into the PSII complex seem to represent physiologically protected forms. A comparison is made of the photoinhibition mechanisms of different photosynthetic systems...
  21. Bhattacharjee S, Deterding L, Jiang J, Bonini M, Tomer K, Ramirez D, et al. Electron transfer between a tyrosyl radical and a cysteine residue in hemoproteins: spin trapping analysis. J Am Chem Soc. 2007;129:13493-501 pubmed
    ..DMPO) and myoglobin (Mb)/hydrogen peroxide/DMPO, using a combination of techniques including ESR, immuno-spin trapping (IST), and ESI/MS...
  22. Culcasi M, Benameur L, Mercier A, Lucchesi C, Rahmouni H, Asteian A, et al. EPR spin trapping evaluation of ROS production in human fibroblasts exposed to cerium oxide nanoparticles: evidence for NADPH oxidase and mitochondrial stimulation. Chem Biol Interact. 2012;199:161-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping with the nitrone DEPMPO showed that pretreatment of the cells with the nanoparticles dose-dependently ..
  23. Bhattacharjee S, Deterding L, Chatterjee S, Jiang J, Ehrenshaft M, Lardinois O, et al. Site-specific radical formation in DNA induced by Cu(II)-Hâ‚‚Oâ‚‚ oxidizing system, using ESR, immuno-spin trapping, LC-MS, and MS/MS. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011;50:1536-45 pubmed publisher
    ..a qualitative measurement of DNA damage induced by a Cu(II)-Hâ‚‚Oâ‚‚ oxidizing system using immuno-spin trapping (IST) with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), MS, and MS/MS...
  24. Lardinois O, Detweiler C, Tomer K, Mason R, Deterding L. Identifying the site of spin trapping in proteins by a combination of liquid chromatography, ELISA, and off-line tandem mass spectrometry. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008;44:893-906 pubmed
    An off-line mass spectrometry method that combines immuno-spin trapping and chromatographic procedures has been developed for selective detection of the nitrone spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) covalently attached to ..
  25. Fischer B, Krieger Liszkay A, Hideg E, Snyrychová I, Wiesendanger M, Eggen R. Role of singlet oxygen in chloroplast to nucleus retrograde signaling in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:5555-60 pubmed
    ..This indicates that singlet oxygen can stimulate a response farther from its production site than generally believed. ..
  26. Bonini M, Fernandes D, Augusto O. Albumin oxidation to diverse radicals by the peroxidase activity of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase in the presence of bicarbonate or nitrite: diffusible radicals produce cysteinyl and solvent-exposed and -unexposed tyrosyl radicals. Biochemistry. 2004;43:344-51 pubmed
    ..Overall, the results prove the diffusible and radical nature of the oxidants produced during the peroxidase activity of Cu,Zn-SOD in the presence of bicarbonate or nitrite. ..
  27. Ehrenshaft M, Mason R. Protein radical formation on thyroid peroxidase during turnover as detected by immuno-spin trapping. Free Radic Biol Med. 2006;41:422-30 pubmed
    ..Evidence that correlates iodine deficiencies with development of thyroid autoimmune disorders supports this conjecture. ..
  28. Villamena F, Zweier J. Detection of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species by EPR spin trapping. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2004;6:619-29 pubmed
    Electron paramagnetic resonance spin trapping has become an indispensable tool for the specific detection of reactive oxygen free radicals in biological systems...
  29. Ramirez D, Gomez Mejiba S, Mason R. Immuno-spin trapping analyses of DNA radicals. Nat Protoc. 2007;2:512-22 pubmed
    Immuno-spin trapping is a highly sensitive method for detecting DNA radicals in biological systems...
  30. Dikalov S, Skatchkov M, Bassenge E. Spin trapping of superoxide radicals and peroxynitrite by 1-hydroxy-3-carboxy-pyrrolidine and 1-hydroxy-2,2,6, 6-tetramethyl-4-oxo-piperidine and the stability of corresponding nitroxyl radicals towards biological reductants. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997;231:701-4 pubmed
    ..2mM of spin trap CP-H or 1-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-oxo-piperidine (TEMPONE-H) provide almost the same spin trapping efficacy. In contrast to TEMPONE-H the reaction of CP-H with peroxynitrite was inhibited by 20 mM DMSO...
  31. Flanagan S, Moseley P, Buettner G. Increased flux of free radicals in cells subjected to hyperthermia: detection by electron paramagnetic resonance spin trapping. FEBS Lett. 1998;431:285-6 pubmed
    ..Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping, we sought direct evidence for free radical generation during hyperthermia in intact, functioning cells...
  32. Kadiiska M, Mason R. Acute methanol intoxication generates free radicals in rats: an ESR spin trapping investigation. Free Radic Biol Med. 2000;28:1106-14 pubmed
    ..The spin trapping technique was used where a spin trapping agent, alpha-(4-pyridyl 1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone (POBN), reacted ..
  33. Kadiiska M, Mason R. Ethylene glycol generates free radical metabolites in rats: an ESR in vivo spin trapping investigation. Chem Res Toxicol. 2000;13:1187-91 pubmed
    ..The radical spin trapping technique was applied where the spin trapping agent alpha-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone (POBN) ..
  34. Dikalov S, Mason R. Spin trapping of polyunsaturated fatty acid-derived peroxyl radicals: reassignment to alkoxyl radical adducts. Free Radic Biol Med. 2001;30:187-97 pubmed
    ..of the detection of PUFA peroxyl radical adducts; however, it has recently been reported that attempted spin trapping of organic peroxyl radicals at room temperature formed only alkoxyl radical adducts in detectable amounts...
  35. Holm J, Nilsson U, Waters N, Waters S, Jonsson O. Production of free radicals measured by spin trapping during operations for stenosis of the carotid artery. Eur J Surg. 2001;167:4-9 pubmed
    ..The technique used seems to offer the possibility to find and study methods to reduce free radical production during this kind of operation. ..
  36. Polyakov N, Kruppa A, Leshina T, Konovalova T, Kispert L. Carotenoids as antioxidants: spin trapping EPR and optical study. Free Radic Biol Med. 2001;31:43-52 pubmed
    ..It was shown that the spin trapping technique is more informative than optical methods for the experimental conditions under study...
  37. Bertelli A, Morelli R, Falchi M. Effects of uvalino, a new autochthonous wine, on the inhibition of the production of hydroxyl radicals. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 2004;30:177-81 pubmed
    ..The results show that Uvalino wine is able to eliminate ROS production almost completely. Consequently, it has beneficial effects on health in all the diseases in which ROS plays an important pathogenetic role. ..
  38. Yu Q, Shan Z, Ni K, Qian S. LC/ESR/MS study of spin trapped carbon-centred radicals formed from in vitro lipoxygenase-catalysed peroxidation of gamma-linolenic acid. Free Radic Res. 2008;42:442-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The results provided a good starting point for ongoing research in defining the possible biological effects of radicals generated from GLA peroxidation. ..
  39. Tanguy S, Durand G, Reboul C, Polidori A, Pucci B, Dauzat M, et al. Protection against reactive oxygen species injuries in rat isolated perfused hearts: effect of LPBNAH, a new amphiphilic spin-trap derived from PBN. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2006;20:147-9 pubmed
    ..05). To conclude, the present results strongly suggest that the modification of previous wellknown molecules in order to facilitate their access to intracellular site of ROS production might be of interest to limit oxidative stresses. ..
  40. Fanucci G, Cafiso D. Recent advances and applications of site-directed spin labeling. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2006;16:644-53 pubmed
    ..During the past two years, these technical developments have been used to address several important problems concerning the molecular function of proteins. ..
  41. Sato K, Corbett J, Mason R, Kadiiska M. In vivo evidence of free radical generation in the mouse lung after exposure to Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterium: an ESR spin-trapping investigation. Free Radic Res. 2012;46:645-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we used electron spin resonance (ESR) and in vivo spin trapping with ?-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone to investigate free radical production in a murine model...
  42. Koretsky A. Early development of arterial spin labeling to measure regional brain blood flow by MRI. Neuroimage. 2012;62:602-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Today development and applications of regional brain blood flow measurements with ASL continues to be a major area of activity. ..
  43. Nishizawa C, Takeshita K, Ueda J, Mizuno M, Suzuki K, Ozawa T. Hydroxyl radical generation caused by the reaction of singlet oxygen with a spin trap, DMPO, increases significantly in the presence of biological reductants. Free Radic Res. 2004;38:385-92 pubmed
    ..of singlet oxygen (1O2) with spin traps, although this knowledge is necessary in electron spin resonance (ESR)/spin trapping. In the present study, we examined the effect of various reductants usually present in biological samples on ..
  44. Herrling T, Fuchs J, Rehberg J, Groth N. UV-induced free radicals in the skin detected by ESR spectroscopy and imaging using nitroxides. Free Radic Biol Med. 2003;35:59-67 pubmed
    ..This reduction was shown to be caused mainly by UVA radiation (320-400 nm). ..
  45. Khan N, Wilmot C, Rosen G, Demidenko E, Sun J, Joseph J, et al. Spin traps: in vitro toxicity and stability of radical adducts. Free Radic Biol Med. 2003;34:1473-81 pubmed
    ..It then should be feasible to select the spin trap(s) best suited for the proposed study. ..
  46. Keszler A, Mason R, Hogg N. Immuno-spin trapping of hemoglobin and myoglobin radicals derived from nitrite-mediated oxidation. Free Radic Biol Med. 2006;40:507-15 pubmed
    ..Using a combination of spectrophotometry, immuno-spin trapping, and EPR, we have examined the formation of radicals during the oxidation of oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb) and ..
  47. Hiraoka W, Honda H, Feril L, Kudo N, Kondo T. Comparison between sonodynamic effect and photodynamic effect with photosensitizers on free radical formation and cell killing. Ultrason Sonochem. 2006;13:535-42 pubmed
    ..All these agents suppressed ultrasound-induced OH radical formation detected by EPR-spin trapping. Sensitizer-derived free radicals were markedly observed in SR, RB and Er, while trace level of radicals ..
  48. Khan N, Swartz H. Measurements in vivo of parameters pertinent to ROS/RNS using EPR spectroscopy. Mol Cell Biochem. 2002;234-235:341-57 pubmed
    ..The parameters that can be measured include: (a) Oxygen centered radicals (by spin trapping); (b) carbon centered radicals (by spin trapping and sometimes by direct observation); (c) sulfur centered ..
  49. Kładna A, Aboul Enein H, Kruk I, Lichszteld K, Michalska T. Scavenging of reactive oxygen species by some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and fenofibrate. Biopolymers. 2006;82:99-105 pubmed
    ..Hence, these results indicate that the studied drugs show broad ROS scavenging property and, as a consequence, might decrease tissue damage due to the ROS and thus to contribute to anti-inflammatory therapy. ..
  50. Kobzar K, Luy B. Spin state selective Hadamard encoding during transfer periods using multiple selective CW-HCP. J Magn Reson. 2007;186:228-37 pubmed
    ..The theoretical results are verified on two examples involving a cyclic pentapeptide and ubiquitin. ..
  51. Jackson S, Liu K, Liu M, Timmins G. Detection and removal of contaminating hydroxylamines from the spin trap DEPMPO, and re-evaluation of its use to indicate nitrone radical cation formation and S(N)1 reactions. Free Radic Biol Med. 2002;32:228-32 pubmed
    ..As a result, techniques for the detection and elimination of such hydroxylamine impurities from DEPMPO solutions were developed and are described; these should prove to be of general use in EPR spin trapping experiments.
  52. Clermont G, Lecour S, Vergely C, Zeller M, Perrin C, Maupoil V, et al. Direct demonstration of nitric oxide formation in organs of rabbits treated by transdermal glyceryl trinitrate using an in vivo spin trapping technique. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2003;17:709-15 pubmed
    ..In vivo spin trapping technique using FeMGD as a spin trap, associated with ESR was used to quantify NO in tissues...
  53. Lee M, Shoji H, Komatsu T, Yoshino F, Ohmori Y, Zweier J. Inhibition of superoxide generation from fMLP-stimulated leukocytes by high concentrations of nitric oxide or peroxynitrite: characterization by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Redox Rep. 2002;7:271-5 pubmed
    ..fMLP)-stimulated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) by using electron spin resonance (ESR) and spin trapping with 5-(diethoxyphosphoryl)-5-methyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DEPMPO)...