x ray emission spectrometry


Summary: The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.

Top Publications

  1. Chwiej J, Janeczko K, Marciszko M, Czyzycki M, Rickers K, Setkowicz Z. Neuroprotective action of FK-506 (tacrolimus) after seizures induced with pilocarpine: quantitative and topographic elemental analysis of brain tissue. J Biol Inorg Chem. 2010;15:283-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings obtained in the present study suggest that the neuroprotective action of FK-506 in epileptic rat brain may involve not only the inhibition of calcineurin but also blockade of the K(+) channels. ..
  2. Kemner K, Kelly S, Lai B, Maser J, O Loughlin E, Sholto Douglas D, et al. Elemental and redox analysis of single bacterial cells by x-ray microbeam analysis. Science. 2004;306:686-7 pubmed
    ..This technology can be applied to natural geomicrobiological systems...
  3. Garman E, Grime G. Elemental analysis of proteins by microPIXE. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2005;89:173-205 pubmed
    ..The use of the technique is increasing and we envisage that future developments will enable it to become a routine high-throughput method. ..
  4. Miklossy J, Mackenzie I, Dorovini Zis K, Calne D, Wszolek Z, Klegeris A, et al. Severe vascular disturbance in a case of familial brain calcinosis. Acta Neuropathol. 2005;109:643-53 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that severe vascular impairment and mild inflammation contribute to the slow but inexorable progression of hereditary brain calcinosis. ..
  5. Guntupalli J, Padala S, Gummuluri A, Muktineni R, Byreddy S, Sreerama L, et al. Trace elemental analysis of normal, benign hypertrophic and cancerous tissues of the prostate gland using the particle-induced X-ray emission technique. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2007;16:108-15 pubmed
    ..In order to substantiate the observed elevated or deficient levels of trace elements in initiating, promoting, and inhibiting prostate cancer, several cellular and molecular studies are required. ..
  6. Ortega R, Bohic S, Tucoulou R, Somogyi A, Devès G. Microchemical element imaging of yeast and human cells using synchrotron X-ray microprobe with Kirkpatrick-Baez optics. Anal Chem. 2004;76:309-14 pubmed
    ..cerevisiae show homogeneous pattern distribution at the cellular level. ..
  7. Banas A, Kwiatek W, Banas K, Gajda M, Pawlicki B, Cichocki T. Correlation of concentrations of selected trace elements with Gleason grade of prostate tissues. J Biol Inorg Chem. 2010;15:1147-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results seem to be valuable in light of the determination of the changes in the concentrations of trace elements as a potential diagnostic marker and their etiological involvement in the different stages of prostate diseases...
  8. Ortega R, Bresson C, Fraysse A, Sandre C, Devès G, Gombert C, et al. Cobalt distribution in keratinocyte cells indicates nuclear and perinuclear accumulation and interaction with magnesium and zinc homeostasis. Toxicol Lett. 2009;188:26-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these data suggest a multiform toxicity of cobalt related to interactions with genomic DNA and nuclear proteins, and to the alteration of zinc and magnesium homeostasis. ..
  9. O Meara J, Fleming D. Uncertainty calculations for the measurement of in vivo bone lead by x-ray fluorescence. Phys Med Biol. 2009;54:2449-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Our proposed alternative calculation has essentially no effect on the calculated error of the mean lead concentration, indicating that the existing method of accounting for this covariance is sufficient. ..

More Information


  1. Kukiattrakoon B, Junpoom P, Hengtrakool C. Vicker's microhardness and energy dispersive x-ray analysis of fluorapatite-leucite and fluorapatite ceramics cyclically immersed in acidic agents. J Oral Sci. 2009;51:443-50 pubmed
    ..05). EDX results of both ceramics found that the elemental percentage of Na, K, Zr, Al and Si decreased after being immersed in acidic agents...
  2. Popescu B, GEORGE M, Bergmann U, Garachtchenko A, Kelly M, McCrea R, et al. Mapping metals in Parkinson's and normal brain using rapid-scanning x-ray fluorescence. Phys Med Biol. 2009;54:651-63 pubmed publisher
    ..RS-XRF can simultaneously and non-destructively map and quantify multiple metals and holds great promise to reveal metal pathologies associated with PD and other neurodegenerative diseases as well as diseases of metal metabolism. ..
  3. Ortega R, Devès G, Carmona A. Bio-metals imaging and speciation in cells using proton and synchrotron radiation X-ray microspectroscopy. J R Soc Interface. 2009;6 Suppl 5:S649-58 pubmed publisher
    ..The potential of these methods in biomedical investigations will be illustrated with examples of application in the fields of cellular toxicology, and pharmacology, bio-metals and metal-based nano-particles. ..
  4. Bankar A, Joshi B, Kumar A, Zinjarde S. Banana peel extract mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2010;80:45-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The BPE mediated nanoparticles displayed efficient antimicrobial activity towards most of the tested fungal and bacterial cultures. ..
  5. Kaulich B, Gianoncelli A, Beran A, Eichert D, Kreft I, Pongrac P, et al. Low-energy X-ray fluorescence microscopy opening new opportunities for bio-related research. J R Soc Interface. 2009;6 Suppl 5:S641-7 pubmed publisher
  6. Li Y, Lu W, Wang Y, Tran T. Studies of (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxylsilane and bis(trimethoxysilyl)ethane sol-gel coating on copper and aluminum. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2009;73:922-8 pubmed publisher
    ..All these electrochemical measurements indicate that the sol-gel coated metals have better corrosion protection than the corresponding uncoated metals. ..
  7. Massey M, Ippolito J, Davis J, Sheffield R. Macroscopic and microscopic variation in recovered magnesium phosphate materials: implications for phosphorus removal processes and product re-use. Bioresour Technol. 2010;101:877-85 pubmed publisher
  8. Hubler R, Blando E, Gaião L, Kreisner P, Post L, Xavier C, et al. Effects of low-level laser therapy on bone formed after distraction osteogenesis. Lasers Med Sci. 2010;25:213-9 pubmed publisher
    ..37% to 49.29%). The results showed that LLLT had a positive effect on the biomodulation of newly formed bone. ..
  9. Bayston R, Vera L, Mills A, Ashraf W, Stevenson O, Howdle S. In vitro antimicrobial activity of silver-processed catheters for neurosurgery. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010;65:258-65 pubmed publisher
    ..coli and while it showed activity against S. epidermidis in one assay it was unable to prevent colonization in vitro under in-flow conditions. This is consistent with clinical studies on silver-processed catheters. ..
  10. Sohn K, Dimitriou M, Genzer J, Fischer D, Hawker C, Kramer E. Determination of the electron escape depth for NEXAFS spectroscopy. Langmuir. 2009;25:6341-8 pubmed publisher
    ..95 nm. This EED is then used to measure the thickness of the perfluorinated surface layer of poly(4-(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl)oxymethylstyrene) (PFPS). ..
  11. Miliani C, Doherty B, Daveri A, Loesch A, Ulbricht H, Brunetti B, et al. In situ non-invasive investigation on the painting techniques of early Meissen Stoneware. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2009;73:587-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of oxalates namely whedellite and moolooite are assigned as degradation products relative to the decorative areas. ..
  12. Mukamel S, Abramavicius D, Yang L, Zhuang W, Schweigert I, Voronine D. Coherent multidimensional optical probes for electron correlations and exciton dynamics: from NMR to X-rays. Acc Chem Res. 2009;42:553-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Common principles underlie these techniques in coherent spectroscopy for spins, valence electrons, and core electronic excitations, spanning frequencies from radiowaves to hard X-rays. ..
  13. Zaluzec N. Detector solid angle formulas for use in X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry. Microsc Microanal. 2009;15:93-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article we present generalized formulas that can be used to calculate the variation in detection solid angle for contemporary Si(Li) as well as new silicon drift configurations. ..
  14. Matsuzaki S, Shimizu Y, Dobashi K, Nagamine T, Satoh T, Ohkubo T, et al. Analysis on the co-localization of asbestos bodies and Fas or CD163 expression in asbestos lung tissue by in-air micro-pixe. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2010;23:1-11 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the system could be useful for investigating the pathogenesis of inhaled particle-induced immune reactions and for determining harmful levels of exogenous agents. ..
  15. Marguí E, Fontàs C, Toribio M, Guillem M, Hidalgo M, Queralt I. Determination of water-soluble hexavalent chromium in clinker samples by wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry after concentration in activated layers. Appl Spectrosc. 2010;64:547-51 pubmed
  16. Kececi K, Sexton L, Buyukserin F, Martin C. Resistive-pulse detection of short dsDNAs using a chemically functionalized conical nanopore sensor. Nanomedicine (Lond). 2008;3:787-96 pubmed publisher
    ..This mitigated the problem of electrostatic rejection of the anionic DNAs from the pore and enabled the detection of these DNA analytes. ..
  17. Gorin D, Portnov S, Inozemtseva O, Luklinska Z, Yashchenok A, Pavlov A, et al. Magnetic/gold nanoparticle functionalized biocompatible microcapsules with sensitivity to laser irradiation. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2008;10:6899-905 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the nanocomposite microcapsules could be opened by laser irradiation; these results are of interest for medical and biological applications. ..
  18. Siritapetawee J, Pattanasiriwisawa W, Sirithepthawee U. Trace element analysis of hairs in patients with dementia. J Synchrotron Radiat. 2010;17:268-72 pubmed publisher
    ..This study presents the possible roles of calcium, chlorine, phosphorus and sulfur in the etiology of dementia in elderly patients. ..
  19. Jack T, Brent B, Boehne M, Muller M, Sewald K, Braun A, et al. Analysis of particulate contaminations of infusion solutions in a pediatric intensive care unit. Intensive Care Med. 2010;36:707-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Further clinical trials are necessary to determine whether particle retention by in-line filtration has an influence on the outcome of intensive care patients. ..
  20. da Cunha Peixoto I, Pereira E, da Silva J, Viana A, Buono V, Bahia M. Flexural fatigue and torsional resistance of ProFile GT and ProFile GT series X instruments. J Endod. 2010;36:741-4 pubmed publisher
    ..001). Different structural and dimensional characteristics were found in GTX instruments in comparison with GT instruments; this is probably the cause for their higher flexural fatigue resistance and lower torsional strength. ..
  21. Zhang Z, Li M, Chen W, Zhu S, Liu N, Zhu L. Immobilization of lead and cadmium from aqueous solution and contaminated sediment using nano-hydroxyapatite. Environ Pollut. 2010;158:514-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results in this study showed that nHAp can immobilize Pb and Cd in sediment effectively. ..
  22. Gowrishankar R, Kumar M, Menon V, Divi S, Saravanan M, Magudapathy P, et al. Trace Element Studies on Tinospora cordifolia (Menispermaceae), Ocimum sanctum (Lamiaceae), Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae), and Phyllanthus niruri (Euphorbiaceae) Using PIXE. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2010;133:357-63 pubmed publisher
    ..cordifolia, and the aqueous extract of Moringa leaves compared to others and relative higher concentrations of Cr in all the plants...
  23. Ribeiro J, Flores D, Ward C, Silva L. Identification of nanominerals and nanoparticles in burning coal waste piles from Portugal. Sci Total Environ. 2010;408:6032-41 pubmed publisher
  24. Hou S, Li X, Li X, Feng X, Guan L, Yang Y, et al. Patterning of 293T fibroblasts on a mica surface. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2009;394:2111-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This technique should be of potential applications in the fields of biosensor fabrication and tissue engineering. ..
  25. Ozturk S, Aslim B, Suludere Z. Evaluation of chromium(VI) removal behaviour by two isolates of Synechocystis sp. in terms of exopolysaccharide (EPS) production and monomer composition. Bioresour Technol. 2009;100:5588-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results showed that EPS might play a role in Cr(VI) tolerance. Monomer composition, especially uronic acid and glucuronic acid content of EPS may have enhanced Cr(VI) removal...
  26. Wang X, Schröder H, Wiens M, Schlossmacher U, Muller W. Manganese/polymetallic nodules: micro-structural characterization of exolithobiontic- and endolithobiontic microbial biofilms by scanning electron microscopy. Micron. 2009;40:350-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the microorganisms form a biofilm within the nodules onto which Mn is deposited due to an oxidation from Mn(II) to Mn(III)/Mn(IV). ..
  27. Risch M, Khare V, Zaharieva I, Gerencser L, Chernev P, Dau H. Cobalt-oxo core of a water-oxidizing catalyst film. J Am Chem Soc. 2009;131:6936-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The similarities in function and oxidative self-assembly of CoCF and the catalytic Mn complex in photosynthesis are striking. Our study establishes a close analogy also with respect to the metal-oxo core of the catalyst. ..
  28. Briani G, Gounelle M, Marrocchi Y, Mostefaoui S, Leroux H, Quirico E, et al. Pristine extraterrestrial material with unprecedented nitrogen isotopic variation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:10522-7 pubmed publisher
    ..At the same time, its hydrogen and carbon isotopic compositions exhibit very little variation. This object poses serious challenges for existing models for the origin of light element isotopic anomalies. ..
  29. Kruse J, Leinweber P, Eckhardt K, Godlinski F, Hu Y, Zuin L. Phosphorus L(2,3)-edge XANES: overview of reference compounds. J Synchrotron Radiat. 2009;16:247-59 pubmed publisher
    ..The spectra library provided lays a basis for the identification of individual P forms in samples of unknown composition for a variety of scientific areas. ..
  30. Smith E, Kempson I, Juhasz A, Weber J, Skinner W, Grafe M. Localization and speciation of arsenic and trace elements in rice tissues. Chemosphere. 2009;76:529-35 pubmed publisher
  31. Sadat Shojai M, Atai M, Nodehi A, Khanlar L. Hydroxyapatite nanorods as novel fillers for improving the properties of dental adhesives: Synthesis and application. Dent Mater. 2010;26:471-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The nanorod containing adhesive system presented here might be considered to have practical applications in dental clinics. ..
  32. Tanaka N, Kimura H, Faried A, Sakai M, Sano A, Inose T, et al. Quantitative analysis of cisplatin sensitivity of human esophageal squamous cancer cell lines using in-air micro-PIXE. Cancer Sci. 2010;101:1487-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we speculate that MRP2 in the cell membrane may play an important role in regulating the cisplatin sensitivity of ESCC cells. ..
  33. Okuneva G, Levicheva E, Loginova I, Volkov A, Cherniavskii A, Al sov S, et al. Role of chemical elements in formation of an aortic aneurysm. Angiol Sosud Khir. 2008;14:21-6 pubmed
    ..88 +/- 0.04, above which metabolic processes in the aortic wall change over to a qualitatively another level. This point was arbitrarily termed the metabolic process reversibility point. ..
  34. Moriarty M, Koch I, Gordon R, Reimer K. Arsenic speciation of terrestrial invertebrates. Environ Sci Technol. 2009;43:4818-23 pubmed
    ..Similar arsenic speciation patterns for invertebrate groups were observed across sites. Trace amounts of arsenobetaine and arsenocholine were identified in slugs, ants, and spiders. ..
  35. Baake O, Hoffmann P, Flege S, Ortner H, Gottschalk S, Berky W, et al. Nondestructive characterization of nanoscale layered samples. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2009;393:623-34 pubmed publisher
  36. Verné E, Ferraris S, Vitale Brovarone C, Spriano S, Bianchi C, Naldoni A, et al. Alkaline phosphatase grafting on bioactive glasses and glass ceramics. Acta Biomater. 2010;6:229-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Presence of the enzyme in vitro enhances the inorganic bioactivity of the materials tested. ..
  37. Carro L, Anagnostopoulos V, Lodeiro P, Barriada J, Herrero R, Sastre de Vicente M. A dynamic proof of mercury elimination from solution through a combined sorption-reduction process. Bioresour Technol. 2010;101:8969-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Reduction to mercury (I) and metallic mercury has been confirmed by scanning electron microscopy analysis of the column filling after the continuous flow experiments. ..
  38. Yan X, Ge S, Sun Q, Guo H, Yang P. A pilot study evaluating the effect of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 and recombinant human beta-nerve growth factor on the healing of Class III furcation defects in dogs. J Periodontol. 2010;81:1289-98 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this pilot study suggest that a topical application of rhBMP2 and rh beta-NGF may improve the quality and quantity of regenerated bone in artificially created Class III furcation defects of beagle dogs. ..
  39. Melrose J, Burkhardt D, Taylor T, Dillon C, Read R, Cake M, et al. Calcification in the ovine intervertebral disc: a model of hydroxyapatite deposition disease. Eur Spine J. 2009;18:479-89 pubmed publisher
    ..The decrease in disc proteoglycan content and size suggests that calcification may precede or predispose to disc degeneration in ageing sheep. ..
  40. Li L, Deng J, Deng H, Liu Z, Xin L. Synthesis and characterization of chitosan/ZnO nanoparticle composite membranes. Carbohydr Res. 2010;345:994-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, CS/nano-ZnO composite membranes with 6-10 wt% ZnO exhibited high antibacterial activities. ..
  41. Surmenev R, Ryabtseva M, Shesterikov E, Pichugin V, Peitsch T, Epple M. The release of nickel from nickel-titanium (NiTi) is strongly reduced by a sub-micrometer thin layer of calcium phosphate deposited by rf-magnetron sputtering. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2010;21:1233-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This was much less than the release from uncoated NiTi (3.4-4.4 ng cm(-2) d(-1)). Notably, the nickel release rate was not significantly different in pure water and in aqueous saline solution. ..
  42. Imai H, Izumi K, Matsumoto M, Kubo Y, Kato K, Imai Y. In situ and real-time monitoring of oxide growth in a few monolayers at surfaces of platinum nanoparticles in aqueous media. J Am Chem Soc. 2009;131:6293-300 pubmed publisher
    ..5 electrons per oxygen, up to two monolayers of oxygen. This means that ionic polarization hardly develops at this stage of the surface platinum's "oxide" growth. ..
  43. Kempson I, Henry D, Francis J. Characterizing arsenic in preserved hair for assessing exposure potential and discriminating poisoning. J Synchrotron Radiat. 2009;16:422-7 pubmed publisher
    ..It would be difficult to discriminate arsenic consumption from topically applied arsenic based on the physical transverse distribution. Longitudinal distributions and chemical speciation may still allow differentiation. ..
  44. Ho W, Lai C, Hsu H, Wu S. Surface modification of a Ti-7.5Mo alloy using NaOH treatment and Bioglass coating. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2010;21:1479-88 pubmed publisher
    ..5Mo, the pH value of the SBF approached a peak of 7.66 on the first day. A combination of NaOH treatment and subsequent Bioglass coating was successfully used to initiate in vitro HA formation in the surface of the Ti-7.5Mo alloy. ..
  45. Pal S, Tak Y, Joardar J, Kim W, Lee J, Han M, et al. Nanocrystalline silver supported on activated carbon matrix from hydrosol: antibacterial mechanism under prolonged incubation conditions. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2009;9:2092-103 pubmed
    ..Comparison of the antibacterial activities of the silver-supported materials prepared by silver colloid deposition and by conventional thermal impregnation technique indicates that former is more efficient in controlling microorganism. ..
  46. Hsu N, Wang S, Liao Y, Huang S, Tzou Y, Huang Y. Removal of hexavalent chromium from acidic aqueous solutions using rice straw-derived carbon. J Hazard Mater. 2009;171:1066-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that rice straw-based carbon may be effectively used at low pH as a substitute for activated carbon for the treatment of Cr(VI) contaminated water. ..
  47. Xu Z, Neoh K, Amaechi B, Kishen A. Monitoring bacterial-demineralization of human dentine by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. J Dent. 2010;38:138-48 pubmed publisher
    ..This investigation highlighted EIS as a potential technique to monitor biofilm formation and bacterial-induced demineralization in situ. ..
  48. Lundin M, Sandberg T, Caldwell K, Blomberg E. Comparison of the adsorption kinetics and surface arrangement of "as received" and purified bovine submaxillary gland mucin (BSM) on hydrophilic surfaces. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2009;336:30-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Clearly, this study shows the importance of characterizing the mucin used since differences in purity give rise to different adsorption behaviours in terms of both adsorbed amount and layer structure. ..
  49. Li Y, Church J, Woodhead A, Moussa F. Preparation and characterization of silica coated iron oxide magnetic nano-particles. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2010;76:484-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Raman spectroscopy has shown the laser heating effect through the conversion of magnetite to maghemite and hematite. ..
  50. Nicolis I, Curis E, Deschamps P, Benazeth S. Arsenite medicinal use, metabolism, pharmacokinetics and monitoring in human hair. Biochimie. 2009;91:1260-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Micro-XANES spectra recorded at the periphery of hair, suggest that inorganic arsenic is incorporated in hair in its trivalent oxidation state, in agreement with previous results...
  51. Huang S, Sun S, Feng T, Sung K, Lui W, Wang L. Folate-mediated chondroitin sulfate-Pluronic 127 nanogels as a drug carrier. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2009;38:64-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The better cellular uptake of FA-CS-PF127 in KB cells was evidenced by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and flow cytometry upon loading Rhodamine123 as a probe. ..
  52. Brayner R, Yéprémian C, Djediat C, Coradin T, Herbst F, Livage J, et al. Photosynthetic microorganism-mediated synthesis of akaganeite (beta-FeOOH) nanorods. Langmuir. 2009;25:10062-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A mechanism involving iron-siderophore complex formation is proposed and compared with iron biomineralization in magnetotactic bacteria. ..
  53. Gherase M, Fleming D. K-shell X-ray fluorescence measurements of arsenic depth-dependent concentration in polyester resin discs using the fundamental parameter method. Appl Radiat Isot. 2009;67:50-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The formalism was experimentally verified for two-disc resin stacks with different arsenic concentrations. ..