fluorescence polarization immunoassay


Summary: Fluoroimmunoassay where detection of the hapten-antibody reaction is based on measurement of the increased polarization of fluorescence-labeled hapten when it is combined with antibody. The assay is very useful for the measurement of small haptenic antigens such as drugs at low concentrations.

Top Publications

  1. Nielsen K, Lin M, Gall D, Jolley M. Fluorescence polarization immunoassay: detection of antibody to Brucella abortus. Methods. 2000;22:71-6 pubmed
    b>Fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPA) is a homogeneous immunoassay useful for rapid and accurate detection of antibody or antigen...
  2. Bouzas L, Tutor J. Determination of everolimus in whole blood using the Abbott IMx sirolimus microparticle enzyme immunoassay. Clin Biochem. 2007;40:132-6 pubmed
    ..patients (n=51) and different control materials (n=35) using the Seradyn Innofluor Certican fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) and the Abbott IMx sirolimus microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA)...
  3. Lippolis V, Pascale M, Valenzano S, Pluchinotta V, Baumgartner S, Krska R, et al. A rapid fluorescence polarization immunoassay for the determination of T-2 and HT-2 toxins in wheat. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2011;401:2561-71 pubmed publisher
    ..964). These results, combined with the rapidity (10 min) and simplicity of the assay, show that this method is suitable for high throughput screening as well as for quantitative determination of T-2 and HT-2 toxins in wheat. ..
  4. Tian J, Zhou L, Zhao Y, Wang Y, Peng Y, Hong X, et al. The application of CdTe/CdS in the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen by fluorescence polarization immunoassay. J Fluoresc. 2012;22:1571-9 pubmed publisher
    A novel and portable strategy based on fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) using quantum dots (QDs) was described in this study for simple, rapid, and sensitive detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)...
  5. Baldelli S, Crippa A, Gabrieli R, Fiocchi R, Perico N, Merlini S, et al. Comparison of the Innofluor certican assay with HPLC-UV for the determination of everolimus concentrations in heart transplantation. Clin Biochem. 2006;39:1152-9 pubmed
    ..A fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) has been recently developed for the assessment of everolimus levels...
  6. Kraemer T, Roditis S, Peters F, Maurer H. Amphetamine concentrations in human urine following single-dose administration of the calcium antagonist prenylamine-studies using fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) and GC-MS. J Anal Toxicol. 2003;27:68-73 pubmed
    ..Chiral analysis revealed that both enantiomers of amphetamine were present in the samples with a surplus of the S(+)-enantiomer in the early phase of excretion. Forensic implications are discussed...
  7. Ensslin H, Kovar K, Maurer H. Toxicological detection of the designer drug 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDE, "Eve") and its metabolites in urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and fluorescence polarization immunoassay. J Chromatogr B Biomed Appl. 1996;683:189-97 pubmed
    ..in urine after a single oral dose of 140 mg of MDE by GC-MS and fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA)...
  8. Molpeceres J, Chacon M, Aberturas M, Guzman M, Diez M, Rodriguez Puyol M. Effect of gonadectomy on cyclosporine pharmacokinetics in male and female rats. Pharmazie. 2001;56:78-82 pubmed
    ..Therefore, gonadectomy exerts a complex effect on CyA pharmacokinetics in rats and makes complementary studies necessary to clarify how differences in sexual hormone secretion alter CyA disposition. ..
  9. Coentrao L, Carvalho C, Sampaio S, Oliveira J, Pestana M. Relationship between everolimus blood concentration assessed using the Innofluor Certican Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay and the Architect i System sirolimus chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Transplant Proc. 2010;42:1867-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, Seradyn, Inc (Indianapolis, Indiana) introduced a fluorescence polarization immunoassay (Innofluor Certican Fluorescent Polarization Immunoassay [FPIA]) for quantitation of everolimus ..

More Information


  1. Surujballi O, Romanowska A, Sugden E, Turcotte C, Jolley M. A fluorescence polarization assay for the detection of antibodies to Mycobacterium bovis in cattle sera. Vet Microbiol. 2002;87:149-57 pubmed
    ..6%) of the SID test-negative animals. Two of the culture-positive cattle were not detected by either test. None of the sera that were obtained from the M. paratuberculosis-infected animals cross-reacted in this assay. ..
  2. Yuan J, Matsumoto K. [Coordination compounds, fluorescence, and biotechnology: application of lanthanide fluorescence labels to biotechnology]. Tanpakushitsu Kakusan Koso. 2003;48:1550-8 pubmed
  3. Tubasum S, Thomsson D, Cogdell R, Scheblykin I, Pullerits T. Polarization single complex imaging of circular photosynthetic antenna. Photosynth Res. 2012;111:41-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The shape and orientation of the ellipses is discussed in terms of tilted LH2 complexes where emission occurs from energetically disordered B850 excitons. ..
  4. Press R, Ploeger B, Den Hartigh J, van der Straaten T, Van Pelt H, Danhof M, et al. Explaining variability in ciclosporin exposure in adult kidney transplant recipients. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2010;66:579-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, therapeutic drug monitoring is still required to optimize CsA exposure after administration of individualized doses based on body weight and, as this study suggests, co-administration of prednisolone. ..
  5. Yano R, Nakamura T, Tsukamoto H, Igarashi T, Goto N, Wakiya Y, et al. Variability in teicoplanin protein binding and its prediction using serum albumin concentrations. Ther Drug Monit. 2007;29:399-403 pubmed
    ..by ultrafiltration, and total and free serum concentrations of teicoplanin were determined by a fluorescence polarization immunoassay. Regression analysis was then performed to build a prediction model for the free serum teicoplanin ..
  6. Datta P, Scurlock D, Dasgupta A. Analytic performance evaluation of a new turbidimetric immunoassay for phenytoin on the ADVIA 1650 analyzer: effect of phenytoin metabolite and analogue. Ther Drug Monit. 2005;27:305-8 pubmed
    ..patients receiving Phenytoin using this new assay with the values obtained by using a widely used fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA)...
  7. Nasir M, Jolley M. Fluorescence polarization (FP) assays for the determination of grain mycotoxins (fumonisins, DON vomitoxin and aflatoxins). Comb Chem High Throughput Screen. 2003;6:267-73 pubmed
    ..The use of FP and toxin-fluorophore conjugates for the quantification of fumonisins, deoxynivalenol and aflatoxins is described. These assays are field portable, simple to perform, rapid and require no washing steps. ..
  8. Sihn Y, Chung H. Interpretations of the TDxFLx calibration data of the abused drugs. Forensic Sci Int. 2003;131:1-7 pubmed
    ..TDxFLx system uses fluorescence polarization immunoassay technique that is a competitive binding immunoassay methodology to allow tracer-labeled antigen (*..
  9. Guillaume C, Stolk L, Dejagere T, Kooman J. Successful use of hemodialysis in acute valproic acid intoxication. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2004;42:335-6 pubmed
  10. Savoca R, Rentsch K, Hubert A. Diagnostic efficiency of different amphetamine screening tests--the search for an optimal cutoff. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2004;42:1063-5 pubmed
    ..In summary, the cutoff concentration for amphetamine screening tests should not be below 500 ng/ml to avoid a high rate of false-positive results. ..
  11. Tribut O, Gaulier J, Allain H, Bentué Ferrer D. Major discrepancy between digoxin immunoassay results in a context of acute overdose: a case report. Clin Chim Acta. 2005;354:201-3 pubmed
  12. Tian J, Zhou L, Zhao Y, Wang Y, Peng Y, Zhao S. Multiplexed detection of tumor markers with multicolor quantum dots based on fluorescence polarization immunoassay. Talanta. 2012;92:72-7 pubmed publisher
    ..nanosensor for multiplex detection of two tumor markers in a homogeneous format based on fluorescence polarization immunoassay was proposed...
  13. Pescovitz M, Barbeito R. Two-hour post-dose cyclosporine level is a better predictor than trough level of acute rejection of renal allografts. Clin Transplant. 2002;16:378-82 pubmed
    ..The CyA was measured by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (TDx). Mean CyA C0 and C2 concentrations were calculated...
  14. Zheng M, Richard J, Binder J. A review of rapid methods for the analysis of mycotoxins. Mycopathologia. 2006;161:261-73 pubmed
    ..This review focuses on the basic principle of each rapid method as well as advantages and limitations of each method. Additionally, we address other emerging technologies of potential application in the analysis of mycotoxins. ..
  15. Stricher F, Martin L, Barthe P, Pogenberg V, Mechulam A, Ménez A, et al. A high-throughput fluorescence polarization assay specific to the CD4 binding site of HIV-1 glycoproteins based on a fluorescein-labelled CD4 mimic. Biochem J. 2005;390:29-39 pubmed
  16. Dasgupta A, Datta P. Analytic performance evaluation of a new turbidimetric immunoassay for carbamazepine on the ADVIA 1650 analyzer: effect of carbamazepine 10,11-epoxide. Ther Drug Monit. 2005;27:31-4 pubmed
    ..in sera of 54 patients receiving carbamazepine with the values obtained by using a widely used fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) and a chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA)...
  17. Maragos C, Jolley M, Nasir M. Fluorescence polarization as a tool for the determination of deoxynivalenol in wheat. Food Addit Contam. 2002;19:400-7 pubmed
    ..97). Although the FP method tended to overestimate DON slightly in the wheat samples, by approxiamtely 20%, the assay was easy to use and very useful for the screening of wheat. ..
  18. Loewenstein A, Zemel E, Vered Y, Lazar M, Perlman I. Retinal toxicity of gentamicin after subconjunctival injection performed adjacent to thinned sclera. Ophthalmology. 2001;108:759-64 pubmed
    ..These toxic effects are also influenced by the degree of pigmentation and acute inflammation. ..
  19. Smith D, Eremin S. Fluorescence polarization immunoassays and related methods for simple, high-throughput screening of small molecules. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2008;391:1499-507 pubmed publisher
    b>Fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) is a homogeneous (without separation) competitive immunoassay method based on the increase in fluorescence polarization (FP) of fluorescent-labeled small antigens when bound by specific ..
  20. Dasgupta A, Davis B, Chow L. Validation of a free phenytoin assay on Cobas c501 analyzer using calibrators from Cobas Integra free phenytoin assay by comparing its performance with fluorescence polarization immunoassay for free phenytoin on the TDx analyzer. J Clin Lab Anal. 2013;27:1-4 pubmed publisher
    For many years, fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) on the TDx analyzer has been used for determination of free phenytoin concentration...
  21. Sharma S, Gulati S, Kabra M, Kalra V, Vasisht S, Gupta Y. Blood ammonia levels in epileptic children on 2 dose ranges of valproic acid monotherapy: a cross-sectional study. J Child Neurol. 2011;26:109-12 pubmed publisher
    ..77, P < .001) and serum levels (r = .88, P < .001) of valproic acid. All the children with hyperammonemia were asymptomatic. There were no significant differences in the other biochemical parameters between the 2 groups. ..
  22. Llombart Blanco R, Villas C, Silva A, Aldaz A, Navarro I, Forteza J, et al. Local and systemic diffusion of antineoplastic drugs following vertebroplasty using acrylic cement mixed with cisplatin or methotrexate: experimental study in pigs. Eur Spine J. 2017;26:3216-3224 pubmed publisher
    ..Cisplatin was studied by atomic absorption spectrometry and methotrexate by fluorescence polarization immunoassay. Renal and hepatic function and blood analysis were performed weekly...
  23. Lin D, Liu H, Liu R. Methylenedioxymethamphetamine-related deaths in Taiwan: 2001-2008. J Anal Toxicol. 2009;33:366-71 pubmed
    ..19, 0.13, and 0.05-1.81 microg/mL. The corresponding data of MDMA and MDA in the remaining 19 MDMA-related deaths were significantly lower: 1.25, 0.97, 0.08-3.05 and 0.11, 0.09, 0.06-0.24 microg/mL, respectively. ..
  24. Kato N, Fujiwara Y, Harato M, Kurokawa S, Shibata Y, Harada J, et al. Serum concentration of lidocaine after transversus abdominis plane block. J Anesth. 2009;23:298-300 pubmed publisher
    ..plane (TAP) block with 40 ml of 1% lidocaine in 12 patients under general anesthesia, using a fluorescence polarization immunoassay. The peak mean serum concentration of lidocaine occurred 30 min after the block (3.6 +/- 0...
  25. Dasgupta A, McNeese C, Wells A. Interference of carbamazepine and carbamazepine 10,11-epoxide in the fluorescence polarization immunoassay for tricyclic antidepressants: estimation of the true tricyclic antidepressant concentration in the presence of carbamazepine using a mathemati. Am J Clin Pathol. 2004;121:418-25 pubmed
    ..on the measurement of tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) concentrations in serum using the fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA)...
  26. Beloglazova N, Shmelin P, Eremin S. Sensitive immunochemical approaches for quantitative (FPIA) and qualitative (lateral flow tests) determination of gentamicin in milk. Talanta. 2016;149:217-224 pubmed publisher
    ..First, a fast and easily-performed fluorescence polarization immunoassay was used for characterization of the employed polyclonal antibody. The calculated Kaff were (1...
  27. Giusiani M, Viviani P. [Determination of opiates in urine: interpretation of comparison between the EIA and FPIA and confirmation of data with GC/MS]. Minerva Med. 2001;92:155-60 pubmed
    ..The FPIA results are in agreement with the GC/MS technique both at 200 and 300 ng/ml with a percentage of 80.0%. The EIA technique has a different result, at 200 ng/ml it is in agreement for 40.0%, but at 300 ng/ml there is only 20.0%. ..
  28. Luzy J, Chen H, Gril B, Liu W, Vidal M, Perdereau D, et al. Development of binding assays for the SH2 domain of Grb7 and Grb2 using fluorescence polarization. J Biomol Screen. 2008;13:112-9 pubmed publisher
    ..As a result, the assays have identified a known peptidomimetic Grb2 SH2 inhibitor (mAZ-pTyr-(alphaMe)pTyr-Asn-NH(2)) that exhibits the most potent affinity for the Grb7 SH2 domain described to date. ..
  29. Hatzidakis G, Tsatsakis A, Krambovitis E, Spyros A, Eremin S. Use of L-lysine fluorescence derivatives as tracers to enhance the performance of polarization fluoroimmunoassays. A study using two herbicides as model antigens. Anal Chem. 2002;74:2513-21 pubmed
    b>Fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) is a convenient homogeneous assay, the use of which is restricted in environmental analysis by low sensitivity and matrix effects...
  30. Mignet N, Chermont Q, Randrianarivelo T, Seguin J, Richard C, Bessodes M, et al. Liposome biodistribution by time resolved fluorimetry of lipophilic europium complexes. Eur Biophys J. 2006;35:155-61 pubmed
    ..Fluorescence emission was not modified by this incorporation. Europium labelled liposomes were used for biodistribution studies and showed their use in this context. ..
  31. Ezquer Garín C, Escuder Gilabert L, Martín Biosca Y, Lisart R, Sagrado S, Medina Hernández M. Fit-for-purpose chromatographic method for the determination of amikacin in human plasma for the dosage control of patients. Talanta. 2016;150:510-5 pubmed publisher
    ..a competitive alternative to the currently used method in many hospitals for AMK dosage control: fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA). The method exhibits linearity in the 0...
  32. Stephens E, Bolderson I, Clark B, Kinsey S, Gooi H, Cook G. The measurement of whole blood pre-treatment cyclosporine A: metabolite ratios predicts the onset of renal dysfunction in recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Ann Clin Biochem. 2006;43:382-8 pubmed
    ..Both parent drug and drug/metabolite levels were determined using the Abbott fluorescence polarization immunoassay. The average mean Cp:mR was significantly higher in patients with hepatic (P=0...
  33. Fabbri A, Ruggeri S, Marchesini G, Vandelli A. A combined HPLC-immunoenzymatic comprehensive screening for suspected drug poisoning in the emergency department. Emerg Med J. 2004;21:317-22 pubmed
    ..A rapid comprehensive drug screening adds to the diagnosis of patients with suspected drug poisoning, identifying unsuspected drugs in symptomatic patients and excluding drugs in asymptomatic subjects. ..
  34. Dailly E, Fraissinet F, Deslandes G, Bouquié R, Jolliet P. Evaluation of the QMS® Teicoplanin Immunoassay (ThermoFisher Scientific) on Cobas® 8000 System (Roche Diagnostics) and comparison to fluorescence polarization immunoassay for the determination of teicoplanin concentrations in human plasma. J Clin Lab Anal. 2013;27:96-8 pubmed publisher
    ..immunoassay recently developed on Cobas(®) 6000/8000 systems were evaluated and compared to a fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) [Teicoplanin Innofluor(®) Assay (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Indianapolis, IN)] on FLX ..
  35. Hmiel S, Canter C, Shepherd R, Lassa Claxton S, Nadler M. Limitations of cyclosporine C2 monitoring in pediatric heart transplant recipients. Pediatr Transplant. 2007;11:524-9 pubmed
    ..Age-dependent differences in CSA absorption and/or clearance pharmacokinetics may explain these findings. ..
  36. Wang Z, Zhang S, Nesterenko I, Eremin S, Shen J. Monoclonal antibody-based fluorescence polarization immunoassay for sulfamethoxypyridazine and sulfachloropyridazine. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:6871-8 pubmed
    ..paper, a new monoclonal antibody (Mab) against sulfamethoxypyridazine (SMP) was produced, and a fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) based on the produced Mab was developed and optimized for the qualitative screening ..
  37. Lin S, Chao P, Tsai S, Wang M, Hou Y. Citrus grandis peel increases the bioavailability of cyclosporine and tacrolimus, two important immunosuppressants, in rats. J Med Food. 2011;14:1463-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The concentrations of cyclosporine and tacrolimus in blood were assayed by monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay and microparticle enzyme immunoassay, respectively...
  38. Pieri M, Miraglia N, Gentile A, Polichetti G, Castiglia L, Federico S, et al. Quantification of sirolimus and everolimus by immunoassay techniques: test specificity and cross-reactivity evaluation. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2008;21:585-94 pubmed
    ..It should be noticed that in patients switching from one drug to the other unreal overestimation of the blood levels of the current administered immunosuppressant can occur. ..
  39. Garrido M, Hermida J, Tutor J. Relationship between cyclosporine concentrations obtained using the Roche Cobas Integra and Abbott TDx monoclonal immunoassays in pre-dose and two hour post-dose blood samples from kidney transplant recipients. Ther Drug Monit. 2002;24:785-8 pubmed
    ..and 60 C samples from renal transplant patients, CsA levels were determined using the monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay (mFPIA) from Abbott (Abbott Park, IL) and the homogeneous enzyme immunoassay technique (HEIT) from ..
  40. Inoue S, Hashiguchi M, Kawai S, Mochizuki M. Erythrocyte methotrexate-polyglutamate assay using fluorescence polarization immunoassay technique: application to the monitoring of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2009;129:1001-5 pubmed
    ..The authors developed a new method using fluorescence polarization immunoassay to determine MTX-PG(1-7) concentrations in erythrocytes (RBC)...
  41. Haddox J, Pfister R, Sommers C, Blalock J, Villain M. Inhibitory effect of a complementary peptide on ulceration in the alkali-injured rabbit cornea. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001;42:2769-75 pubmed
    ..RTR tetramer appears to hold enough promise to warrant additional study as a therapeutic drug for the alkali-injured eye. ..
  42. Minas A, Stournara A, Minas M, Papaioannou A, Krikelis V, Tselepidis S. Validation of fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) and comparison with other tests used for diagnosis of B. melitensis infection in sheep. Vet Microbiol. 2005;111:211-21 pubmed
    ..Due to its simplicity, the sort time that results can be obtained and its accuracy it can be used and improve the laboratory testing capacity as well as the efficacy of the eradication program based on test-and-slaughter policy. ..
  43. Colom H, Farré R, Soy D, Peraire C, Cendros J, Pardo N, et al. Population pharmacokinetics of high-dose methotrexate after intravenous administration in pediatric patients with osteosarcoma. Ther Drug Monit. 2009;31:76-85 pubmed publisher
    ..36% and 19.71%, respectively. A population PK model was developed for HD-MTX in children with osteosarcoma. Validation studies confirmed the suitability of the model for further dose individualization by means of a Bayesian approach. ..
  44. Ozgon G, Bebek N, Gul G, Cine N. Association of MDR1 (C3435T) polymorphism and resistance to carbamazepine in epileptic patients from Turkey. Eur Neurol. 2008;59:67-70 pubmed
    ..Plasma CBZ concentrations were also measured using fluorescence polarization immunoassay. We could not demonstrate any statistically significant relationship with the genotypes among drug-..
  45. Kellogg M, Parker R, Ricupero A, Rifai N. Evaluation of an enzymatic homocysteine assay for the Hitachi series chemistry analyzer. Clin Chim Acta. 2005;354:117-22 pubmed
    ..Split sample aliquots were assayed using the described method, by HPLC and fluorescence polarization immunoassay for method comparisons. The assay was linear to at least 45 micromol/l...
  46. Malek S, Huxford T, Ghosh G. Ikappa Balpha functions through direct contacts with the nuclear localization signals and the DNA binding sequences of NF-kappaB. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:25427-35 pubmed
    ..A model of the interactions in the complex is proposed based on our observations and the crystal structures of Rel/NF-kappaB dimers and the ankyrin domains of related proteins. ..
  47. Sakuta H, Suzuki T, Yasuda H, Ito T. Gamma-glutamyl transferase and metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Intern Med. 2005;44:538-41 pubmed
    ..Serum GGT activity may be regarded as a marker of cardiovascular risk factors or oxidative stress rather than a mere indicator of excessive ethanol consumption or obesity. ..
  48. Parant F, Bossu H, Gagnieu M, Lardet G, Moulsma M. Cross-reactivity assessment of carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide, oxcarbazepine, and 10-hydroxy-carbazepine in two automated carbamazepine immunoassays: PETINIA and EMIT 2000. Ther Drug Monit. 2003;25:41-5 pubmed
    ..5 mg/L). The two immunoassays tested showed low cross-reactivity with OCBZ and HCBZ. In conclusion, it appears that the CBZ-E metabolite present in samples can falsely increase CBZ levels measured by the PETINIA assay. ..
  49. Gan I, Van Dissel J, Beekhuis W, Swart W, Van Meurs J. Intravitreal vancomycin and gentamicin concentrations in patients with postoperative endophthalmitis. Br J Ophthalmol. 2001;85:1289-93 pubmed
    ..This study also provides new information on intravitreal vancomycin and gentamicin concentration over time in patients with postoperative endophthalmitis. ..
  50. Xu Z, Wang Q, Lei H, Eremin S, Shen Y, Wang H, et al. A simple, rapid and high-throughput fluorescence polarization immunoassay for simultaneous detection of organophosphorus pesticides in vegetable and environmental water samples. Anal Chim Acta. 2011;708:123-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The developed FPIA demonstrated good accuracy and reproducibility, and is suitable for rapid and high-throughput screening for OP contamination with high-efficiency and low cost. ..
  51. Lois F, Wallemacq P, de Tourtchaninoff M, Vanbinst R, Laterre P, Goffin E, et al. Prolonged unconsciousness in a patient on automated peritoneal dialysis. Eur J Emerg Med. 2006;13:361-3 pubmed
    ..Baclofen is mainly excreted by the kidney. A short-term administration of low-dose of baclofen is not effectively removed by peritoneal dialysis and may result in prolonged but reversible coma. ..
  52. Kataev S, Zelenina N, Oborin D, Malkova T. [Detection of blood opiates by fluorescence-polarization immunoassay]. Sud Med Ekspert. 2006;49:20-4 pubmed
    ..The method of opiates screening in blood proposed is characterized by fast conduction, high specificity and precision, small amounts of the expert material. ..
  53. Nielsen K, Smith P, Widdison J, Gall D, Kelly L, Kelly W, et al. Serological relationship between cattle exposed to Brucella abortus, Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Vet Microbiol. 2004;100:25-30 pubmed
    ..coli O157:H7, Y. enterocilitica O:9 and B. abortus is dependent on the test used. Thus, extensive cross reaction was observed with the IELISA with much less reactivity in the FPA and the CELISA...