supercritical fluid chromatography


Summary: A CHROMATOGRAPHY method using supercritical fluid, usually carbon dioxide under very high pressure (around 73 atmospheres or 1070 psi at room temperature) as the mobile phase. Other solvents are sometimes added as modifiers. This is used both for analytical (SFC) and extraction (SFE) purposes.

Top Publications

  1. Choo Y, Ng M, Ma A, Chuah C, Hashim M. Application of supercritical fluid chromatography in the quantitative analysis of minor components (carotenes, vitamin E, sterols, and squalene) from palm oil. Lipids. 2005;40:429-32 pubmed
    The application of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) coupled with a UV variable-wavelength detector to isolate the minor components (carotenes, vitamin E, sterols, and squalene) in crude palm oil (CPO) and the residual oil from ..
  2. Hao J, Whitaker M, Wong B, Serhatkulu G, Shakesheff K, Howdle S. Plasticization and spraying of poly (DL-lactic acid) using supercritical carbon dioxide: control of particle size. J Pharm Sci. 2004;93:1083-90 pubmed
    ..The influences of backpressure and saturation temperature on particle size for the sprayed products are discussed in terms of observed PDLLA/CO2 mixture viscosities. ..
  3. Barry J, Gidda H, Scotchford C, Howdle S. Porous methacrylate scaffolds: supercritical fluid fabrication and in vitro chondrocyte responses. Biomaterials. 2004;25:3559-68 pubmed
    ..However, further modifications in processing are necessary to determine optimum conditions for cartilage tissue formation. ..
  4. Ramírez P, Señoráns F, Ibáñez E, Reglero G. Separation of rosemary antioxidant compounds by supercritical fluid chromatography on coated packed capillary columns. J Chromatogr A. 2004;1057:241-5 pubmed
    ..compounds in rosemary extracts obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) were separated by supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) on packed capillary columns...
  5. Kraml C, Zhou D, Byrne N, McConnell O. Enhanced chromatographic resolution of amine enantiomers as carbobenzyloxy derivatives in high-performance liquid chromatography and supercritical fluid chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2005;1100:108-15 pubmed
    ..the resolution of chiral amine enantiomers using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC)...
  6. Ong T, Wang R, Muderawan I, Ng S. Synthesis and application of mono-6-(3-methylimidazolium)-6-deoxyperphenylcarbamoyl-beta-cyclodextrin chloride as chiral stationary phases for high-performance liquid chromatography and supercritical fluid chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2008;1182:136-40 pubmed publisher
    ..application in chiral stationary phases (CSPs) for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) are being reported...
  7. Emmett M, Kazazic S, Marshall A, Chen W, Shi S, Bolaños B, et al. Supercritical fluid chromatography reduction of hydrogen/deuterium back exchange in solution-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange with mass spectrometric analysis. Anal Chem. 2006;78:7058-60 pubmed
    ..In this report, supercritical fluid chromatography replaces HPLC as the desalting/separation technique prior to mass analysis, providing a dramatic ..
  8. Wang R, Ong T, Ng S. Synthesis of cationic beta-cyclodextrin derivatives and their applications as chiral stationary phases for high-performance liquid chromatography and supercritical fluid chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2008;1203:185-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The performances of these CSPs are studied on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) using 18 racemic aryl alcohols as test analytes...
  9. Della Porta G, De Vittori C, Reverchon E. Supercritical assisted atomization: a novel technology for microparticles preparation of an asthma-controlling drug. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2005;6:E421-8 pubmed
    ..0 microm was calculated for the jet-milled drug. SAA samples also exhibited narrower particle size distribution (PSD). A good control of particle size and distribution together with no drug degradation was obtained by SAA process. ..

More Information


  1. Lin R, Tavlarides L. Determination of diffusion coefficients by supercritical fluid chromatography: Effects of mobile phase mean velocity and column orientation. J Chromatogr A. 2010;1217:4454-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the horizontal orientation of a diffusion column is recommended for diffusion coefficient measurements by the SCF chromatographic technique, especially when densities of SCFs are relatively low. ..
  2. Pirzada Z, Personick M, Biba M, Gong X, Zhou L, Schafer W, et al. Systematic evaluation of new chiral stationary phases for supercritical fluid chromatography using a standard racemate library. J Chromatogr A. 2010;1217:1134-8 pubmed publisher
    A systematic approach to the evaluation of new chiral stationary phases (CSPs) for supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) using a standard library of racemic analytes is described...
  3. Che G, Pang H, Liao B, Zhang J, Liu J. [Analysis of the volatile components in lavender from supercritical CO2 extraction by GC-MS]. Se Pu. 2005;23:322 pubmed
  4. Irvan -, Hasanudin U, Faisal M, Daimon H, Fujie K. Application of modified supercritical carbon dioxide extraction to microbial quinone analysis. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2006;69:506-9 pubmed
    ..The diversity index of quinone and the number of quinone species using methanol-modified scCO2 were similar to that of the conventional method (organic solvent extraction). ..
  5. West C, Bouet A, Gillaizeau I, Coudert G, Lafosse M, Lesellier E. Chiral separation of phosphine-containing alpha-amino acid derivatives using two complementary cellulosic stationary phases in supercritical fluid chromatography. Chirality. 2010;22:242-51 pubmed publisher
    Enantiomeric separations of six amino-acid derivatives have been studied using packed-column supercritical fluid chromatography with two polysaccharide-based enantioselective stationary phases: cellulose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) ..
  6. Elektorowicz M, El Sadi H, Ayadat T. Modeling of supercritical fluid extraction of phenanthrene from clayey soil. J Sep Sci. 2008;31:1381-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The porous media analysis was performed with a microscope and by an image analysis. The proposed model compared well with the experimental data available in the literature. ..
  7. Ocaña Fuentes A, Arranz Gutiérrez E, Señorans F, Reglero G. Supercritical fluid extraction of oregano (Origanum vulgare) essentials oils: anti-inflammatory properties based on cytokine response on THP-1 macrophages. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:1568-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These results may suggest an anti-inflammatory effect of oregano extracts and their compounds in a cellular model of atherosclerosis...
  8. Vial J, Thiébaut D, Sassiat P, Beldean Galea M, Gomez Ramos M, Cognon G, et al. Comprehensive two-dimensional GC of supercritical fluid and pressurized liquid extracts of tobaccos. J Chromatogr Sci. 2010;48:267-73 pubmed
    ..The developed methodology is applied not only to compare the three main types of tobaccos but also to discriminate between different tobaccos of the same type. ..
  9. Díaz Maroto M, Díaz Maroto Hidalgo I, Sánchez Palomo E, Pérez Coello M. Volatile components and key odorants of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) oil extracts obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction and supercritical fluid extraction. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:5385-9 pubmed
    ..Thymol and carvacrol, with oregano, thyme, and spicy notes, were identified as key compounds contributing to the aroma of thyme leaves. ..
  10. Strife R, Mangels M, Skare J. Separation and analysis of dimethylaniline isomers by supercritical fluid chromatography--electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2009;1216:6970-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The separation of all six DMA isomers by supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC), without derivatization, is reported within...
  11. Lee M, Uddin M, Chun B. Off-flavors removal and storage improvement of mackerel viscera by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. J Environ Biol. 2008;29:591-7 pubmed
    ..Also other significant off-flavors such as aldehydes, sulfur-containing compounds, ketones, acids or alcohols were removed by the extraction. ..
  12. Mendiola J, Marin F, Hernández S, Arredondo B, Señoráns F, Ibáñez E, et al. Characterization via liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector and tandem mass spectrometry of supercritical fluid antioxidant extracts of Spirulina platensis microalga. J Sep Sci. 2005;28:1031-8 pubmed
    ..Also, the structure of some phenolic compounds could be tentatively identified. The antioxidant activity of the extracts could be attributed to some of the above mentioned compounds. ..
  13. Yamini Y, Bahramifar N, Sefidkon F, Saharkhiz M, Salamifar E. Extraction of essential oil from Pimpinella anisum using supercritical carbon dioxide and comparison with hydrodistillation. Nat Prod Res. 2008;22:212-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The total amount of extractable substances obtained in SFE (7.5%) is higher than that obtained by hydrodistillation (3.1%) and SFE is faster than hydrodistillation method. ..
  14. Chattopadhyay P, Shekunov B, Yim D, Cipolla D, Boyd B, Farr S. Production of solid lipid nanoparticle suspensions using supercritical fluid extraction of emulsions (SFEE) for pulmonary delivery using the AERx system. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2007;59:444-53 pubmed
    ..e., greater than 90% of the aerosol mass resided in particles less than 3.5 mum aerodynamic diameter. ..
  15. Kawashima Y, York P. Drug delivery applications of supercritical fluid technology. Preface. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2008;60:297-8 pubmed
  16. Andersson S, Nelander H, Ohlén K. Preparative chiral chromatography and chiroptical characterization of enantiomers of omeprazole and related benzimidazoles. Chirality. 2007;19:706-15 pubmed
    ..Because of the lability of the compound in slightly acidic media, supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) could not be applied for a preparative scale separation of the enantiomers...
  17. Wang Z, Ma H. [Study on anti-cancer components of Fig residues with supper critical fluid CO2 extracting technique]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2005;30:1443-7 pubmed
    ..3% of the transplanted liver cancer in the mice. The method for extracting the anticancer active components of Fig Residues is stable and reasonable, and the extract from Fig Residues is of the anticancer effect. ..
  18. Tang W, Li D, Lv Y, Jiang J. Extraction and removal of caffeine from green tea by ultrasonic-enhanced supercritical fluid. J Food Sci. 2010;75:C363-8 pubmed publisher
  19. Campestrini S, Corvaja C, De Nardi M, Ducati C, Franco L, Maggini M, et al. Investigation of the inner environment of carbon nanotubes with a fullerene-nitroxide probe. Small. 2008;4:350-6 pubmed publisher
  20. Mather M, Brion M, White L, Shakesheff K, Howdle S, Morgan S, et al. Time-lapsed imaging for in-process evaluation of supercritical fluid processing of tissue engineering scaffolds. Biotechnol Prog. 2009;25:1176-83 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that time-lapsed imaging in combination with image processing is a convenient and powerful tool to provide insight into the scaffold fabrication process. ..
  21. Hassan H, Al Marzouqi A, Jobe B, Hamza A, Ramadan G. Enhancement of dissolution amount and in vivo bioavailability of itraconazole by complexation with beta-cyclodextrin using supercritical carbon dioxide. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2007;45:243-50 pubmed
  22. Bakhbakhi Y, Charpentier P, Rohani S. Experimental study of the GAS process for producing microparticles of beclomethasone-17,21-dipropionate suitable for pulmonary delivery. Int J Pharm. 2006;309:71-80 pubmed
    ..These results showed that the GAS process has the potential to produce steroid with powder properties suitable for inhalation therapy. ..
  23. Welch C, Biba M, Gouker J, Kath G, Augustine P, Hosek P. Solving multicomponent chiral separation challenges using a new SFC tandem column screening tool. Chirality. 2007;19:184-9 pubmed
    A tool for improved tandem column chiral supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) method development screening was prepared by modification of a commercial analytical SFC instrument with two different software-controllable, six position ..
  24. Marongiu B, Piras A, Porcedda S. Comparative analysis of the oil and supercritical CO(2) extract of Artemisia arborescens L. and Helichrysum splendidum (Thunb.) Less. Nat Prod Res. 2006;20:421-8 pubmed
    ..The HD oil of H. splendidum had a blue color due to the presence of guaiazulene (0.42% vs 0%), whereas the coloration of HD oil of A. arborecens was due to the high concentration of chamazulene (26.64% vs 3.37%). ..
  25. Meng J, Dong X, Zhou Y, Jiang Z, Leung K, Zhao Z. [Orthogonal experiment using SFE-CO2 in extraction of essential oil from fresh Houttuynia cordata and analysis of essential oil by GC-MS]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2007;32:215-7 pubmed
    ..38 chemical components were identified and the relative contents were quantified. The optimum preparative procedure is reliable and can guarantee the quality of essential oil. ..
  26. Hussein K, Türk M, Wahl M. Comparative evaluation of ibuprofen/beta-cyclodextrin complexes obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide and other conventional methods. Pharm Res. 2007;24:585-92 pubmed
    ..6 +/-2.54%). This study presents the CPD-technique as a well suitable method to prepare a drug/beta-cyclodextrin complex with improved drug dissolution compared to the pure drug and materials obtained by other methods. ..
  27. Díaz Reinoso B, Moure A, Domínguez H, Parajó J. Supercritical CO2 extraction and purification of compounds with antioxidant activity. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:2441-69 pubmed
    ..The data are compared to those reported for synthetic antioxidants and natural extracts obtained by conventional solvent extraction from vegetal matrices. ..
  28. Toribio L, del Nozal M, Bernal Y, Alonso C, Jimenez J. Semipreparative chiral supercritical fluid chromatography in the fractionation of lansoprazole and two related antiulcer drugs enantiomers. J Sep Sci. 2008;31:1307-13 pubmed publisher
    ..chiral separation of lansoprazole and two related compounds (pantoprazole and rabeprazole) using supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is presented in this work...
  29. Létisse M, Comeau L. Enrichment of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid from sardine by-products by supercritical fluid fractionation. J Sep Sci. 2008;31:1374-80 pubmed publisher
    ..This work shows how green technologies, such as supercritical processes, can constitute a good alternative to the use of organic solvents in classical methods for valorisation of complex food industry waste. ..
  30. Vemavarapu C, Mollan M, Lodaya M, Needham T. Design and process aspects of laboratory scale SCF particle formation systems. Int J Pharm. 2005;292:1-16 pubmed
    ..The importance of each of these processes in tailoring the particle morphology is discussed in this article along with presenting various alternatives to perform these operations. ..
  31. Ramírez P, Santoyo S, García Risco M, Señoráns F, Ibáñez E, Reglero G. Use of specially designed columns for antioxidants and antimicrobials enrichment by preparative supercritical fluid chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2007;1143:234-42 pubmed
    ..been developed for fractionation of supercritical fluid extract of rosemary by using a preparative supercritical fluid chromatography system (Prep-SFC)...
  32. Collins N, Bridson R, Leeke G, Grover L. Particle seeding enhances interconnectivity in polymeric scaffolds foamed using supercritical CO(2). Acta Biomater. 2010;6:1055-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings of this study further establish supercritical fluid foaming as an important tool in scaffold production and show how a previous limitation can be overcome. ..
  33. Della Porta G, Reverchon E. Nanostructured microspheres produced by supercritical fluid extraction of emulsions. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2008;100:1020-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Drug release rate studies showed very uniform drug concentration profiles, without any burst effect, confirming a good dispersion of the drug into the polymer particles. ..
  34. Punín Crespo M, Lage Yusty M. Comparison of supercritical fluid extraction and Soxhlet extraction for the determination of aliphatic hydrocarbons in seaweed samples. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2006;64:400-5 pubmed
    ..n-Alkanes C18, C20, C22, C24, and C28 were found in all samples, with values lower than 7.9 microg g(-1) d.w. The total hydrocarbon content was within the range of 13.6-21.7 microg g(-1) d.w. C18 was found to be the most abundant. ..
  35. Xiang Y, Sluggett G. Development and validation of a GC method for quantitative determination of enantiomeric purity of a proline derivative. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2010;53:878-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared to the enantioselective HPLC and SFC methods, the enantioselective GC method is advantageous because of its high efficiency and high sensitivity. ..
  36. Lojková L, Sedlakova J, Kubán V. A two-step supercritical fluid extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from roadside soil samples. J Sep Sci. 2005;28:2067-75 pubmed
    ..The results of the combined procedure are compared to the SFE procedure of the same untreated sample (difference less than 5%) and to the Soxhlet extraction. The extracts were analyzed using a GC with the flame ionization detection. ..
  37. Liu B, Jiang H, Shen B, Chang Y. Supercritical fluid extraction of sinomenine from Sinomenium acutum (Thumb) Rehd et Wils. J Chromatogr A. 2005;1075:213-5 pubmed
    ..Higher recoveries were obtained than extraction using methanol in Soxhlet extractor...
  38. Jovanović N, Gerich A, Bouchard A, Jiskoot W. Near-infrared imaging for studying homogeneity of protein-sugar mixtures. Pharm Res. 2006;23:2002-13 pubmed
    ..NIR imaging is a useful tool for studying the homogeneity of dried protein-sugar formulations. ..
  39. Zhou R, Wu J, Tong Q, Liu Y, Liu X. [Studies on volatile oil from Atractylodes macrocephala with different distill methods]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2008;31:229-32 pubmed
    ..The extraction rates is higher and the components are more with the method of SFE-CO2. ..
  40. El Hattab M, Culioli G, Piovetti L, Chitour S, Valls R. Comparison of various extraction methods for identification and determination of volatile metabolites from the brown alga Dictyopteris membranacea. J Chromatogr A. 2007;1143:1-7 pubmed
    ..The main chemical classes of compounds identified were C11 hydrocarbons for HD method, sesquiterpenes for FMAHD method and sulphur compounds for SFE method. ..
  41. Marongiu B, Maxia A, Piras A, Porcedda S, Tuveri E, Gonçalves M, et al. Isolation of Crithmum maritimum L. volatile oil by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and biological assays. Nat Prod Res. 2007;21:1145-50 pubmed
    ..All the oils exhibited significant antifungal activity against dermatophyte strains. The oil with the higher amount of dillapiole (64.2%) was the most active with MIC values ranging from 0.08-0.32 microL mL(-1). ..
  42. Xu Z, Wu J, Zhang Y, Hu X, Liao X, Wang Z. Extraction of anthocyanins from red cabbage using high pressure CO2. Bioresour Technol. 2010;101:7162-8 pubmed publisher
  43. Guo T, Chen J. [The process study on the extraction of irone by supercritical fuilds extraction]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2004;27:768-70 pubmed
    ..The best SFE conditions were: 0.411 mm raw material powder of Iris tectorum, 3% CHCl3 as modifier, temperature of extraction 50 degrees C under the pressure of 25 MPa, with CO2 flow rate of 120L/h, the static extracting time 2 h. ..
  44. Song S, Jia X, Chen Y, Wang L, Feng L. [Conditions for extraction of ergosterol from fruits of Ganoderma lucidum using supercritical fluid extration]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2009;34:1783-5 pubmed
    ..5 hour of extraction time. SFE has the superiority of adjustable polarity, and has the ability of extracting ergosterol from fruits of Ganoderma lucidum. ..
  45. Song S, Jia X, Chen Y, Chen B, Wang L, Zhao C. [Extraction of triterpenoids from fruiting [corrected] bodies of Ganoderma lucidum by supercritical fluid extraction]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2008;33:2104-7 pubmed
    ..5 hour, and the ethanol was employed as modifier carrier at the volume of 3 mL x g(-1). SFE is superior and it is feasible to extract triterpenoids from fruits of Ganoderma lucidum. ..
  46. Chikushi H, Hirota K, Yoshida N, Edamura T, Toda K. Simple water analysis of golf link pesticides by means of batch-wise adsorption and supercritical fluid extraction. Talanta. 2009;80:738-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The procedure of the proposed method was simpler than the conventional solid-phase extraction method. Finally, the method presented here was used to identify pesticides present in actual wastewater from golf links. ..
  47. Duarte A, Gordillo M, Cardoso M, Simplicio A, Duarte C. Preparation of ethyl cellulose/methyl cellulose blends by supercritical antisolvent precipitation. Int J Pharm. 2006;311:50-4 pubmed
    ..The microspheres were precipitated from a mixture of dichloromethane (DCM) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) (4:1 ratio). The best process conditions for this mixture were according to our study 40 degrees C and 80 bar. ..
  48. Mangelings D, Vander Heyden Y. Chiral separations in sub- and supercritical fluid chromatography. J Sep Sci. 2008;31:1252-73 pubmed publisher
    Sub- and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) received more and more attention in pharmaceutical analysis during the last years. Especially for chiral separations, this technique is becoming increasingly popular...
  49. Kawashima A, Iwakiri R, Honda K. Experimental study on the removal of dioxins and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) from fish oil. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:10294-9 pubmed
    ..A combination of both of these methods is more effective, and almost 100% of the total toxicity equivalence quantity value could be reduced. ..
  50. Peper S, Johannsen M, Brunner G. Preparative chromatography with supercritical fluids. Comparison of simulated moving bed and batch processes. J Chromatogr A. 2007;1176:246-53 pubmed
    ..In this contribution a comparison between the Batch-supercritical fluid chromatography (Batch-SFC) process and the simulated moving bed (SMB)-SFC process is presented...
  51. Delattre L. [Pharmaceutical applications of supercritical carbon dioxide]. Ann Pharm Fr. 2007;65:58-67 pubmed
    ..There are also future prospects for the use of pressurized carbon dioxide as a sterilizing agent. ..
  52. Wenda C, Rajendran A. Enantioseparation of flurbiprofen on amylose-derived chiral stationary phase by supercritical fluid chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2009;1216:8750-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of the enantiomers of flurbiprofen on an amylose-derived chiral stationary phase, Chiralpak AD-H, by supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) under both linear and non-linear conditions is studied...
  53. García Rodríguez D, Carro Díaz A, Lorenzo Ferreira R. Supercritical fluid extraction of polyhalogenated pollutants from aquaculture and marine environmental samples: a review. J Sep Sci. 2008;31:1333-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The most recent SFE applications to the determination of these pollutants in marine environmental (biota and sediment) samples, published in the last 15 years, are reviewed. ..