micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography

Summary

Summary: A hybrid separation technique combining both chromatographic and electrophoretic separation principles. While the method was invented to separate neutral species, it can also be applied to charged molecules such as small peptides.

Top Publications

  1. Wang S, Chen X, Hu Z, Ju Y. Analysis of three effective components in Fructus corni and its preparations by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. Biomed Chromatogr. 2003;17:306-11 pubmed
    An efficient micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography method was developed to analyze three major active components including morroniside, loganin and gallic acid in Fructus corni and its six preparations for the first time...
  2. Injac R, Kac J, Kreft S, Strukelj B. Determination of doxycycline in pharmaceuticals and human urine by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2007;387:695-701 pubmed
    b>Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) was performed at 25 degrees C and 30 kV (under a pressure of 15 mbar), using 30 mM borate buffer containing 60 mM sodium dodecysulfate (SDS) and 5% (v/v) methanol as background ..
  3. Wu X, Wu W, Zhang L, Xie Z, Qiu B, Chen G. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography for fast separation and sensitive determination of melatonin and related indoleamines using end-column amperometric detection. Electrophoresis. 2006;27:4230-9 pubmed
    ..A very simple sample pretreatment procedure, merely involving the homogenization step in perchloric acid, was enough to achieve recoveries in the range of 71 to 127% for all the analytes in the pineal gland. ..
  4. Pérez M, Rodríguez L, Cruces Blanco C. Analysis of different beta-lactams antibiotics in pharmaceutical preparations using micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2007;43:746-52 pubmed
    The potential of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) for analyzing nine beta-lactams antibiotics (cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, oxacillin, penicillin G, penicillin V, ampicillin, nafcillin, piperacillin, amoxicillin) in ..
  5. Jiang L, Fang G, Zhang Y, Cao G, Wang S. Analysis of flavonoids in propolis and Ginkgo biloba by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:11571-7 pubmed publisher
    A micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) method has been developed for simultaneous determination of 10 bioactive flavonoids: rutin, apigenin, luteolin, eriodictyol, kaempferol, chrysin, acacetin, flavanone, flavone, and ..
  6. Cesla P, Fischer J, Jandera P. Separation of phenolic acids and flavone natural antioxidants by two-dimensional method combining liquid chromatography and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. Electrophoresis. 2010;31:2200-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The 2-D method under optimized conditions was applied for the separation of natural antioxidants in the samples of green tea. ..
  7. Ganzera M, Egger C, Zidorn C, Stuppner H. Quantitative analysis of flavonoids and phenolic acids in Arnica montana L. by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. Anal Chim Acta. 2008;614:196-200 pubmed publisher
    ..For the simultaneous determination of compounds belonging to the latter two groups a micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) method was developed and validated...
  8. Zhao J, Yang G, Liu H, Wang D, Song X, Chen Y. Determination of andrographolide, deoxyandrographolide and neoandrographolide in the Chinese herb Andrographis paniculata by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. Phytochem Anal. 2002;13:222-7 pubmed
    ..The MEKC method is demonstrated to be more appropriate for the analysis of the active compounds in A. paniculata in that it is easier and less expensive to use and does not suffer from contamination of the chromatographic column. ..
  9. Suomi J, Siren H, Jussila M, Wiedmer S, Riekkola M. Determination of iridoid glycosides in larvae and adults of butterfly Melitaea cinxia by partial filling micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography-electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2003;376:884-9 pubmed
    ..1% of the samplés dry mass. A correlation was noticed between the concentrations of iridoid glycosides in plants and the concentrations in larvae feeding on them. ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Bellostas N, Sørensen J, Sørensen H. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography--synchronous monitoring of substrate and products in the myrosinase catalysed hydrolysis of glucosinolates. J Chromatogr A. 2006;1130:246-52 pubmed
    A micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) method has been developed for monitoring the myrosinase catalysed hydrolysis of 2-hydroxy substituted glucosinolates and the simultaneous formation of the corresponding degradation ..
  2. Xiong G, Chen Y, Arriaga E. Measuring the doxorubicin content of single nuclei by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with laser-induced fluorescence detection. Anal Chem. 2005;77:3488-93 pubmed
    ..with a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) containing buffer, their contents were then separated by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography using the same lysing buffer, and the DOX content was detected by laser-induced fluorescence...
  3. Segura Carretero A, Cruces Blanco C, Cortacero Ramírez S, Carrasco Pancorbo A, Fernandez Gutierrez A. Application of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography to the analysis of uncharged pesticides of environmental impact. J Agric Food Chem. 2004;52:5791-5 pubmed
    ..These compounds were separated in <10 min by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC). MEKC was performed in 30 mM ammonium chloride/ammonia buffer (pH 9...
  4. Van Dyck S, Van Schepdael A, Hoogmartens J. Kinetic study of gamma-glutamyltransferase activity by electrophoretically mediated microanalysis combined with micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. Electrophoresis. 2002;23:2854-9 pubmed
    ..With the developed in-capillary activity assay an average Michaelis constant (K(M)) for GGT was calculated to be 2.09 mM (RSD = 7.3%, n = 3), a value consistent with previously reported values. ..
  5. Li D, Sun L, Chen Z, He X, Lin B. Survey of the distribution of red tide toxins (okadaic acid and dinophytoxin-1) in the Dalian Bay sea area of China by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. Electrophoresis. 2001;22:3583-8 pubmed
    ..diarrhoetic shellfish toxins, okadaic acid (OA) and dinophytoxin-1 (DTX-1) were determined by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) with ultraviolet detection. A detection limit of 3...
  6. Suomi J, Wiedmer S, Jussila M, Riekkola M. Analysis of eleven iridoid glycosides by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) and screening of plant samples by partial filling (MECC)-electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2002;970:287-96 pubmed
    ..salts of dodecyl sulfate studied as surfactants in the separation of iridoid glycosides by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC), the last one gave the best results...
  7. Pomilio A, Trajtemberg S, Vitale A. High-performance capillary electrophoresis analysis of mate infusions prepared from stems and leaves of Ilex paraguariensis using automated micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. Phytochem Anal. 2002;13:235-41 pubmed
    ..The importance of these results with respect to gastrointestinal disorders which have been observed by habitual consumers of mate are discussed. ..
  8. Liu B, Zhong X, Lu Y. Analysis of plant hormones in tobacco flowers by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography coupled with on-line large volume sample stacking. J Chromatogr A. 2002;945:257-65 pubmed
    b>Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography was developed to analyze plant hormones including gibberellic acid, abscisic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, kinetin-6-..
  9. Sevcíková P, Glatz Z, Slanina J. Analysis of artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L.) extract by means of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. Electrophoresis. 2002;23:249-52 pubmed
    ..The quantitative MEKC results were in good agreement to those obtained previously by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). ..
  10. Dadakova E, Procházková E, Krizek M. Application of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography for quantitative analysis of quercetin in plant materials. Electrophoresis. 2001;22:1573-8 pubmed
    ..and preconcentration on solid-phase extraction (SPE) column and a final analytical step using micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. The working range, linear range, the limit of quantification, and the measurement ..
  11. Suomi J, Wiedmer S, Jussila M, Riekkola M. Determination of iridoid glycosides by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography-mass spectrometry with use of the partial filling technique. Electrophoresis. 2001;22:2580-7 pubmed
    ..The method involved micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) coupled on-line to mass spectrometry...
  12. Suntornsuk L, Meyer T, Lindgren A, Frahm A. A micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography method for monitoring mycophenolic acid in serum of transplant recipients. Pharmazie. 2005;60:115-9 pubmed
    ..mofetil (MMF), was for the first time quantified in the serum of transplant recipients using micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC)...
  13. Sterbová H, Sevcíková P, Kvasnicková L, Glatz Z, Slanina J. Determination of lignans in Schisandra chinensis using micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. Electrophoresis. 2002;23:253-8 pubmed
    b>Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) has been developed as a promising method for the determination of lignans in plant samples...
  14. Deng Y, Wang H, Zhong L, Zhang H. Trace determination of short-chain aliphatic amines in biological samples by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with laser-induced fluorescence detection. Talanta. 2009;77:1337-42 pubmed publisher
    ..into their N-hydroxysuccinimidyl fluorescein-O-acetate (SIFA) derivatives and measured by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with laser-induced fluorescence detection...
  15. Sueyoshi K, Kitagawa F, Otsuka K. On-line sample preconcentration and separation technique based on transient trapping in microchip micellar electrokinetic chromatography. Anal Chem. 2008;80:1255-62 pubmed publisher
    ..0 s. These results clearly demonstrated that the tr-trapping technique in MCMEKC provides a rapid, high-resolution and detectability analysis even in the short separation channel on the microchips. ..
  16. Liu Q, Wu K, Tang F, Yao L, Yang F, Nie Z, et al. Amino acid ionic liquids as chiral ligands in ligand-exchange chiral separations. Chemistry. 2009;15:9889-96 pubmed publisher
    ..This work demonstrates that AAILs are good alternatives to conventional amino acid ligands for ligand-exchange-based chiral separation. It also reveals the tremendous application potential of this new type of task-specific ILs. ..
  17. Hou C, Herr A. Clinically relevant advances in on-chip affinity-based electrophoresis and electrochromatography. Electrophoresis. 2008;29:3306-19 pubmed publisher
    ..The techniques and devices promise to advance translation of until now laboratory-based sample preparation and analytical assays to near-patient settings. ..
  18. Ge L, Yong J, Tan S, Hua L, Ong E. Analyses of gibberellins in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water by partial filling-micellar electrokinetic chromatography-mass spectrometry with reversal of electroosmotic flow. Electrophoresis. 2008;29:2126-34 pubmed publisher
    ..GA1 and GA3 were successfully detected and quantified in CW. It is anticipated that the current PF-MEKC-MS method can be applicable to analyze GAs in a wide range of biological samples. ..
  19. Falk A, Green T, Barboza P. Quantitative determination of secondary metabolites in Cladina stellaris and other lichens by micellar electrokinetic chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2008;1182:141-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Recoveries of UA from spiked samples ranged from 92 to 98%. Amounts of UA and PA in the lichen samples ranged from 0.28 to 1.7% dry weight and 0.02 to 0.23%, respectively. ..
  20. Wu Y, Jiang Y, Liu J, Xiong K. Cloud point extraction combined with micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography determination of benzophenones in cosmetic matrix. Electrophoresis. 2008;29:819-26 pubmed publisher
    ..BP-2), and 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (BP-3) in sunscreen by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) combined with cloud point extraction (CPE). The analytes were extracted at pH 5...
  21. Song Y, Li P, Wang D, Cheng Y. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography for the quantitative analysis of flavonoids in the radix of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus. Planta Med. 2008;74:84-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The relative standard deviations (R.S.D.s) from intra-day and inter-day precision for injection were less than 4.42 %. Six plant samples from different locations were then analyzed for the flavonoids by this newly developed MEKC method. ..
  22. Weber C, Matingen S, Holzgrabe U. Batch variability of bacitracin: HPLC versus MEKC. Pharmeur Sci Notes. 2005;2005:47-51 pubmed
    ..Due to high amounts of bacitracin B1 and B3, one lot did not fit into either group. All lots met the requirements of the European Pharmacopoeia. ..
  23. Zhu J, Yu K, Chen X, Hu Z. Comparison of two sample preconcentration strategies for the sensitivity enhancement of flavonoids found in Chinese herbal medicine in micellar electrokinetic chromatography with UV detection. J Chromatogr A. 2007;1166:191-200 pubmed
    ..The six analytes were baseline separated with sample matrix under the optimum ASIW-sweep-RMM conditions and the experimental results showed that preconcentration was well achieved after the dilution of sample solutions. ..
  24. Akbay C, Hoyos Y, Hooper E, Arslan H, Rizvi S. Cationic gemini surfactants as pseudostationary phases in micellar electrokinetic chromatography. Part I: effect of head group. J Chromatogr A. 2010;1217:5279-87 pubmed publisher
    ..It should be noted that with their large positive coefficient a values, G1 and G2 were found to be stronger HB acceptors than anionic and most of the cationic surfactants studied in the literature. ..
  25. Hassel M, Cornelius M, Vom Brocke J, Schmeiser H. Total nucleotide analysis of Hydra DNA and RNA by MEKC with LIF detection and 32P-postlabeling. Electrophoresis. 2010;31:299-302 pubmed publisher
    ..6 and 3.1%. Total Hydra RNA showed highest base levels for guanine (33%) and a level of 1.4% for pseudouracil. All values were in good agreement with those determined by the (32)P-postlabeling method...
  26. Liu Y, Wang N, Li F, Her G. A liquid-junction/low-flow interface for sensitivity improvement in micelle electrokinetic chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2009;1216:8671-5 pubmed publisher
    ..5 and pH 7.8, each selected to highlight the two mode of operation. ..
  27. Fatemi M, Shamseddin H, Malekzadeh H. Quantitative structure migration relationship modeling of migration factor for some benzene derivatives in micellar electrokinetic chromatography. J Sep Sci. 2009;32:1934-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparison between these values and other statistical parameters for these two models revealed that there were not any significant differences between ANN and MLR in prediction of solute migration factors in MEKC. ..
  28. Hoeman K, Culbertson C. A novel, environmentally friendly sodium lauryl ether sulfate-, cocamidopropyl betaine-, cocamide monoethanolamine-containing buffer for MEKC on microfluidic devices. Electrophoresis. 2008;29:4900-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Fast separations of BODIPY FL labeled amino acids yielded peaks with separation efficiencies greater than 100,000 in less than 20 s. ..
  29. Kahle K, Foley J. Two-chiral-component microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography-chiral surfactant and chiral oil: part 1. dibutyl tartrate. Electrophoresis. 2007;28:1723-34 pubmed
  30. Zhou L, Zhou X, Luo Z, Wang W, Yan N, Hu Z. In-capillary derivatization and analysis of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine by micellar electrokinetic chromatography with laser-induced fluorescence detection. J Chromatogr A. 2008;1190:383-9 pubmed publisher
    ..8 ng mL(-1) for E and 1.6 ng mL(-1) for PE, respectively. The method was validated in terms of precision, linearity, accuracy and successfully applied for the determination of the two alkaloids in ephedra herb and its preparations. ..
  31. Iadarola P, Ferrari F, Fumagalli M, Viglio S. Determination of amino acids by micellar EKC: recent advances in method development and novel applications to different matrices. Electrophoresis. 2008;29:224-36 pubmed
    ..Advantages of MEKC over other techniques for the amino acid analysis have been underlined. ..
  32. Li J, Jiang Y, Sun T, Ren S. Fast and simple method for assay of ciclopirox olamine by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2008;47:929-33 pubmed publisher
    ..and validated for the assay of ciclopirox olamine in pharmaceutical formulations using micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC)...
  33. Shen S, Li Y, Wakida S, Takeda S. Determination of adrenal steroids by microfluidic chip using micellar electrokinetic chromatography. Environ Monit Assess. 2009;153:201-8 pubmed publisher
    ..89 to 7.80 mg/l. The values of the relative standard deviation (RSD) were 0.98-1.34% for repetitive injection (n = 12) and the intraday and interday RSDs were below 6%. The highly stable response reflected the feasibility of this method. ..
  34. Jiang X, Wei W, Xia Z, Chen Z. [A novel microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography for measuring lipid-water partition coefficients of pharmaceuticals]. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2006;41:1020-4 pubmed
    ..The proposed method is simple, rapid, reproducible, and reliable with high measurement accuracy, which can be useful to estimate lipid-water partition coefficients of pharmaceuticals. ..
  35. Oszwałdowski S, Timerbaev A. An advanced application of the quantitative structure-activity relationship concept in electrokinetic chromatography of metal complexes. Electrophoresis. 2008;29:827-34 pubmed publisher
  36. Lokajová J, Hruska V, Tesarova E, Gas B. System peaks in micellar electrophoresis: I. Utilization of system peaks for determination of critical micelle concentration. Electrophoresis. 2008;29:1189-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The experimental work fully proved our model. A comparative electric current measurement was carried out. The proposed method seems to offer easier CMC determination as compared to the standard methods. ..
  37. Tzeng H, Chen J, Huang S, Wang Y, Yang C. Simultaneous determination of myo-inositol and scyllo-inositol by MEKC as a rapid monitoring tool for inositol levels. Electrophoresis. 2007;28:1221-8 pubmed
    ..The method was applied to analyze extracellular myo-inositol and glucose in the microdialysates from rat brain cortex of ischemia animal model and intracellular myo-inositol and scyllo-inositol in the rat brain extract. ..
  38. Cao J, Qi L, Liu E, Zhang W, Li P. Separation and on-line preconcentration by stacking and sweeping of charged analytes in the plant by microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography with nonionic surfactants. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2009;49:475-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, in comparison to the stacking method, the most apparent disadvantages of the sweeping method were the relatively high limits of detection and poor peak shapes. ..
  39. Okamoto Y, Ikawa Y, Kitagawa F, Otsuka K. Preparation of fritless capillary using avidin immobilized magnetic particles for electrochromatographic chiral separation. J Chromatogr A. 2007;1143:264-9 pubmed
    ..5% in the relative standard deviation and the capillary-to-capillary reproducibility was also acceptable in the prepared fritless capillaries. ..
  40. Zhu C, He X, Kraly J, Jones M, Whitmore C, Gomez D, et al. Instrumentation for medium-throughput two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection. Anal Chem. 2007;79:765-8 pubmed
    ..3 +/- 0.7 transfers in the CSE dimension and 0.46 +/- 0.25 s in the MECC dimension. The standard deviation in spot position was 1.8 +/- 1.2 transfers in the CSE dimension and 0.88 +/- 0.55 s in the MECC dimension. Spot capacity was 300. ..
  41. Rodríguez Gonzalo E, Ruano Miguel L, Carabias Martínez R. In-capillary microextraction using monolithic polymers: application to preconcentration of carbamate pesticides prior to their separation by MEKC. Electrophoresis. 2009;30:1913-22 pubmed publisher
  42. Stanley B, Mehr K, Kellock T, Van Hamme J, Donkor K. Separation and determination of closely related lantibiotics by micellar electrokinetic chromatography. J Sep Sci. 2009;32:2993-3000 pubmed publisher
    ..This method yielded satisfactory results, with quantitative recoveries of spiked lantibiotics in the three samples ranging from 86.1 to 99.6%. ..
  43. Shakalisava Y, Regan F. CE separation approaches for combinations of anthracyclines and taxanes. Electrophoresis. 2009;30:3110-3 pubmed publisher
    ..This separation approach could be highly beneficial for clinical analysis if applied with a sensitive detection system. MEKC and high-speed MEEKC methods were proven to show good potential in their application to plasma samples. ..
  44. Cucinotta V, Giuffrida A, Maccarrone G, Messina M, Puglisi A, Vecchio G. Synthesis and NMR characterization of beta-alanine-bridged hemispherodextrin, a very efficient chiral selector in EKC. Electrophoresis. 2007;28:2580-8 pubmed
    ..15 mM. The differences observed in the migration order among the different systems give suggestions about the mechanism of molecular recognition between the selector and the analytes. ..
  45. Liu L, Deng X, Chen X. Micelle to trapping solution stacking in micellar electrokinetic chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2010;1217:175-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Moore and Fengtongan capsules were finished under optimum conditions using the sample matrix containing 8.0mM SDS and TS containing 50mM H(3)PO(4)-55% (v/v) ethanol...
  46. Jiang T, Lv Z, Wang Y, Yue M. On-line concentration by field-enhanced sample injection with reverse migrating micelles in micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography for the analysis of coumarins from traditional Chinese medicine and human serum. Biomed Chromatogr. 2010;24:581-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The possibilities of using this method for the determination of three coumarins in spiked human serum were also tested. ..
  47. Wang X, Lu H, Lin X, Xie Z. Electrochromatographic characterization of methacrylate-based monolith with mixed mode of hydrophilic and weak electrostatic interactions by pressurized capillary electrochromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2008;1190:365-71 pubmed publisher
  48. Huang H, Hsieh S. Analyses of tobacco alkaloids by cation-selective exhaustive injection sweeping microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2007;1164:313-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, this proposed CSEI sweeping MEEKC method was applied successfully for the detection of the minor alkaloids nornicotine, anabasine and anatabine in tobacco products. ..
  49. Ortner K, Buchberger W, Himmelsbach M. Capillary electrokinetic chromatography of insulin and related synthetic analogues. J Chromatogr A. 2009;1216:2953-7 pubmed publisher
    ..2) was successfully employed for the hyphenation with a quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometer via a sheath-flow interface. In this case, detection limits at 10mg/L could be achieved. ..
  50. Liu F. Preconcentration and separation of neutral steroid analytes using a combination of sweeping micellar electrokinetic chromatography and a Au nanoparticle-coated solid phase extraction sorbent. J Chromatogr A. 2008;1215:194-202 pubmed publisher
    ..700-, 1090-, and 1100-fold, respectively, relative to those of the analytes that had not been subjected to preconcentration. ..
  51. Alzola R, Pons B, Bravo D, Arranz A. Determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography and HPLC-fluorescence detection: a comparative study. Environ Technol. 2008;29:1219-28 pubmed publisher
    Two different methods, based on micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC-DA) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorescence detection, were studied to separate and determine 12 polynuclear aromatic ..
  52. Drover V, Bottaro C. Determination of pharmaceuticals in drinking water by CD-modified MEKC: separation optimization using experimental design. J Sep Sci. 2008;31:3740-8 pubmed publisher
    ..7 min. Instrument LODs in the low milligram per litre range were obtained, and when combined with offline preconcentration by SPE, LODs were between 4 and 30 microg/L. ..
  53. Zhang R, Yuan C, Wang S. [Advances in new technique pseudophase biochromatography]. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2008;43:443-9 pubmed