flame ionization


Summary: Pyrolysis of organic compounds at the temperature of a hydrogen-air flame to produce ionic intermediates which can be collected and the resulting ion current measured by gas chromatography.

Top Publications

  1. Dodds E, McCoy M, Rea L, Kennish J. Gas chromatographic quantification of fatty acid methyl esters: flame ionization detection vs. electron impact mass spectrometry. Lipids. 2005;40:419-28 pubmed
    ..The capacity to combine spectrometric examination and quantitative determination advances GC-MS as a powerful alternative to GC-FID for FAME analysis. ..
  2. Wang J, Wang H, Duan C, Guan Y. Micro-flame ionization detector with a novel structure for portable gas chromatograph. Talanta. 2010;82:1022-6 pubmed publisher
    A micro-flame ionization detector (micro-FID) for portable gas chromatograph (GC) based on conventional mechanical fabrication techniques was developed and evaluated...
  3. Tranchida P, Presti M, Costa R, Dugo P, Dugo G, Mondello L. High-throughput analysis of bergamot essential oil by fast solid-phase microextraction-capillary gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. J Chromatogr A. 2006;1103:162-5 pubmed
    ..Finally, the selectivities of the 30 and 7 microm fibres were evaluated and, as expected, these were in good agreement. ..
  4. Sorenson W, Sullivan D. Determination of campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol in saw palmetto raw materials and dietary supplements by gas chromatography: single-laboratory validation. J AOAC Int. 2006;89:22-34 pubmed
    ..were derivatized to trimethylsilyl ethers and then quantified by gas chromatography with a hydrogen flame ionization detector. The presence of the phytosterols was detected at concentrations greater than or equal to 1...
  5. Saglik S, Tatar Ulu S. Development and validation of a new gas flame ionization detector method for the determination of finasteride in tablets. Anal Biochem. 2006;352:260-4 pubmed
    A simple, rapid, and sensitive method based on gas chromatography with flame ionization detection is described for the determination of finasteride in tablets...
  6. Es Haghi Z. Determination of widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in water samples by in situ derivatization, continuous hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. Anal Chim Acta. 2009;641:83-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The limits of detection were 1-2 ng L(-1). Repeatability of this method on an intra-day scale was 3.4-10.2% (RSD%). NSAIDs have been detected in several municipal wastewater samples, and the concentration range was 9.0-19.0 ng L(-1). ..
  7. Amorim L, Dimandja J, Cardeal Z. Analysis of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urine using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. J Chromatogr A. 2009;1216:2900-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The coefficient of variance was 3.8-12.8%. LOD was 0.03-0.18 microg/L, and LOQ was 0.1-0.5 microg/L. The mean recovery was 76%. The method was applied to the analysis of urine from smokers and non-smokers. ..
  8. Liu W, Ding B, Ruan X, Xu H, Yang J, Liu S. Analysis of free and conjugated phytosterols in tobacco by an improved method using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. J Chromatogr A. 2007;1163:304-11 pubmed
    An improved and simple method using capillary gas chromatography coupled with a flame ionization detection system (GC-FID) has been developed for quantitative analysis of free and conjugated phytosterols in tobacco...
  9. Oliveira I, Sousa A, Morais J, Ferreira I, Bento A, Estevinho L, et al. Chemical composition, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of three hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) cultivars. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46:1801-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Hazelnut extracts revealed a high antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria (MIC 0.1 mg/mL) showing a good bioactivity of these fruits...

More Information


  1. Zhao F, Meng Y, Anderson J. Polymeric ionic liquids as selective coatings for the extraction of esters using solid-phase microextraction. J Chromatogr A. 2008;1208:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..esters and fatty acid methyl esters from aqueous solution followed by gas chromatographic separation and flame ionization detection...
  2. Chen H, Wang Y, Jiang H, Zhao G. A novel method for determination and quantification of 4-methyloctanoic and 4-methylnonanoic acids in mutton by hollow fiber supported liquid membrane extraction coupled with gas chromatography. Meat Sci. 2012;92:715-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The method developed had low detection limits of 0.0007-0.0015 mg/kg, good linearity (R²>0.9956), reasonable recovery (88.54-122.13%), satisfactory intra-assay (7.83-9.73%) and inter-assay (15.68-16.14%) precision. ..
  3. Yuan C, Lin H, Lee W, Lin Y, Wu T, Chen K. A new alternative fuel for reduction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and particulate matter emissions from diesel engines. J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2007;57:465-71 pubmed
    ..Moreover, paraffinic fuel will likely be a new alternative fuel in the future. Using BP9505 instead of PDF decreased PM (22.8%), THC (13.4%), CO (25.3%), total PAHs (88.9%), and total BaPeq (88.1%) emissions significantly. ..
  4. Koca N, Rodriguez Saona L, Harper W, Alvarez V. Application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for monitoring short-chain free fatty acids in Swiss cheese. J Dairy Sci. 2007;90:3596-603 pubmed
    ..98, 0.95, and 0.92, respectively. Infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics accurately and precisely predicted the short-chain FFA content in Swiss cheeses and in the water-soluble fraction of the cheese. ..
  5. Xu Y, Liu Z, Park J, Clausen P, Benning J, Little J. Measuring and predicting the emission rate of phthalate plasticizer from vinyl flooring in a specially-designed chamber. Environ Sci Technol. 2012;46:12534-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The independently measured or calculated parameters were used to validate an SVOC emission model, with excellent agreement between model prediction and the observed gas-phase DEHP chamber concentrations. ..
  6. Ozbek N, Akman S. Method development for the determination of fluorine in toothpaste via molecular absorption of aluminum mono fluoride using a high-resolution continuum source nitrous oxide/acetylene flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Talanta. 2012;94:246-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the fluorine concentrations in several toothpaste samples were determined. The results found and given by the producers were not significantly different. The method was simple, fast, accurate and sensitive...
  7. Kallio M, Hyötyläinen T. Quantitative aspects in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2007;1148:228-35 pubmed
    ..In case of volume calibration, the most accurate results were obtained by external calibration for both cleaned and non-cleaned samples. ..
  8. Farajzadeh M, Mogaddam M, Aghdam A. Comparison of air-agitated liquid-liquid microextraction technique and conventional dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction for determination of triazole pesticides in aqueous samples by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. J Chromatogr A. 2013;1300:70-8 pubmed publisher
    ..hexaconazole, diniconazole, tebuconazole and triticonazole) in aqueous samples by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID)...
  9. Marsman J, Wildschut J, Mahfud F, Heeres H. Identification of components in fast pyrolysis oil and upgraded products by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and flame ionisation detection. J Chromatogr A. 2007;1150:21-7 pubmed
    ..Compared to GC-MS, 2D-GC-FID provides a fast overview of the various chemical compound classes present in the oils. ..
  10. Santos A, Vasconcelos T, Mateus E, Farrall M, Gomes da Silva M, Paiva M, et al. Characterization of the volatile fraction emitted by phloems of four pinus species by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2006;1105:191-8 pubmed
    ..flex solid-phase microextraction fiber and its contents analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography, using flame ionization and a non polar and chiral column phases...
  11. Hettinga K, de Bok F, Lam T. Short communication: Practical issues in implementing volatile metabolite analysis for identifying mastitis pathogens. J Dairy Sci. 2015;98:7906-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The complexity and cost of a GC-MS system are such that this limits the application of the method in practice for identification of mastitis-causing pathogens. ..
  12. Fardin Kia A, Handy S, Rader J. Characterization of pine nuts in the U.S. market, including those associated with "pine mouth", by GC-FID. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:2701-11 pubmed publisher
    ..S. market, including those associated with pine mouth, are mixtures of nuts from different Pinus species. ..
  13. de Blas M, Navazo M, Alonso L, Durana N, Iza J. Automatic on-line monitoring of atmospheric volatile organic compounds: gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection as complementary systems. Sci Total Environ. 2011;409:5459-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Results may also help to correct previously published VOC data with wrongly identified compounds by reprocessing raw chromatographic data. ..
  14. Simic M, Ajdukovic N, Veselinovic I, Mitrovic M, Djurendic Brenesel M. Endogenous ethanol production in patients with diabetes mellitus as a medicolegal problem. Forensic Sci Int. 2012;216:97-100 pubmed publisher
    ..For the HS-GS method cut-off level should be set at BAC<0.01mg/mL for the analytical parameters that were used in our experiments. ..
  15. Sousa J, Domingues V, Rosas M, Ribeiro S, Alvim Ferraz C, Delerue Matos C. Outdoor and indoor benzene evaluation by GC-FID and GC-MS/MS. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2011;46:181-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The samples were analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection (FID) and tandem mass spectrometric detection (MS/MS) (to confirm the identification of benzene in ..
  16. Quintelas C, Figueiredo H, Tavares T. The effect of clay treatment on remediation of diethylketone contaminated wastewater: uptake, equilibrium and kinetic studies. J Hazard Mater. 2011;186:1241-8 pubmed publisher
    ..XRD analysis was also performed. This study showed that the tested clays are very effective for the removal of diethylketone from industrial effluents. ..
  17. Dewil R, Appels L, Baeyens J, Buczynska A, Van Vaeck L. The analysis of volatile siloxanes in waste activated sludge. Talanta. 2007;74:14-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The validation procedure confirms the excellent recovery and repeatability of the proposed method. ..
  18. Wardlaw G, Arey J, Reddy C, Nelson R, Ventura G, Valentine D. Disentangling oil weathering at a marine seep using GC x GC: broad metabolic specificity accompanies subsurface petroleum biodegradation. Environ Sci Technol. 2008;42:7166-73 pubmed
    ..This study establishes GC x GC as a powerful technique for differentiating biological and physical weathering processes of complex mixtures at a molecular level. ..
  19. El Babili F, Bouajila J, Souchard J, Bertrand C, Bellvert F, Fouraste I, et al. Oregano: chemical analysis and evaluation of its antimalarial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities. J Food Sci. 2011;76:C512-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, ethyl acetate extract (30 mg/L) and ethanol extract (56 mg/L) showed activity against human breast cancer cells (MCF7). The oregano essential oil was considered to be nontoxic. ..
  20. Steinberg S, Emerson D. On-line dechlorination-hydrogenation of chlorinated paraffin mixtures using GC and GC/MS. Environ Monit Assess. 2012;184:2119-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We have modified and improved a previously published gas chromatography-flame ionization detector method that uses Pd catalyst held in the gas chromatograph injector to simultaneously dechlorinate ..
  21. Bergemalm Rynell K, Strandberg B, Andersson E, Sallsten G. Laboratory and field evaluation of a diffusive sampler for measuring halogenated anesthetic compounds. J Environ Monit. 2008;10:1172-8 pubmed
    ..Analysis and detection were performed using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC/FID)...
  22. Casale J, Colley V, LeGatt D. Determination of phenyltetrahydroimidazothiazole enantiomers (Levamisole/Dexamisole) in illicit cocaine seizures and in the urine of cocaine abusers via chiral capillary gas chromatography-flame-ionization detection: clinical and forensic perspective. J Anal Toxicol. 2012;36:130-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The toxicological and forensic aspects of these findings are discussed. ..
  23. Lu Y, Du S, Chen X, Li P, Zhai Y, Wu Q, et al. [Study on pharmacokinetics of borneol in rats injected with novel-xingnaojing by GC-FID]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2011;36:2200-2 pubmed
    ..00 +/- 15.85) mg x min x L(-1). The GC-FID method developed can be applied to determination and pharmacokinetics. The borneol in novel-Xingnaojing is distributed and metabolized fast after being administrated. ..
  24. Badawy A. The EZ:Faast family of amino acid analysis kits: application of the GC-FID kit for rapid determination of plasma tryptophan and other amino acids. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;828:153-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Limit of detection of AA is 1 ?M or less. The procedure has been validated and optimised for Trp and its main five brain uptake competitors. ..
  25. Sarantaridis D, Fowowe T, Caruana D. Electrochemistry in flames. Sci Prog. 2010;93:301-17 pubmed
    ..Due to their very interesting plasma properties, therefore, flames can be incorporated with already developed electrochemical methodologies and generate new research areas of great potential. ..
  26. Ochi H, Bamba T, Naito H, Iwatsuki K, Fukusaki E. Metabolic fingerprinting of hard and semi-hard natural cheeses using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector for practical sensory prediction modeling. J Biosci Bioeng. 2012;114:506-11 pubmed publisher
    Metabolic fingerprinting using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC/FID) was used to generate a practical metabolomics-based tool for quality evaluation of natural cheese...
  27. Tyburczy C, Delmonte P, Fardin Kia A, Mossoba M, Kramer J, Rader J. Profile of trans fatty acids (FAs) including trans polyunsaturated FAs in representative fast food samples. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:4567-77 pubmed publisher
  28. Lourenço A, Gominho J, Marques A, Pereira H. Reactivity of syringyl and guaiacyl lignin units and delignification kinetics in the kraft pulping of Eucalyptus globulus wood using Py-GC-MS/FID. Bioresour Technol. 2012;123:296-302 pubmed publisher
    ..S/G ratio ranged from 3 to 4.5 when pulp residual lignin was higher than 10%, decreasing rapidly to less than 1. The S/H was initially around 20 (until 15% residual lignin), decreasing to 4 when residual lignin was about 3%. ..
  29. Wewer V, Dormann P, Hölzl G. Analysis and quantification of plant membrane lipids by thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography. Methods Mol Biol. 2013;1009:69-78 pubmed publisher
  30. Kardani F, Daneshfar A, Sahrai R. Determination of ?-sitosterol and cholesterol in oils after reverse micelles with Triton X-100 coupled with ultrasound-assisted back-extraction by a water/chloroform binary system prior to gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Anal Chim Acta. 2011;701:232-7 pubmed publisher
    ..of Triton X-100 reverse micelles by a water/chloroform binary system and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) was developed for extraction and determination of ?-sitosterol and cholesterol in soybean ..
  31. Yamagaki T, Suzuki H, Tachibana K. Solid-phase fluorescence and ionization efficiency in negative-ion matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization of neutral oligosaccharides: interaction between beta-carboline matrix and ammonium salt. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2007;18:714-23 pubmed
    ..An N-acetyl glucosamine residue (GlcNAc) in lacto-N-tetraose promotes the generation of their chloride-anionized molecules, however, multi-GlcNAc residues in N-acetylchitooligosaccharides hinder it. ..
  32. Mubiru E, Shrestha K, Papastergiadis A, De Meulenaer B. Improved gas chromatography-flame ionization detector analytical method for the analysis of epoxy fatty acids. J Chromatogr A. 2013;1318:217-25 pubmed publisher
    ..A gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) equipped with a polar CP-Sil 88™ column was used...
  33. Cinelli G, Avino P, Notardonato I, Centola A, Russo M. Study of XAD-2 adsorbent for the enrichment of trace levels of phthalate esters in hydroalcoholic food beverages and analysis by gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization and ion-trap mass spectrometry detectors. Food Chem. 2014;146:181-7 pubmed publisher
    ..1) whereas the Limits of Quantification (LOQ) range between 2.42 and 5.03pg?L(-1) (RSD?8.9) whereas the infra-day and inter-day repeatabilities calculated as RSD for hydroalcoholic solutions, are between 6.5% and 13.7%. ..
  34. Komura H. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatographic analysis of commercial lemon-flavored beverages. J Sep Sci. 2006;29:2350-6 pubmed
    ..This was apparently related to the fact that the original formulation contained only a minute amount of the citral ingredient. ..
  35. Krzek J, Czekaj J, Rzeszutko W, Ekiert R. Validation of capillary gas chromatographic method for determination of bilobalide and ginkgolides A, B, C in Ginkgo biloba dry and liquid extracts. Acta Pol Pharm. 2007;64:303-10 pubmed
  36. Caldeira M, Rodrigues F, Perestrelo R, Marques J, Câmara J. Comparison of two extraction methods for evaluation of volatile constituents patterns in commercial whiskeys Elucidation of the main odour-active compounds. Talanta. 2007;74:78-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Ethyl octanoate followed by isoamyl acetate and isobutyl alcohol, were found the most potent odour-active compounds. ..
  37. Hodson L, Neville M, Chong M, Rogers I, Huda S, Freeman D, et al. Micro-techniques for analysis of human adipose tissue fatty acid composition in dietary studies. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2013;23:1128-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Samples sectioned for histology are also suitable. This provides further opportunities for multidisciplinary collaborations that may lead to a better application of dietary biomarkers. ..
  38. Ben Hsouna A, Ben Halima N, Abdelkafi S, Hamdi N. Essential oil from Artemisia phaeolepis: chemical composition and antimicrobial activities. J Oleo Sci. 2013;62:973-80 pubmed
    ..Essential oil obtained from Artemisia phaeolepis was analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 79 components representing 98...
  39. Harvey S, Wenzel T. Selective retention of explosives and related compounds on gas-chromatographic capillary columns coated with lanthanide(III) beta-diketonate polymers. J Chromatogr A. 2009;1216:6417-23 pubmed publisher
    ..e., cyclohexanone). Relative analyte retention on the La(dihed), Tb(dihed), and Eu(dihed) columns are discussed relative to Lewis acidity and solubility of the polymer in the azeotropic coating solution. ..
  40. Mills W, Grigg B, Offermann F, Gustin B, Spingarn N. Engineering case report. Toluene and methyl ethyl ketone exposure from a commercially available contact adhesive. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2012;9:D95-102 pubmed publisher
    ..The maximum 15-min average exposures were 233 ppm toluene and 85 ppm methyl ethyl ketone. ..
  41. Yang L, Li H, Zeng F, Liu Y, Li R, Chen H, et al. Determination of 49 organophosphorus pesticide residues and their metabolites in fish, egg, and milk by dual gas chromatography-dual pulse flame photometric detection with gel permeation chromatography cleanup. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:1906-13 pubmed publisher
    ..This quantitative method was highly sensitive and exact and could be applied to the accurate determination of organophosphorus contaminants in fish, egg, and milk. ..
  42. Junker R, Gershenzon J, Unsicker S. Floral odor bouquet loses its ant repellent properties after inhibition of terpene biosynthesis. J Chem Ecol. 2011;37:1323-31 pubmed publisher
  43. Neff J, Durell G. Bioaccumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in arctic amphipods in the oil development area of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. Integr Environ Assess Manag. 2012;8:301-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Offshore oil and gas exploration and development do not appear to be causing an increase in petroleum hydrocarbon contamination of the Beaufort Sea food web. ..
  44. Mitrevski B, Brenna J, Zhang Y, Marriott P. Application of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography to sterols analysis. J Chromatogr A. 2008;1214:134-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows that GCxGC-TOFMS yields high specificity for steroids derived from urine, with detection limits appropriate for use in doping control. ..
  45. Ma Q, Hamid N, Bekhit A, Robertson J, Law T. Evaluation of pre-rigor injection of beef with proteases on cooked meat volatile profile after 1 day and 21 days post-mortem storage. Meat Sci. 2012;92:430-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatments with bromelain, papain, ASP, actinidin, and KJ (except KJ 21 days) proteases resulted in flavour profiles closer to that of the control beef sample. ..
  46. Davarani S, Najarian A, Nojavan S, Tabatabaei M. Electromembrane extraction combined with gas chromatography for quantification of tricyclic antidepressants in human body fluids. Anal Chim Acta. 2012;725:51-6 pubmed publisher
    ..as model therapeutics, this proof-of-principle work combines EME with gas chromatography analysis employing a flame ionization detector (FID)...
  47. Nesterenko Malkovskaya A, Kirzhner F, Zimmels Y, Armon R. Eichhornia crassipes capability to remove naphthalene from wastewater in the absence of bacteria. Chemosphere. 2012;87:1186-91 pubmed publisher
    ..5-225 h). In conclusion, water hyacinth devoid rhizospheric bacteria reduced significantly naphthalene concentration in water, revealing a considerable plant contribution in the biodegradation process of this pollutant. ..
  48. Choi S, Gang G, Sawyer J, Johnson B, Kim K, Choi C, et al. Fatty acid biosynthesis and lipogenic enzyme activities in subcutaneous adipose tissue of feedlot steers fed supplementary palm oil or soybean oil. J Anim Sci. 2013;91:2091-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that palm oil supplementation promoted lipid synthesis in adipose tissue without depressing feed efficiency or increasing the palmitic acid content of beef. ..
  49. Shimizu M, Moriwaki J, Shiiba D, Nohara H, Kudo N, Katsuragi Y. Elimination of glycidyl palmitate in diolein by treatment with activated bleaching earth. J Oleo Sci. 2012;61:23-8 pubmed
    ..All the generated compounds were simple acylglycerols and glycerol. Therefore, ABE treatment could be useful for GE removal during the manufacture of edible oils. ..
  50. Riachi L, Abi Zaid I, Moreira R, De Maria C. Volatile composition of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) commercial teas through solid phase extraction. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2012;62:389-92 pubmed
    Volatiles from aqueous extract of peppermint commercial sachets were investigated through gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID) and GC/mass spectrometry (MS)...
  51. Carvalho C, Chagas A, Cotinguiba F, Furlan M, Brito L, Chaves F, et al. The anthelmintic effect of plant extracts on Haemonchus contortus and Strongyloides venezuelensis. Vet Parasitol. 2012;183:260-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the extracts of P. tuberculatum, L. sidoides and M. piperita have effective activity when tested in vitro, but the doses of the extract of P. tuberculatum have no effect when employed in in vivo tests. ..
  52. Koziel J, Haddadi S, Koch W, Pawliszyn J. Sampling and analysis of nanoparticles with cold fibre SPME device. J Sep Sci. 2009;32:1975-80 pubmed publisher
    ..by using carbon dioxide-cooled micro tubing to collect the nanosize DEHS particles followed by analyses on GC-flame ionization detector (FID). Particle size ranged from 150 to 590 nm...
  53. Jacobson D, Monforte A, Silva Ferreira A. Untangling the chemistry of port wine aging with the use of GC-FID, multivariate statistics, and network reconstruction. J Agric Food Chem. 2013;61:2513-21 pubmed publisher
    ..data structure depends on the characteristics of the detector used, univariate for devices such as a flame ionization detector (FID) or multivariate for mass spectroscopy (MS)...