chemical fractionation


Summary: Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Vandendriessche T, Olamendi Portugal T, Zamudio F, Possani L, Tytgat J. Isolation and characterization of two novel scorpion toxins: The alpha-toxin-like CeII8, specific for Na(v)1.7 channels and the classical anti-mammalian CeII9, specific for Na(v)1.4 channels. Toxicon. 2010;56:613-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Since these effects have also been reported for the beta-toxin CssIV, the bioactive surfaces of the toxins have been compared to each other. ..
  2. Ramos Payán M, Bello López M, Fernández Torres R, Callejón Mochón M, Gómez Ariza J. Application of hollow fiber-based liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) for the determination of acidic pharmaceuticals in wastewaters. Talanta. 2010;82:854-8 pubmed publisher
    ..8 microm C18 column that allows high resolution using low flow-rates and, simultaneously, short retention times. Detection limits were 20, 100 and 300 ng L(-1) for salicylic acid, diclofenac and ibuprofen, respectively. ..
  3. Masson P, Alves A, Ebbels T, Nicholson J, Want E. Optimization and evaluation of metabolite extraction protocols for untargeted metabolic profiling of liver samples by UPLC-MS. Anal Chem. 2010;82:7779-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The generic nature of this protocol facilitates its application to other tissues, for example, brain or lung, enhancing its utility in clinical and toxicological studies. ..
  4. Guhr T, Bloem J, Derksen N, Wuhrer M, Koenderman A, Aalberse R, et al. Enrichment of sialylated IgG by lectin fractionation does not enhance the efficacy of immunoglobulin G in a murine model of immune thrombocytopenia. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21246 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that SNA lectin fractionation is not a suitable method to enrich IVIg for Fc-sialylated IgG. The use of IVIg enriched for Fab-sialylated IgG abolishes the efficacy of IVIg in the murine PIT model. ..
  5. Pizarro C, Saenz González C, Pérez Del Notario N, González Sáiz J. Optimisation of a sensitive method based on ultrasound-assisted emulsification-microextraction for the simultaneous determination of haloanisoles and volatile phenols in wine. J Chromatogr A. 2012;1244:37-45 pubmed publisher
    ..To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that USAEME has been applied to simultaneously determine the compounds responsible for cork taint and Brett character in wine. ..
  6. Zhang Y, Lee H. Application of ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction based on applying low-density organic solvent for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in water samples. J Chromatogr A. 2012;1252:67-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The proposed method provides a simple, convenient, rapid, sensitive, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly process for the determination of OCPs in water samples. ..
  7. Turiel E, Martin Esteban A. Molecularly imprinted polymers for sample preparation: a review. Anal Chim Acta. 2010;668:87-99 pubmed publisher
    ..The advantages and drawbacks of each methodology as well as the future expected trends are discussed. ..
  8. Hoang A, Vo H, Vo N, Kudryashova K, Nekrasova O, Feofanov A, et al. Vietnamese Heterometrus laoticus scorpion venom: evidence for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity and isolation of new polypeptide toxin acting on Kv1.3 potassium channel. Toxicon. 2014;77:40-8 pubmed publisher
    ..1 and Kv1.3 potassium channels was studied. Hetlaxin belongs to the scorpion alpha-toxin family and is the first toxin isolated from H. laoticus venom which possesses high affinity (K(i) 59 nM) to Kv1.3 potassium channel. ..
  9. Moore J, Nguema Ona E, Fangel J, Willats W, Hugo A, Vivier M. Profiling the main cell wall polysaccharides of grapevine leaves using high-throughput and fractionation methods. Carbohydr Polym. 2014;99:190-8 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Samavati V, Adeli M. Isolation and characterization of hydrophobic compounds from carbohydrate matrix of Pistacia atlantica. Carbohydr Polym. 2014;101:890-6 pubmed publisher
    ..A comparison between seed oil composition extracted by ultrasonic waves under the optimum operating conditions determined by RSM for oil yield and by organic solvent was reported. ..
  2. Leite M, Lasekan J, Baggs G, Ribeiro T, Menezes Filho J, Pontes M, et al. Calcium and fat metabolic balance, and gastrointestinal tolerance in term infants fed milk-based formulas with and without palm olein and palm kernel oils: a randomized blinded crossover study. BMC Pediatr. 2013;13:215 pubmed publisher
    ..Study suggested formula fat differences may affect GI function in infants. ..
  3. Chen L, Li R, Ren X, Liu T. Improved aqueous extraction of microalgal lipid by combined enzymatic and thermal lysis from wet biomass of Nannochloropsis oceanica. Bioresour Technol. 2016;214:138-143 pubmed publisher
    ..The advantage of this method is to efficiently extract lipids from high moisture content algal biomass and avoid using organic solvent, indicating immense potential for commercial microalgae-based biofuel production. ..
  4. Wang S, Yi L, Ye L, Cao J, Du L, Peng L, et al. Microwave-assisted micellar extraction of organic and inorganic iodines using zwitterionic surfactants. J Chromatogr A. 2017;1509:50-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the combination of zwitterionic surfactant-MAE and UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS made up a simple, rapid and effective approach for extraction and determination of iodine compounds in complex seaweed materials. ..
  5. Horta C, Rezende B, Oliveira Mendes B, Carmo A, Capettini L, Silva J, et al. ADP is a vasodilator component from Lasiodora sp. mygalomorph spider venom. Toxicon. 2013;72:102-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the results of the present work indicate that ADP is a main vasodilator component of Lasiodora sp. spider venom. ..
  6. Norambuena L, Gras N, Contreras S. Development and validation of a method for the simultaneous extraction and separate measurement of oxytetracycline, florfenicol, oxolinic acid and flumequine from marine sediments. Mar Pollut Bull. 2013;73:154-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The calibration curves were linear between 50 and 500 ng/ml for oxytetracycline and florfenicol and 1 and 20 ng/ml for oxolinic acid and flumequine. The recuperation rate for the analytes was above 86%. ..
  7. Tamayo Tenorio A, Gieteling J, de Jong G, Boom R, van der Goot A. Recovery of protein from green leaves: Overview of crucial steps for utilisation. Food Chem. 2016;203:402-408 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the extraction of this protein will require prevention of their co-precipitation, and should take place in the original juice solution. ..
  8. Vorup Jensen T. Challenges and opportunities in fractionation of recombinant human mannan-binding lectin. Methods Mol Biol. 2014;1100:109-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, a well-established procedure for estimating the MBL protein concentration is detailed. ..
  9. Phongthai S, D Amico S, Schoenlechner R, Homthawornchoo W, Rawdkuen S. Fractionation and antioxidant properties of rice bran protein hydrolysates stimulated by in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Food Chem. 2018;240:156-164 pubmed publisher
    ..831). A major peptide fragment was detected at m/z 1088 by a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. There is high potential that antioxidative peptides from rice bran might also be produced in the gastrointestinal tract of the human body. ..
  10. Cox S, Chelliah M, McKinley J, Palmer S, Ofterdinger U, Young M, et al. The importance of solid-phase distribution on the oral bioaccessibility of Ni and Cr in soils overlying Palaeogene basalt lavas, Northern Ireland. Environ Geochem Health. 2013;35:553-67 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that weathering significantly affects nickel bioaccessibility, but does not have the same effect on the bioaccessibility of chromium. ..
  11. Naqvi M, Irani K, Katanishooshtari M, Rousseau D. Disorder in Milk Proteins: Formation, Structure, Function, Isolation and Applications of Casein Phosphopeptides. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2016;17:368-79 pubmed
    ..The mechanism of this enhancement has yet to be determined. We review the current state of their structure, function, and isolation of these peptides. ..
  12. Ahn J, Mo E, Jo Y, Kim S, Hwang B, Lee M. Variation of loganin content in Cornus officinalis fruits at different extraction conditions and maturation stages. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2017;81:1973-1977 pubmed publisher
    ..3 ?g/mg extract for ripe fruits. Taken together, our present study suggested the importance of extraction condition and maturation stages for efficient preparation of loganin from C. officinalis fruits. ..
  13. Pradhan S, Kauppinen A, Martikainen K, Pitkänen T, Kusnetsov J, Miettinen I, et al. Microbial reduction in wastewater treatment using Fe(3+) and Al(3+) coagulants and PAA disinfectant. J Water Health. 2013;11:581-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, PIX and PAX flocculants followed by PAA disinfectant can be used as a tertiary treatment for municipal WWTP effluents to reduce the numbers of indicator and pathogenic microorganisms. ..
  14. Kinde T, Dutta D. A microfluidic SPLITT device for fractionating low-molecular weight samples. Anal Chem. 2013;85:7167-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Product purity greater than 95% has been accomplished using the SPLITT system presented here for a sample of peptides having the same electrical polarity. ..
  15. Zang F, Wang S, Nan Z, Ma J, Li Y, Zhang Q, et al. Immobilization of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in mine drainage stream sediment using Chinese loess. Chemosphere. 2017;181:83-91 pubmed publisher
    ..5, 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 kg, respectively) compared to the initial organic matter content in the unamended sediment, which may increase the atmospheric carbon dioxide owing to the degradation of organic matter. ..
  16. Carneiro P, Firmino P, Costa M, Lopes A, dos Santos A. Multivariate optimization of headspace-GC for the determination of monoaromatic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) in waters and wastewaters. J Sep Sci. 2014;37:265-71 pubmed publisher
    ..999 for each compound), and sensitivity, since very low LODs (0.13-0.48 ?g/L) and LOQs (0.43-1.61 ?g/L) were achieved. ..
  17. Benelli G, Conti B, Garreffa R, Nicoletti M. Shedding light on bioactivity of botanical by-products: neem cake compounds deter oviposition of the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the field. Parasitol Res. 2014;113:933-40 pubmed publisher
    ..albopictus since they are proved as rich in active metabolites, cheap, and really effective at low doses. ..
  18. Tomaz I, Maslov L, Stupić D, Preiner D, Asperger D, Karoglan Kontić J. Multi-response optimisation of ultrasound-assisted extraction for recovery of flavonoids from red grape skins using response surface methodology. Phytochem Anal. 2016;27:13-22 pubmed publisher
  19. Ma B, Zou Y, Xie X, Zhao J, Piao X, Piao J, et al. A high throughput mass spectrometry screening analysis based on two-dimensional carbon microfiber fractionation system. J Chromatogr A. 2017;1501:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..3 to 30ngmL-1, satisfactory recoveries (from 75.8 to 93.2%) and reproducibilities (relative standard deviations, RSDs, from 1.40 to 8.06%). ..
  20. Valledor L, Weckwerth W. An improved detergent-compatible gel-fractionation LC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS workflow for plant and microbial proteomics. Methods Mol Biol. 2014;1072:347-58 pubmed publisher
  21. Wu C, Zhang Z, Fei Y, Wu G, Qian Y. Mercury Fractionation in Superficial Sediment and Paddy Soil Samples from Tianjin, Northern China. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2016;97:225-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Higher soluble and exchangeable, specifically sorbed fraction and organic-bound fraction may promote the higher toxic methylmercury and bioavailable fraction formation in the soils during the rice cultivation. ..
  22. Kemppainen K, Rommi K, Holopainen U, Kruus K. Steam explosion of Brewer's spent grain improves enzymatic digestibility of carbohydrates and affects solubility and stability of proteins. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2016;180:94-108 pubmed publisher
    ..The process yielded three chemically different fractions which could serve as biorefinery products or intermediates. ..
  23. Kukula Koch W, Koch W, Angelis A, Halabalaki M, Aligiannis N. Application of pH-zone refining hydrostatic countercurrent chromatography (hCCC) for the recovery of antioxidant phenolics and the isolation of alkaloids from Siberian barberry herb. Food Chem. 2016;203:394-401 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, fractionation of alkaloids was achieved resulting isolation of pharmacologically important alkaloids: magnoflorine and berberine. ..
  24. Roszko M, Szymczyk K, Jedrzejczak R. Separation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans, non-ortho/mono/di/tri/tetra-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers groups of compounds prior to their determination with large volume injection gas chromatography-Qu. Anal Chim Acta. 2013;799:88-98 pubmed publisher
    ..The method statistical parameters were compatible with 1883/2006 EC Regulation (80-120%, RSD below 15%). The method performance was successfully used to evaluation of some real life food samples. ..
  25. Such Sanmartín G, Ventura Espejo E, Jensen O. Depletion of abundant plasma proteins by poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-acrylic acid) hydrogel particles. Anal Chem. 2014;86:1543-50 pubmed publisher
    ..This novel use of hydrogel particles opens new perspectives for biomarker analysis based on mass spectrometry. ..
  26. Füller T, de Lima J, de Costa F, Rodrigues Corrêa K, Fett Neto A. Stimulant Paste Preparation and Bark Streak Tapping Technique for Pine Oleoresin Extraction. Methods Mol Biol. 2016;1405:19-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we describe the methods for preparing the resin-stimulant paste with different adjuvants, as well as the bark streaking process in adult pine trees. ..
  27. Ekpo U, Ross A, Camargo Valero M, Fletcher L. Influence of pH on hydrothermal treatment of swine manure: Impact on extraction of nitrogen and phosphorus in process water. Bioresour Technol. 2016;214:637-644 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that operating hydrothermal treatment in the presence of acidic additives has benefits in terms of improving the extraction of phosphorus and nitrogen. ..
  28. Zhou X, Liu R, Ma X, Zhang Z. Polyethylene glycol as a novel solvent for extraction of crude polysaccharides from Pericarpium granati. Carbohydr Polym. 2014;101:886-9 pubmed publisher
    ..94 ± 0.3% (n=3) was obtained, which is about 25% higher than that with water as a solvent, and the polysaccharides content in pericarpium granati was 6.56 ± 0.01 mg/g expressed as glucose. ..
  29. Zhao J, Deng J, Chen Y, Li S. Advanced phytochemical analysis of herbal tea in China. J Chromatogr A. 2013;1313:2-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we summarized and discussed the recent development (2005-2012) in phytochemical analysis of herbal tea commonly used in China. ..
  30. Das P, Sarkar D, Makris K, Punamiya P, Datta R. Effectiveness of urea in enhancing the extractability of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene from chemically variant soils. Chemosphere. 2013;93:1811-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The data obtained from this batch study will facilitate the optimization of a chemically-catalyzed phytoremediation model for cleaning up TNT-contaminated soils. ..
  31. Martínez Aguilar J, Molloy M. Label-free selected reaction monitoring enables multiplexed quantitation of S100 protein isoforms in cancer cells. J Proteome Res. 2013;12:3679-88 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support the use of SRM to quantitate S100 protein isoforms as these are important players in a broad range of human diseases. ..
  32. Bonamigo T, Campos J, Oliveira A, Torquato H, Balestieri J, Cardoso C, et al. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of propolis of Plebeia droryana and Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae) from the Brazilian Cerrado biome. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183983 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, it is concluded that the propolis produced by P. droryana and A. mellifera contain important compounds capable of minimizing the action of oxidizing substances in the organism and reducing the viability of erythroleukemia cells. ..
  33. Liu T, Cao P, Geng J, Li J, Wang M, Wang M, et al. Determination of triazine herbicides in milk by cloud point extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography. Food Chem. 2014;142:358-64 pubmed publisher
    ..9999. The results demonstrated that the proposed method was efficient and reliable for the determination of triazine herbicides in milk samples. ..
  34. Singh V, Stoop M, Stingl C, Luitwieler R, Dekker L, van Duijn M, et al. Cerebrospinal-fluid-derived immunoglobulin G of different multiple sclerosis patients shares mutated sequences in complementarity determining regions. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2013;12:3924-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The indication of a shared fingerprint may indicate common antigens for B-cell activation. ..
  35. Christou A, Georgiadou E, Filippou P, Manganaris G, Fotopoulos V. Establishment of a rapid, inexpensive protocol for extraction of high quality RNA from small amounts of strawberry plant tissues and other recalcitrant fruit crops. Gene. 2014;537:169-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, this optimized protocol allows easy, rapid and economic isolation of high quality RNA from small amounts of an important fruit crop, such as strawberry, with extended applicability to other recalcitrant fruit crops. ..
  36. Chen S, Chen H, Tian J, Wang J, Wang Y, Xing L. Enzymolysis-ultrasonic assisted extraction, chemical characteristics and bioactivities of polysaccharides from corn silk. Carbohydr Polym. 2014;101:332-41 pubmed publisher
    ..52 × 10(4) and 6.88 × 10(4)Da, respectively. CSPS obtained by EUAE showed morphological and conformation changes and higher antioxidant and anticancer activities compared with CSPS extracted by hot water. ..
  37. Xiao H, Tsang S, Qin H, Choi F, Yang Z, Han Q, et al. A bioactivity-guided study on the anti-diarrheal activity of Polygonum chinense Linn. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;149:499-505 pubmed publisher
    ..Present study provides evidence of the utilization of Polygonum chinense L. for diarrhea, and ellagic acid and corilagin are two components contributing to the anti-diarrheal effect. ..
  38. Bicu I, Mustata F. Optimization of isolation of cellulose from orange peel using sodium hydroxide and chelating agents. Carbohydr Polym. 2013;98:341-8 pubmed publisher
    ..2%, EDTA charge 9.56%, and cooking time 317 min. The predicted cellulose yield was 24.06% and ash content 0.69%. A good agreement between the experimental values and the predicted was observed. ..
  39. Vieira C, Thomas O, Culioli G, Genta Jouve G, Houlbrèque F, Gaubert J, et al. Allelopathic interactions between the brown algal genus Lobophora (Dictyotales, Phaeophyceae) and scleractinian corals. Sci Rep. 2016;6:18637 pubmed publisher
    ..rarely bleached their coral hosts. These findings are important toward our understanding of the importance of allelopathy versus other processes such as herbivory in the interaction between macroalgae and corals in reef ecosystems. ..
  40. Devgan M, Nanda A, Ansari S. Comparative evaluation of the anti-diabetic activity of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. heartwood in alloxan induced diabetic rats using extracts obtained by optimized conventional and non conventional extraction methods. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2013;26:973-6 pubmed
    ..The antidiabetic activity of Pterocarpus marsupium can be enhanced by extracting the heartwood by non conventional method of UAE. ..
  41. von Son de Fernex E, Alonso Diaz M, Valles de la Mora B, Mendoza de Gives P, González Cortazar M, Zamilpa A. Anthelmintic effect of 2H-chromen-2-one isolated from Gliricidia sepium against Cooperia punctata. Exp Parasitol. 2017;178:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..After toxicity evaluations and in vivo assessment, 2H-chromen-2-one can be suggested as a novel AH-phytochemical for reducing larval density in pastures and worm burdens inside the host. ..
  42. Zou T, Wu H, Li H, Jia Q, Song G. Comparison of microwave-assisted and conventional extraction of mangiferin from mango (Mangifera indica L.) leaves. J Sep Sci. 2013;36:3457-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The results obtained are beneficial for the full utilization of mango leaves and also indicate that microwave-assisted extraction is a very useful method for extracting mangiferin from plant materials. ..
  43. Furtado A. RNA extraction from developing or mature wheat seeds. Methods Mol Biol. 2014;1099:23-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe a method to isolate large amount of good-quality RNA from developing and mature wheat grain which can also be adapted to other cereal grains. ..
  44. Qian Z. Cellulase-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Cucurbita moschata and their antibacterial activity. Carbohydr Polym. 2014;101:432-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The sugar content of the product was 68.3%, and the yield was 17.34% (w/w), respectively. The PP had high antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli at the concentration of 100 mg/mL. ..
  45. Prakash Maran J, Sivakumar V, Thirugnanasambandham K, Sridhar R. Microwave assisted extraction of pectin from waste Citrullus lanatus fruit rinds. Carbohydr Polym. 2014;101:786-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Lanatus fruit rinds (25.79%) were obtained with microwave power of 477 W, irradiation time of 128 s, pH of 1.52, solid-liquid ratio of 1:20.3g/ml respectively. Validation experiment results were well agreed with predicted value...
  46. Ju X, Grego C, Zhang X. Specific effects of fiber size and fiber swelling on biomass substrate surface area and enzymatic digestibility. Bioresour Technol. 2013;144:232-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Xylan is confirmed to facilitate substrate hydrolysability by swelling, while lignin restricts swelling effect and thus minimizes the enzyme accessibility to substrates. ..
  47. Chavez E, He Z, Stoffella P, Mylavarapu R, Li Y, Baligar V. Chemical speciation of cadmium: An approach to evaluate plant-available cadmium in Ecuadorian soils under cacao production. Chemosphere. 2016;150:57-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Since approximately 60% of Cd in the cacao-growing soils is related to the acid-soluble fraction and bound to organic matter, remediation of the contaminated soils should consider to the dynamics of soil pH and organic matter content. ..
  48. Zhu Z, Dong F, Liu X, Lv Q, YingYang -, Liu F, et al. Effects of extraction methods on the yield, chemical structure and anti-tumor activity of polysaccharides from Cordyceps gunnii mycelia. Carbohydr Polym. 2016;140:461-71 pubmed publisher
  49. Bornstein J, Adams J, Hollebone B, King T, Hodson P, Brown R. Effects-driven chemical fractionation of heavy fuel oil to isolate compounds toxic to trout embryos. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2014;33:814-24 pubmed publisher
    ..An effects-driven chemical fractionation was conducted on HFO 7102 to separate compounds with similar chemical and physical properties, including ..
  50. Dong Y, Pang B, Yu F, Li L, Liu W, Xiu Z. Extraction and purification of IgG by hydrophilic organic solvent salting-out extraction. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2016;1012-1013:137-43 pubmed publisher
    ..7% for IgG and 93.0% for albumin were achieved. In addition, some contaminating proteins were also removed by this system, which may provide a new alternative method for the separation and purification of immunoglobulin. ..
  51. Olaokun O, McGaw L, Janse van Rensburg I, Eloff J, Naidoo V. Antidiabetic activity of the ethyl acetate fraction of Ficus lutea (Moraceae) leaf extract: comparison of an in vitro assay with an in vivo obese mouse model. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016;16:110 pubmed publisher
    ..This is linked to increased glucose uptake within the cells, the most likely mechanism is either an increased insulin response or increased insulin secretion. ..
  52. Freude C, Blaser M. Carbon Isotope Fractionation during Catabolism and Anabolism in Acetogenic Bacteria Growing on Different Substrates. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2016;82:2728-2737 pubmed publisher
    ..4‰). In addition, we determined the fractionation into microbial biomass of T. kivui grown on H2/CO2(εanabol.= -28.6‰) as well as on glucose (εanabol.= +2.9‰). ..
  53. Agrawal R, Kumar B, Priyanka K, Narayan C, Shukla K, Sarkar J, et al. Micronutrient Fractionation in Coal Mine-Affected Agricultural Soils, India. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2016;96:449-57 pubmed publisher
    ..BCR fractionation of micronutrients showed that a single element could not reveal all types of chemical reactions occurring in soil consortium. ..