neutron activation analysis


Summary: Activation analysis in which the specimen is bombarded with neutrons. Identification is made by measuring the resulting radioisotopes. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Choudhury R, Kumar A, Garg A. Elemental characterization of trifala powders and tablets by instrumental neutron activation analysis, thermal analysis and spectral studies of gallic acid. J Herb Pharmacother. 2007;7:15-29 pubmed
    ..The elements were determined by employing instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS)...
  2. Avino P, Capannesi G, Renzi L, Rosada A. Instrumental neutron activation analysis and statistical approach for determining baseline values of essential and toxic elements in hairs of high school students. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2013;92:206-14 pubmed publisher
    ..A nuclear analytical technique, Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis, has been employed for determining such species...
  3. Zaichick S, Zaichick V. The effect of age and gender on 38 chemical element contents in human femoral neck investigated by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2010;137:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..85 apparently healthy 15-55-year-old women (n = 38) and men (n = 47) was investigated by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Mean values (M +/- SEpsilonMu) for mass fraction (on dry weight basis) of Ca, Cl, Co, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, ..
  4. Schmitt M, Schreinemachers D, Wu K, Ning Z, Zhao B, Le X, et al. Human nails as a biomarker of arsenic exposure from well water in Inner Mongolia: comparing atomic fluorescence spectrometry and neutron activation analysis. Biomarkers. 2005;10:95-104 pubmed
    ..A study was conducted to compare the total As measurements from two analytical techniques: instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS), and to verify nails as an exposure biomarker in this ..
  5. Zaichick V, Tzaphlidou M. Calcium and phosphorus concentrations and the calcium/phosphorus ratio in trabecular bone from the femoral neck of healthy humans as determined by neutron activation analysis. Appl Radiat Isot. 2003;58:623-7 pubmed
    ..the femoral neck of healthy humans, 34 women and 44 men, aged from 15 to 55 years, using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The mean values (M+/-SD) for the investigated parameters (on a dry-weight basis) were: 12.1+/-3.0%, 5...
  6. Bergamaschi L, Rizzio E, Valcuvia M, Verza G, Profumo A, Gallorini M. Determination of trace elements and evaluation of their enrichment factors in Himalayan lichens. Environ Pollut. 2002;120:137-44 pubmed
    ..Most of the trace elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), while lead and cadmium measurements were carried out with electrothermal atomic absorption ..
  7. Porru S, Placidi D, Quarta C, Sabbioni E, Pietra R, Fortaner S. The potencial role of rare earths in the pathogenesis of interstitial lung disease: a case report of movie projectionist as investigated by neutron activation analysis. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2001;14:232-6 pubmed
    ..b>Neutron activation analysis (NAA) of the biopsy showed concentrations of cerium (Ce), lanthanum (La), neodimium (Nd), samarium (Sm),..
  8. Zaichick S, Zaichick V. Trace elements of normal, benign hypertrophic and cancerous tissues of the human prostate gland investigated by neutron activation analysis. Appl Radiat Isot. 2012;70:81-7 pubmed publisher
    ..hypertrophic (n=43), and cancerous tissues (n=60) of the human prostate gland were investigated by neutron activation analysis. Mean values (M±S??) for content (mg/kg, dry weight basis) of trace elements in the normal tissue were:..
  9. Anicić M, Frontasyeva M, Tomasević M, Popovic A. Assessment of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and other elements in Belgrade using the moss biomonitoring technique and neutron activation analysis. Environ Monit Assess. 2007;129:207-19 pubmed
    ..Ce, Sm, Tb, Dy, Hf, Ta, W, Hg, Th, U) were determined in moss and local topsoil samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The concentration of elements in moss positively correlated to those obtained for topsoil...

More Information


  1. Silva A, Shen W, Wang Z, Aloia J, Nelson M, Heymsfield S, et al. Three-compartment model: critical evaluation based on neutron activation analysis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004;287:E962-9 pubmed
    ..The present study results provide a critical evaluation of potential errors in the classic 3C model and present new formulas for use in selected populations. ..
  2. Ebrahim A, Eltayeb M, Shaat M, Mohmed N, Eltayeb E, Ahmed A. Study of selected trace elements in cancerous and non-cancerous human breast tissues from Sudanese subjects using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Sci Total Environ. 2007;383:52-8 pubmed
    ..Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to estimate contents of Se, Zn, Fe, Cr, Rb, Cs, Co and Sc in 40 subjects...
  3. Bartolini M, Pekar J, Chettle D, McNeill F, Scott A, Sykes J, et al. An investigation of the toxicity of gadolinium based MRI contrast agents using neutron activation analysis. Magn Reson Imaging. 2003;21:541-4 pubmed
    ..16 +/- 0.14 ppm in the lung for the constant infusion technique. The contrast infusion technique does not appear to present an increased risk of toxicity over the bolus technique except perhaps to a small degree in the lung. ..
  4. Wang Z, Pi Sunyer F, Kotler D, Wielopolski L, Withers R, Pierson R, et al. Multicomponent methods: evaluation of new and traditional soft tissue mineral models by in vivo neutron activation analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76:968-74 pubmed
    ..The physiologically formulated complete new model for estimating soft tissue minerals provides the opportunity to upgrade the accuracy of current multicomponent models for estimating total body fat. ..
  5. Zaichick S, Zaichick V. The effect of age and gender on 38 chemical element contents in human iliac crest investigated by instrumental neutron activation analysis. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2010;24:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..iliac crest of 84 apparently healthy 15-55 years old women (n=38) and men (n=46) was investigated by neutron activation analysis. Mean values (M+/-SEM) for mass fraction (on dry weight basis) of Ca, Cl, Co, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Rb, ..
  6. Hakimabad H, Motavalli L. Investigation of activation rate uniformity in a prompt-gamma rays IVNAA facility. J Radiat Res. 2010;51:123-30 pubmed
    The preliminary design studies for developing a prompt-gamma rays in vivo neutron activation analysis facility are in construction at Neutron Activation Research Centre of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad...
  7. Abrams S, Schanler R, Sheng H, Evans H, LeBlanc A, Garza C. Bone mineral content reflects total body calcium in neonatal miniature piglets. Pediatr Res. 1988;24:693-5 pubmed
    ..18 neonatal miniature piglets by single photon absorptiometry, total body calcium (TBC) by total body neutron activation analysis, growth, and serum indices of mineral status (calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase activity)...
  8. el Taher A. Elemental analysis of granite by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF). Appl Radiat Isot. 2012;70:350-4 pubmed publisher
    The instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of granite samples collected from four locations in the Aswan area in South Egypt...
  9. Nada A, Abdel Wahab M, Sroor A, Abdel Haleem A, Abdel Sabour M. Heavy metals and rare earth elements source-sink in some Egyptian cigarettes as determined by neutron activation analysis. Appl Radiat Isot. 1999;51:131-6 pubmed
    ..The contents of trace elements were determined by using delayed neutron activation analysis. In the present study 11 elements have been detected in popular and fine brand cigarettes marketed in ..
  10. Muller C, L Espérance G, Plamondon P, Kennedy G, Zayed J. Characterization of beryllium particles from CAlSiFrit. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2008;71:1091-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These methods were: inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, instrumental neutron activation analysis, time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), analytical transmission electron microscopy ..
  11. Nunes W, Da Silva A, Crispim V, Schirru R. Explosives detection using prompt-gamma neutron activation and neural networks. Appl Radiat Isot. 2002;56:937-43 pubmed
    ..Besides that, the network was able to generalize, identify the presence of explosive in cases in which it had not been trained. In that way, it was revealed as a potential tool for in situ inspection systems. ..
  12. Kucera J, Randa Z. Possibilities of low-level determination of silicon in biological materials by activation analysis. Fresenius J Anal Chem. 2001;370:241-5 pubmed
    ..Possibilities of further improvement of the silicon determination limit down to the microg g(-1) level by employing NAA and PAA with radiochemical separation are outlined. ..
  13. Chichester D, Empey E. Measurement of nitrogen in the body using a commercial PGNAA system--phantom experiments. Appl Radiat Isot. 2004;60:55-61 pubmed
    An industrial prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) system, originally designed for the real-time elemental analyses of bulk coal on a conveyor belt, has been studied to examine the feasibility of using such a system for body ..
  14. Pietrobelli A, Wang Z, Heymsfield S. Techniques used in measuring human body composition. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 1998;1:439-48 pubmed
    ..As the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is now gaining acceptance, both clinically and in the research laboratory, as a useful body composition method, particular emphasis is placed on this important approach. ..
  15. el Taher A. Rare earth elements content in geological samples from eastern desert, Egypt, determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Appl Radiat Isot. 2010;68:1859-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The choice of the nuclear reaction, irradiation and decay times, and of the proper gamma radiation in counting are presented and discussed. The results are found to be in good agreement with certified values. ..
  16. Redígolo M, Sato I, Metairon S, Zamboni C. Comparative study of inorganic elements determined in whole blood from Dmd(mdx)/J mice strain by EDXRF and NAA analytical techniques. Appl Radiat Isot. 2016;110:189-192 pubmed publisher
    ..The results obtained from Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) were compared with Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique...
  17. Taseska M, Jacimovic R, Stibilj V, Stafilov T, Makreski P, Jovanovski G. Determination of trace elements in some copper minerals by k0-neutron activation analysis. Appl Radiat Isot. 2012;70:35-9 pubmed publisher
  18. Koch I, Sylvester S, Lai V, Owen A, Reimer K, Cullen W. Bioaccessibility and excretion of arsenic in Niu Huang Jie Du Pian pills. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2007;222:357-64 pubmed
    ..Bioaccessible arsenic is comparable to the quantity excreted. Facial hair as a bio-indicator should be further tested. ..
  19. Mandigers P, van den Ingh T, Bode P, Teske E, Rothuizen J. Association between liver copper concentration and subclinical hepatitis in Doberman Pinschers. J Vet Intern Med. 2004;18:647-50 pubmed
    ..Liver copper concentrations measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis was significantly higher (mean +/- SD; 419 +/- 414 microg/g dry matter) in dogs with hepatitis than ..
  20. Mackey E, Demiralp R, Fitzpatrick K, Porter B, Wise S, Becker P, et al. Quality assurance in analysis of cryogenically stored liver tissue specimens from the NIST National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank (NBSB). Sci Total Environ. 1999;226:165-76 pubmed
    ..Specimen Bank (NBSB) and analyzed between 1980 and 1987 were re-analyzed in 1997 using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for the determination of 17 trace elements...
  21. Khelifi R, Idiri Z, Tobbeche S. Simulation and optimization of cyclic activation analysis of short-lived isotopes with 14MeV neutron generator. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1994;43-45:679-86 pubmed
    ..A systematic study of short-lived isotopes with half-lives lower than 5 min is done for Soil 5, and the results are discussed. ..
  22. Mostafaei F, McNeill F, Chettle D, Prestwich W, Inskip M. Design of a phantom equivalent to measure bone-fluorine in a human's hand via delayed neutron activation analysis. Physiol Meas. 2013;34:503-12 pubmed publisher
    ..we have developed a non-invasive technique for the in vivo measurement of fluoride in bone using neutron activation analysis and performed the first pilot human study...
  23. Grinyer J, Byun S, Chettle D. In vivo prompt gamma neutron activation analysis of cadmium in the kidney and liver. Appl Radiat Isot. 2005;63:475-9 pubmed
    An existing McMaster University in vivo prompt gamma neutron activation analysis system has been improved in order to reduce the cadmium detection limit in the kidney and liver. The detection limit for the kidney was found to be 1...
  24. Caldas L, Teixeira M. Coloured glasses for high dose dosimetry using the thermoluminescent technique. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2004;111:13-5 pubmed
    ..Reproducibility of TL response and the lower detection doses were determined for each kind of glass. All tested glasses showed their usefulness as irradiation indicators and as high-dose dosemeters. ..
  25. Barratt S, Smith R, Kee A, Mather L, Cousins M. Multimodal analgesia and intravenous nutrition preserves total body protein following major upper gastrointestinal surgery. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2002;27:15-22 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that after UAS, MMA significantly reduced pain and, in combination with IVN, preserves total body protein and fat. This is the first direct evidence of such effects associated with a commonly used multimodal regimen. ..
  26. Papp A, Csikai J. Studies on the properties of an epithermal-neutron hydrogen analyzer. Appl Radiat Isot. 2010;68:1677-81 pubmed publisher
  27. Yamamoto Y, Katoh Y, Sato T. Determination of aluminum in various biological materials using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Leg Med (Tokyo). 2009;11 Suppl 1:S440-2 pubmed publisher
    The determination of Aluminum (Al) in biological material by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) contains some problems; (1) polyethylene bag enclosing specimen contains Al, (2) biological material includes the abundant ..
  28. Plank L, Gane E, Peng S, Muthu C, Mathur S, Gillanders L, et al. Nocturnal nutritional supplementation improves total body protein status of patients with liver cirrhosis: a randomized 12-month trial. Hepatology. 2008;48:557-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Total body protein (TBP) was measured by neutron activation analysis at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months...
  29. Regaldo L, Gagneten A, Troiani H. Accumulation of chromium and interaction with other elements in Chlorella vulgaris (Cloroficeae) and Daphnia magna (Crustacea, Cladocera). J Environ Biol. 2009;30:213-6 pubmed
    ..performed to determine Cr and other elements concentration in tissues of both species by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), after being exposed to 150, 280 and 350 microg l(-1) Cr(VI)...
  30. Grant C, Lalor G, Vutchkov M. In situ gamma spectroscopy measurement of 41Ar during neutron activation analysis with the SLOWPOKE II reactor in Jamaica. Health Phys. 2004;87:S68-72 pubmed
    ..the laboratory due to the activation of air in the irradiation tubes of SLOWPOKE reactor during routine neutron activation analysis. The data obtained were used to predict the 41Ar distribution in the laboratory for various operating ..
  31. Zaichick V, Tzaphlidou M. Determination of calcium, phosphorus, and the calcium/phosphorus ratio in cortical bone from the human femoral neck by neutron activation analysis. Appl Radiat Isot. 2002;56:781-6 pubmed
    ..from the femoral neck of healthy humans, 33 women and 45 men, aged from 15 to 55 yr using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Mean values (M +/- SD) for the investigated parameters (on dry weight basis) were: 23.0 +/- 3.9%, 10...
  32. Soares D, de Oliveira E, Silva G, Duarte L, Pott V, Vieira Filho S. Salvinia auriculata: aquatic bioindicator studied by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Appl Radiat Isot. 2008;66:561-4 pubmed publisher
    Through instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) the elemental chemical composition of Salvinia auriculata and Ouro Preto city public water was determined...
  33. Faiz Y, Siddique N, Tufail M. Pollution level and health risk assessment of road dust from an expressway. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2012;47:818-29 pubmed publisher
    Thirteen road dust and four soil samples were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to determine the elemental composition of road dust collected from Islamabad Expressway...
  34. Nishiyama Y, Langan P, Wada M, Forsyth V. Looking at hydrogen bonds in cellulose. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2010;66:1172-7 pubmed publisher
  35. Stall S, DeVita M, Ginsberg N, Frumkin D, Lynn R, Michelis M. Body composition assessed by neutron activation analysis in dialysis patients. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2000;904:558-63 pubmed
    ..b>Neutron activation analysis (NAA) may provide data on metabolically active tissue by quantification of total body potassium (TBK) ..
  36. Turra C, Fernandes E, Bacchi M, Barbosa Junior F, Sarriés G, Blumer L. Chemical elements in organic and conventional sweet oranges. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2011;144:1289-94 pubmed publisher sweet oranges of variety Valencia produced under organic and conventional systems using instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry...
  37. Moussavi Zarandi A. Determination of D2O by photoneutron activation techniques. Appl Radiat Isot. 2008;66:1830-3 pubmed publisher
    ..This system shows a detection sensitivity of D(2)O to be less than 0.1mg. The equipment can also be used as a standard photoneutron source. ..
  38. Hunter N, Charles M. An update on the discrepancy between calculated and measured neutron-induced radioactivity levels in Hiroshima. J Radiol Prot. 2002;22:345-56 pubmed
    ..A companion paper considers the impact on radiation risk estimates of possible modifications to the DS86 dosimetry system on the basis of a broad range of interpretations of the neutron activation data. ..
  39. Steinnes E, Berg T, Uggerud H. Three decades of atmospheric metal deposition in Norway as evident from analysis of moss samples. Sci Total Environ. 2011;412-413:351-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Se is mainly derived from processes in the marine environment. Deposition of metals from Cu-Ni smelters in Russia situated close to the Norwegian border has shown a steadily increasing trend over the time period concerned. ..
  40. Haas V, Allen J, Kohn M, Clarke S, Zhang S, Briody J, et al. Total body protein in healthy adolescent girls: validation of estimates derived from simpler measures with neutron activation analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85:66-72 pubmed
    ..TBN was measured with in vivo neutron activation analysis (TBNNAA)...
  41. Shelor C, Dasgupta P. Review of analytical methods for the quantification of iodine in complex matrices. Anal Chim Acta. 2011;702:16-36 pubmed publisher
    ..However, a general review of iodine determination on a wide-ranging set of complex matrices is not available. While this review is not comprehensive, we cover the principal developments since the original development of the S-K method. ..
  42. Yankuba S, Oldroyd B, Metcalfe S, Godfrey J, Oxby C. Examination of errors caused by random summing in in vivo prompt gamma ray analysis. Phys Med Biol. 1989;34:1089-102 pubmed
    ..summing when measuring the amounts of carbon and nitrogen in the human body by the prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis system installed in Leeds, UK...
  43. Reina L, Silva A, Suita J, Souza M, Facure A, Silva J, et al. Diagnostic assessment to estimate and minimize neutron dose rates received by occupationally exposed individuals at cyclotron facilities. Appl Radiat Isot. 2010;68:489-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this work is to present this assessment, which is currently being applied to both the Fluorine and Iodine targets of CV-28 and RDS111 cyclotron accelerators. ..
  44. Säkkinen M, Marvola J, Kanerva H, Lindevall K, Lipponen M, Kekki T, et al. Gamma scintigraphic evaluation of the fate of microcrystalline chitosan granules in human stomach. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2004;57:133-43 pubmed
    ..Maximum individual t50% values were 2.1 h (F1) and 2.3 h (F2). It was concluded that the in vivo mucoadhesion of MCCh formulations is erratic, and that the formulations studied are not reliable gastro-retentive drug delivery systems. ..
  45. Schneider U, Fiechtner A, Besserer J, Lomax A. Neutron dose from prostheses material during radiotherapy with protons and photons. Phys Med Biol. 2004;49:N119-24 pubmed
    ..We found no influence of the prostheses material on the neutron dose both for proton and photon treatment. ..
  46. Truus K, Vaher M, Koel M, Mähar A, Taure I. Analysis of bioactive ingredients in the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus by capillary electrophoresis and neutron activation analysis. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2004;379:849-52 pubmed capillary electrophoresis (CE) and (2) mineral part (including bioactive microelements) by neutron activation analysis (NAA). CE experiments were carried out using a UV detector (at 210 nm) and an uncoated silica capillary...
  47. Dvorakova Z, Henkelmann R, Lin X, Turler A, Gerstenberg H. Production of 177Lu at the new research reactor FRM-II: Irradiation yield of 176Lu(n,gamma)177Lu. Appl Radiat Isot. 2008;66:147-51 pubmed
    ..The comparison of theoretically calculated and experimentally determined yield for Lu176(n,gamma)Lu177 reaction is presented...
  48. Mackie A, Hannan W, Smith M, Tothill P. Apparatus for the measurement of total body nitrogen using prompt neutron activation analysis with californium-252. J Med Eng Technol. 1988;12:152-9 pubmed
    ..Californium-252 radio-isotopic neutron sources are used, enabling a nitrogen measurement by prompt neutron activation analysis to be made in 40 min with a precision of +/- 3.2% for a whole body dose equivalent of 0.145 mSv...
  49. Vobecky M, Pavelka S, Babický A. Bromide transfer through mother's milk and its impact on the suckling rat. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2005;103:37-48 pubmed
    ..A rise in the concentration of both halogens caused also an increase in the concentration of sodium in mother's milk. The exact mechanism(s) of bromide interference with postnatal developmental processes in the young remain(s) unclear. ..
  50. Krishnan S, McNeill K, Mernagh J, Bayley A, Harrison J. Improved clinical facility for in vivo nitrogen measurement. Phys Med Biol. 1990;35:489-99 pubmed
    The design and construction of a hospital clinical facility for in vivo prompt gamma neutron activation analysis for total body nitrogen (TBN) measurement is described...
  51. Pejovic Milic A, Arnold M, McNeill F, Chettle D. Monte Carlo design study for in vivo bone aluminum measurement using a low energy accelerator beam. Appl Radiat Isot. 2000;53:657-64 pubmed
    ..This design should allow for the bone aluminum measurement of healthy subjects, but prior to that detailed microdosimetry is necessary to address a noticed disagreement between theoretical and experimental dose data. ..
  52. Herber R, de Gee A, Wibowo A. Exposure of dentists and assistants to mercury: mercury levels in urine and hair related to conditions of practice. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1988;16:153-8 pubmed
    ..Hg-U was also positively related to number of fillings and hours in own practice. The relation of Hg-U to ventilation in the surgery applied only to the dentists. ..
  53. Chamberlain M, Gräfe J, Aslam -, Byun S, Chettle D, Egden L, et al. In vivo quantification of bone-fluorine by delayed neutron activation analysis: a pilot study of hand-bone-fluorine levels in a Canadian population. Physiol Meas. 2012;33:375-84 pubmed publisher
    ..of our knowledge, this is the first time data from in vivo measurement of fluorine content in humans by neutron activation analysis have been presented...