galvanic skin response


Summary: A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.

Top Publications

  1. Izawa C. A unified theory of all-or-none and incremental learning processes via a new application of study-test-rest presentation programs and psychophysiological measures. Am J Psychol. 2008;121:565-606 pubmed
    The all-or-none (AON) versus incremental learning debate was newly examined using heart rate (HR) and galvanic skin response (GSR) under varied study-test-rest (STR) presentation programs...
  2. Bach D, Friston K. Model-based analysis of skin conductance responses: Towards causal models in psychophysiology. Psychophysiology. 2013;50:15-22 pubmed publisher
    ..This review concludes by considering the theoretical implications for the field of psychophysiology and benefits for practical data analysis. ..
  3. Carvalho S, Leite J, Galdo Alvarez S, Gonçalves Ó. The Emotional Movie Database (EMDB): a self-report and psychophysiological study. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2012;37:279-94 pubmed publisher
    ..e., horror and erotic conditions). The resulting emotional movie database can reliably be used in research requiring the presentation of non-auditory film clips with different ratings of valence, arousal and dominance. ..
  4. Zhang S, Hu S, Chao H, Luo X, Farr O, Li C. Cerebral correlates of skin conductance responses in a cognitive task. Neuroimage. 2012;62:1489-98 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, the MPFC shows opposing responses by increasing activation to changes in arousal evoked by salient stimuli and decreasing activation to the control of arousal. ..
  5. Schoenberg P, Sierra M, David A. Psychophysiological investigations in depersonalization disorder and effects of electrodermal biofeedback. J Trauma Dissociation. 2012;13:311-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Rather than low sympathetic arousal, DPD might be better characterized by abnormal autonomic regulation affecting emotional and physiological responsivity. ..
  6. Sokol N, Lovibond P. Cross-US reinstatement of human conditioned fear: return of old fears or emergence of new ones?. Behav Res Ther. 2012;50:313-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The current findings suggest that clinical relapse attributed to reinstatement may not always reflect the reactivation of old fears but may instead represent new fears worthy of clinical examination. ..
  7. Kull S, Müller B, Blechert J, Wilhelm F, Michael T. Reinstatement of fear in humans: autonomic and experiential responses in a differential conditioning paradigm. Acta Psychol (Amst). 2012;140:43-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Results are discussed with respect to context conditioning, fear generalisation, and anxiety-related cognitive mechanisms underlying fear recovery after extinction. ..
  8. Lovibond P, Chen S, Mitchell C, Weidemann G. Competition between an avoidance response and a safety signal: evidence for a single learning system. Biol Psychol. 2013;92:9-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The procedure may thus serve as a laboratory model for attributional processes involved in the acquisition of threat expectancies in anxiety and anxiety disorders. ..
  9. Boucsein W, Fowles D, Grimnes S, Ben Shakhar G, Roth W, Dawson M, et al. Publication recommendations for electrodermal measurements. Psychophysiology. 2012;49:1017-34 pubmed publisher
    ..g., fMRI). Recommendations for the details that should be mentioned in publications of EDA methods and results are provided. ..

More Information


  1. Kut E, Candia V, von Overbeck J, Pok J, Fink D, Folkers G. Pleasure-related analgesia activates opioid-insensitive circuits. J Neurosci. 2011;31:4148-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that, in addition to opioid-sensitive circuits, mainly opioid-insensitive pain-modulating circuits are activated during pleasure-related analgesia. ..
  2. Laine C, SPITLER K, Mosher C, Gothard K. Behavioral triggers of skin conductance responses and their neural correlates in the primate amygdala. J Neurophysiol. 2009;101:1749-54 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that the amygdala contributes to the production or modulation of SCRs regardless of the source of sympathetic arousal. ..
  3. Guerra P, Campagnoli R, Vico C, Volchan E, Anllo Vento L, Vila J. Filial versus romantic love: contributions from peripheral and central electrophysiology. Biol Psychol. 2011;88:196-203 pubmed publisher
  4. Giesbrecht T, Merckelbach H, van Oorsouw K, Simeon D. Skin conductance and memory fragmentation after exposure to an emotional film clip in depersonalization disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2010;177:342-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Apparently, emotional responding in DPD is characterized by a shortened latency to peak with subsequent flattening and is accompanied by memory fragmentation in the light of otherwise unremarkable memory functioning. ..
  5. Alpers G, Adolph D, Pauli P. Emotional scenes and facial expressions elicit different psychophysiological responses. Int J Psychophysiol. 2011;80:173-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Although arousal differences may account for some differences in physiological responding this shows that not all emotional material that is decoded similarly leads to the same psychophysiological output. ..
  6. Guillaume S, Jollant F, Jaussent I, Lawrence N, Malafosse A, Courtet P. Somatic markers and explicit knowledge are both involved in decision-making. Neuropsychologia. 2009;47:2120-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Advantageous decision-making therefore seems to be associated with two distinct, namely implicit and explicit, systems. ..
  7. Ledowski T, Preuss J, Schug S. The effects of neostigmine and glycopyrrolate on skin conductance as a measure of pain. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2009;26:777-81 pubmed publisher
    ..In this context, the effects of cholinesterase inhibitors and anticholinergic drugs used for the reversal of muscle relaxants were investigated...
  8. Hägni K, Eng K, Hepp Reymond M, Holper L, Keisker B, Siekierka E, et al. Observing virtual arms that you imagine are yours increases the galvanic skin response to an unexpected threat. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3082 pubmed publisher
    ..No corresponding change was found in subjects' heart rates. Our results suggest that simple visual input combined with mental imagery may induce the brain to measurably temporarily incorporate external objects into its body image. ..
  9. Kelly M, Forsyth J. Associations between emotional avoidance, anxiety sensitivity, and reactions to an observational fear challenge procedure. Behav Res Ther. 2009;47:331-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Discussion focuses on the interplay between emotional avoidance, anxiety sensitivity, and the development of vicarious fear responses and how these constructs may contribute to the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. ..
  10. Soeter M, Kindt M. Dissociating response systems: erasing fear from memory. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2010;94:30-41 pubmed publisher
    ..From a clinical and ethical perspective, disrupting reconsolidation points to promising interventions persistently erasing fear responses from trauma memory without affecting the actual recollection. ..
  11. Poh M, Swenson N, Picard R. A wearable sensor for unobtrusive, long-term assessment of electrodermal activity. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2010;57:1243-52 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper opens up opportunities for future investigations that were previously not feasible, and could have far-reaching implications for diagnosis and understanding of psychological or neurological conditions. ..
  12. VaezMousavi S, Barry R, Clarke A. Individual differences in task-related activation and performance. Physiol Behav. 2009;98:326-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In line with our previous studies, the average linear relationship over all participants was positive. The importance of these findings is discussed in relation to sport performance enhancement. ..
  13. Salimpoor V, Benovoy M, Longo G, Cooperstock J, Zatorre R. The rewarding aspects of music listening are related to degree of emotional arousal. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7487 pubmed publisher
    ..These results have broader implications by demonstrating that strongly felt emotions could be rewarding in themselves in the absence of a physically tangible reward or a specific functional goal. ..
  14. Frantzidis C, Konstantinidis E, Pappas C, Bamidis P. An automated system for processing electrodermal activity. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2009;150:787 pubmed
    ..The application supports parallel processing by means of multiple threads. Batch processing is also available. The XML format is used to describe the derived features. The system is employed to analyze emotion-related data. ..
  15. Milad M, Pitman R, Ellis C, Gold A, Shin L, Lasko N, et al. Neurobiological basis of failure to recall extinction memory in posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2009;66:1075-82 pubmed publisher
    ..They further suggest that dysfunctional activation in brain structures that mediate fear extinction learning, and especially its recall, underlie this impairment. ..
  16. Dixon M, Harrigan K, Sandhu R, Collins K, Fugelsang J. Losses disguised as wins in modern multi-line video slot machines. Addiction. 2010;105:1819-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Although these findings involve novice players, the heightened arousal associated with these losses may have implications for the development of problem gambling, as arousal has been viewed as a key reinforcer in gambling behaviour. ..
  17. Vico C, Guerra P, Robles H, Vila J, Anllo Vento L. Affective processing of loved faces: contributions from peripheral and central electrophysiology. Neuropsychologia. 2010;48:2894-902 pubmed publisher
  18. Bach D, Daunizeau J, Friston K, Dolan R. Dynamic causal modelling of anticipatory skin conductance responses. Biol Psychol. 2010;85:163-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The model furnishes a potentially powerful approach to characterising SCR that exploits knowledge about how these signals are generated. ..
  19. Choo E, Magruder W, Montgomery C, Lim J, Brant R, Ansermino J. Skin conductance fluctuations correlate poorly with postoperative self-report pain measures in school-aged children. Anesthesiology. 2010;113:175-82 pubmed publisher
    ..1%. NFSC measurement is feasible in a perioperative setting but was not specific for postoperative pain intensity and was unable to identify analgesia requirements when compared with self-report measures. ..
  20. Benedek M, Kaernbach C. Decomposition of skin conductance data by means of nonnegative deconvolution. Psychophysiology. 2010;47:647-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the result of single non-overlapped SCRs, response parameters can be estimated precisely as shown in a paradigm with varying inter-stimulus intervals. ..
  21. Gao Y, Raine A, Venables P, Dawson M, Mednick S. Association of poor childhood fear conditioning and adult crime. Am J Psychiatry. 2010;167:56-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings are consistent with a neurodevelopmental contribution to crime causation. ..
  22. Pole N, Neylan T, Otte C, Henn Hasse C, Metzler T, Marmar C. Prospective prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms using fear potentiated auditory startle responses. Biol Psychiatry. 2009;65:235-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These measures may eventually prove useful for preventing PTSD. ..
  23. Pineles S, Orr M, Orr S. An alternative scoring method for skin conductance responding in a differential fear conditioning paradigm with a long-duration conditioned stimulus. Psychophysiology. 2009;46:984-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Results do not support the convention of separating the SC response into first- and second-interval responses. It is recommended that SC response scores be derived from data obtained across the entire CS-UCS interval. ..
  24. Jovanovic T, Norrholm S, Fennell J, Keyes M, Fiallos A, Myers K, et al. Posttraumatic stress disorder may be associated with impaired fear inhibition: relation to symptom severity. Psychiatry Res. 2009;167:151-60 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the high-symptom PTSD group did not show fear inhibition: these subjects had significantly greater fear potentiation on the AB trials than both the controls and the low-symptom PTSD patients. ..
  25. Schartau P, Dalgleish T, Dunn B. Seeing the bigger picture: training in perspective broadening reduces self-reported affect and psychophysiological response to distressing films and autobiographical memories. J Abnorm Psychol. 2009;118:15-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings are discussed in terms of the broader literature on CBM. ..
  26. Balteş F, Avram J, Miclea M, Miu A. Emotions induced by operatic music: psychophysiological effects of music, plot, and acting: a scientist's tribute to Maria Callas. Brain Cogn. 2011;76:146-57 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the multiple musical and dramatic means involved in operatic performance specifically contribute to the genesis of music-induced emotions and their physiological correlates. ..
  27. Chapados C, Levitin D. Cross-modal interactions in the experience of musical performances: physiological correlates. Cognition. 2008;108:639-51 pubmed publisher
  28. Loggia M, Juneau M, Bushnell M. Autonomic responses to heat pain: Heart rate, skin conductance, and their relation to verbal ratings and stimulus intensity. Pain. 2011;152:592-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Skin conductance is more sensitive to detect within-subject perceptual changes, but heart rate appears to better predict pain ratings at the group level. ..
  29. Crider A. Personality and electrodermal response lability: an interpretation. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2008;33:141-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Individual differences in effortful self-control may explain the association of greater EDR lability with essential hypertension and greater EDR stability with forms of antisocial behavior. ..
  30. McTeague L, Lang P, Laplante M, Cuthbert B, Strauss C, Bradley M. Fearful imagery in social phobia: generalization, comorbidity, and physiological reactivity. Biol Psychiatry. 2009;65:374-82 pubmed publisher
  31. Storm H. Changes in skin conductance as a tool to monitor nociceptive stimulation and pain. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2008;21:796-804 pubmed publisher
    ..The SCA detects nociceptive pain fast and continuously, specific to the individual, with higher sensitivity and specificity than other available objective methods. ..
  32. Clark L, Crooks B, Clarke R, Aitken M, Dunn B. Physiological responses to near-miss outcomes and personal control during simulated gambling. J Gambl Stud. 2012;28:123-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Near-miss outcomes are capable of eliciting phasic changes in physiological arousal consistent with a state of subjective excitement, despite their objective non-win status. ..
  33. Soeter M, Kindt M. Disrupting reconsolidation: pharmacological and behavioral manipulations. Learn Mem. 2011;18:357-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate that disrupting reconsolidation by pharmacological manipulations, although selective, undermines the generalization of fear, a key feature of anxiety disorders. ..
  34. McTeague L, Lang P, Laplante M, Cuthbert B, Shumen J, Bradley M. Aversive imagery in posttraumatic stress disorder: trauma recurrence, comorbidity, and physiological reactivity. Biol Psychiatry. 2010;67:346-56 pubmed publisher
  35. Ruiz Padial E, Vila J, Thayer J. The effect of conscious and non-conscious presentation of biologically relevant emotion pictures on emotion modulated startle and phasic heart rate. Int J Psychophysiol. 2011;79:341-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The 6 second presentations allow the prefrontal cortex to modulate the bottom up inputs and thus produce a context appropriate response. ..
  36. Wilkes B, Gonsalvez C, Blaszczynski A. Capturing SCL and HR changes to win and loss events during gambling on electronic machines. Int J Psychophysiol. 2010;78:265-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The study has important applications for further experimental and clinical research. ..
  37. Bach D, Flandin G, Friston K, Dolan R. Modelling event-related skin conductance responses. Int J Psychophysiol. 2010;75:349-56 pubmed publisher
    ..We develop a canonical response function and show that it can be used for signals from different recording sites. We discuss the implications of these observations for model-based analysis of SCRs. ..
  38. Merz C, Tabbert K, Schweckendiek J, Klucken T, Vaitl D, Stark R, et al. Investigating the impact of sex and cortisol on implicit fear conditioning with fMRI. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2010;35:33-46 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects might translate into a different vulnerability of the two sexes for anxiety disorders. ..
  39. Löw A, Lang P, Smith J, Bradley M. Both predator and prey: emotional arousal in threat and reward. Psychol Sci. 2008;19:865-73 pubmed publisher
  40. Benedek M, Kaernbach C. A continuous measure of phasic electrodermal activity. J Neurosci Methods. 2010;190:80-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The quality and benefit of the proposed measure is demonstrated in an experiment with short interstimulus intervals as well as by means of a simulation study. The advances compared to previous decomposition methods are discussed. ..
  41. Bach D, Friston K, Dolan R. Analytic measures for quantification of arousal from spontaneous skin conductance fluctuations. Int J Psychophysiol. 2010;76:52-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate the validity of this measure in relation to finite impulse response models, and show that it is a better predictor of autonomic arousal, relative to conventional measures. ..
  42. Codispoti M, Surcinelli P, Baldaro B. Watching emotional movies: affective reactions and gender differences. Int J Psychophysiol. 2008;69:90-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The present findings suggest that sustained exposure to pleasant and unpleasant stimuli elicit similar cardiac orienting when stimuli are equated for subjective report of emotional arousal. ..
  43. Huff N, Hernandez J, Blanding N, LaBar K. Delayed extinction attenuates conditioned fear renewal and spontaneous recovery in humans. Behav Neurosci. 2009;123:834-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, immediate extinction can yield spontaneous recovery and prolong fear renewal. These findings have potential implications for ameliorating fear relapse in anxiety disorders. ..
  44. Barry R, Clarke A, Johnstone S, McCarthy R, Selikowitz M. Electroencephalogram theta/beta ratio and arousal in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: evidence of independent processes. Biol Psychiatry. 2009;66:398-401 pubmed publisher
    ..They suggest the need for reevaluation of current models of the disorder and reconceptualization of existing EEG data from both normal and atypical populations. ..
  45. Ledowski T, Pascoe E, Ang B, Schmarbeck T, Clarke M, Fuller C, et al. Monitoring of intra-operative nociception: skin conductance and surgical stress index versus stress hormone plasma levels. Anaesthesia. 2010;65:1001-6 pubmed publisher
    ..s?¹ changed in response to changes in depth of analgesia by showing significant differences between before and after a bolus of fentanyl. However, the overall predictive ability of both methods was poor. ..
  46. Recio G, Schacht A, Sommer W. Effects of inter-stimulus interval on skin conductance responses and event-related potentials in a Go/NoGo task. Biol Psychol. 2009;80:246-50 pubmed publisher
    ..When considered as difference between NoGo and Go conditions, neither the NoGo-N2 nor the NoGo-P3 was affected by ISI variation. Together, these data confirm the feasibility of co-registering ERPs and SCRs. ..
  47. Liao P, Uher R, Lawrence N, Treasure J, Schmidt U, Campbell I, et al. An examination of decision making in bulimia nervosa. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2009;31:455-61 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding does not support the somatic marker hypothesis. Impaired decision making was associated with obsessive-compulsive traits. ..
  48. Delgado M, Nearing K, LeDoux J, Phelps E. Neural circuitry underlying the regulation of conditioned fear and its relation to extinction. Neuron. 2008;59:829-38 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings further suggest that humans may have developed complex cognition that can aid in regulating emotional responses while utilizing phylogenetically shared mechanisms of extinction. ..
  49. Bradley M. Natural selective attention: orienting and emotion. Psychophysiology. 2009;46:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, it is suggested that orienting is mediated by activation of fundamental motivational systems that have evolved to support survival. ..
  50. Marschner A, Kalisch R, Vervliet B, Vansteenwegen D, Buchel C. Dissociable roles for the hippocampus and the amygdala in human cued versus context fear conditioning. J Neurosci. 2008;28:9030-6 pubmed publisher
    ..More importantly, a similar differential decay of activation was observed during context conditioning in the hippocampus, in agreement with a role of the hippocampus in the acquisition phase of human context fear conditioning. ..
  51. Schiller D, Cain C, Curley N, Schwartz J, Stern S, LeDoux J, et al. Evidence for recovery of fear following immediate extinction in rats and humans. Learn Mem. 2008;15:394-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data do not support the hypothesis that immediate extinction erases the original memory trace, nor do they suggest that a close temporal proximity of therapeutic intervention to the traumatic event might be advantageous. ..
  52. Johnsen E, Tranel D, Lutgendorf S, Adolphs R. A neuroanatomical dissociation for emotion induced by music. Int J Psychophysiol. 2009;72:24-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings provide evidence for a double dissociation between feeling emotions and autonomic responses to emotions, in response to music stimuli. ..
  53. Starcke K, Tuschen Caffier B, Markowitsch H, Brand M. Skin conductance responses during decisions in ambiguous and risky situations in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Cogn Neuropsychiatry. 2009;14:199-216 pubmed publisher
    ..Behavioural and SCR data indicate that patients with OCD have difficulties in decisions under implicit but not under explicit risk conditions. ..