skin physiological phenomena


Summary: The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.

Top Publications

  1. Koppes S, Ljubojević Hadžavdić S, Jakasa I, Franceschi N, Riethmuller C, Jurakić Toncić R, et al. Effect of allergens and irritants on levels of natural moisturizing factor and corneocyte morphology. Contact Dermatitis. 2017;76:287-295 pubmed publisher
    ..The DTI seems to differentiate reactions to SLS from those to the allergens tested, as SLS was the only agent that caused a DTI increase. ..
  2. Silverberg N. The field effect. Cutis. 2011;87:215-6 pubmed
  3. Won S, Kim H, Kim M, Kim K. Two-point discrimination values vary depending on test site, sex and test modality in the orofacial region: a preliminary study. J Appl Oral Sci. 2017;25:427-435 pubmed publisher
    ..The normal values of TPD in this study suggest that the cheek and forehead were less sensitive than other regions evaluated and women were more sensitive than men. The STPDS was the most sensitive test modality. ..
  4. Greenwood J. Function of the panniculus carnosus--a hypothesis. Vet Rec. 2010;167:760 pubmed publisher
  5. Bruls W, Slaper H, van der Leun J, Berrens L. Transmission of human epidermis and stratum corneum as a function of thickness in the ultraviolet and visible wavelengths. Photochem Photobiol. 1984;40:485-94 pubmed
  6. Ren Z, Ponten F, Nister M, Ponten J. Two distinct p53 immunohistochemical patterns in human squamous-cell skin cancer, precursors and normal epidermis. Int J Cancer. 1996;69:174-9 pubmed
    ..Also, even in the absence of cellular atypia, patches of epidermal cells can accumulate p53 in a way that is indistinguishable from that of cancer and pre-cancer. ..
  7. Wan D, Wang K. Long noncoding RNA: significance and potential in skin biology. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2014;4: pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we provide additional examples highlighting the ubiquity of noncoding RNAs in diverse human diseases. ..
  8. Andersen K, Maibach H. Black and white human skin differences. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1979;1:276-82 pubmed
    ..A striking feature in this literature is the disagreement between authors. Common for much of this information is difficulty of interpretation, because of socioeconomic influences and other environmental factors. ..
  9. Bischoff J, Arruda E, Grosh K. Finite element modeling of human skin using an isotropic, nonlinear elastic constitutive model. J Biomech. 2000;33:645-52 pubmed
    ..The importance of knowledge of the in situ stress state for analyzing skin response and validating constitutive laws is also demonstrated. ..

More Information


  1. Ravanelli N, Jay O, Gagnon D. Sustained increases in skin blood flow are not a prerequisite to initiate sweating during passive heat exposure. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2017;313:R140-R148 pubmed publisher
    ..However, local sweat production occurs before an increase in SkBF, suggesting that SkBF is not necessarily a prerequisite for sweating. ..
  2. Alexander H, Cook T. Accounting for natural tension in the mechanical testing of human skin. J Invest Dermatol. 1977;69:310-4 pubmed
  3. Łagan S, Liber Kneć A. Experimental testing and constitutive modeling of the mechanical properties of the swine skin tissue. Acta Bioeng Biomech. 2017;19:93-102 pubmed
    ..An analysis of seven hyperelastic material models showed good correlations between the experimental and the theoretical data for five models. ..
  4. Ridge M, Wright V. Mechanical properties of skin: a bioengineering study of skin structure. J Appl Physiol. 1966;21:1602-6 pubmed
  5. Greco A, Lanata A, Valenza G, Scilingo E, Citi L. Electrodermal activity processing: a convex optimization approach. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2014;2014:2290-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Although preliminary, these results are very encouraging and future work will progress to further validate the model through specific and controlled experiments. ..
  6. Botchkareva N. The Molecular Revolution in Cutaneous Biology: Noncoding RNAs: New Molecular Players in Dermatology and Cutaneous Biology. J Invest Dermatol. 2017;137:e105-e111 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, recent advances in our understanding of non-coding RNA-mediated regulation of skin development and homeostasis are highlighted, focusing mainly on the regulatory roles of miRNAs and lncRNAs. ..
  7. Kruglikov I, Scherer P. General theory of skin reinforcement. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182865 pubmed publisher
    ..At the same time, the standalone reinforcement of the skin appears to be less effective to achieve a delay or a reduction of the apparent signs of skin aging relative to the reinforcement of the sWAT. ..
  8. Manabe H, Nozawa A, Matsumoto M, Ohtani M. Evaluation of Moisturizing Effect of Heparinoid Ointment (Hirudoid Soft Ointment) Diluted by White Petrolatum (Propeto). Yakugaku Zasshi. 2017;137:763-766 pubmed publisher
    ..This leads to the conclusion that steroid ointment mixture with moisturizer is frequently used, but we should take more caution regarding the decrease of moisturizing effect. ..
  9. Veronda D, Westmann R. Mechanical characterization of skin-finite deformations. J Biomech. 1970;3:111-24 pubmed
  10. Webster J. Reducing motion artifacts and interference in biopotential recording. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 1984;31:823-6 pubmed
  11. Holick M. Environmental factors that influence the cutaneous production of vitamin D. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;61:638S-645S pubmed publisher
    ..Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency can be prevented by encouraging responsible exposure to sunlight and/or consumption of a multivitamin tablet that contains 10 micrograms (400 IU) vitamin D. ..
  12. Reis Z, Vitral G, de Souza I, Rego M, Guimaraes R. Newborn skin reflection: Proof of concept for a new approach for predicting gestational age at birth. A cross-sectional study. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184734 pubmed publisher
    ..Multivariable predictive models associated the skin reflectance with easy to obtain clinical parameters, at the birth scenario. External validation needs to be proven in an actual population with the real incidence of premature infants. ..
  13. Silpa Archa N, Kohli I, Chaowattanapanit S, Lim H, Hamzavi I. Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation: A comprehensive overview: Epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and noninvasive assessment technique. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2017;77:591-605 pubmed publisher
  14. Allsopp R, Vaziri H, Patterson C, Goldstein S, Younglai E, Futcher A, et al. Telomere length predicts replicative capacity of human fibroblasts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:10114-8 pubmed
    ..In contrast, telomeres from sperm DNA did not decrease with age of the donor, suggesting that a mechanism for maintaining telomere length, such as telomerase expression, may be active in germ-line tissue. ..
  15. Minhas P, Datta A, Bikson M. Cutaneous perception during tDCS: role of electrode shape and sponge salinity. Clin Neurophysiol. 2011;122:637-8 pubmed publisher
  16. Klein A, Vyshnevska A, Hartke T, De Col R, Mankowski J, Turnquist B, et al. Sodium Channel Nav1.8 Underlies TTX-Resistant Axonal Action Potential Conduction in Somatosensory C-Fibers of Distal Cutaneous Nerves. J Neurosci. 2017;37:5204-5214 pubmed publisher
    ..8 (NaV1.8). The functional prominence of NaV1.8 within the axonal compartment immediately proximal to its termination may affect strategies targeting pain of peripheral origin. ..
  17. Benbow M. Assessment, prevention and management of skin tears. Nurs Older People. 2017;29:31-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Nurses and carers are in a prime position to prevent, assess and manage skin tears. ..
  18. Gerstein A, Phillips T, Rogers G, Gilchrest B. Wound healing and aging. Dermatol Clin. 1993;11:749-57 pubmed
    ..Recent trials of novel therapies to enhance wound healing suggest, however, that much can be done to improve the prognosis of elderly patients with risk factors known to adversely affect wound healing. ..
  19. Horsburgh S, Fullard N, Roger M, Degnan A, Todryk S, Przyborski S, et al. MicroRNAs in the skin: role in development, homoeostasis and regeneration. Clin Sci (Lond). 2017;131:1923-1940 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, miR therapies will also be discussed, highlighting important future areas of research. ..
  20. Simpson C, Kohl M, Essenpreis M, Cope M. Near-infrared optical properties of ex vivo human skin and subcutaneous tissues measured using the Monte Carlo inversion technique. Phys Med Biol. 1998;43:2465-78 pubmed
    ..The transport scattering coefficient for all biological samples showed a monotonic decrease with increasing wavelength. The method was calibrated using solid tissue phantoms and by comparison with a temporally resolved technique. ..
  21. Hong Y, Chang U, Kim Y, Jung E, Suh H. Dietary galacto-oligosaccharides improve skin health: a randomized double blind clinical trial. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2017;26:613-618 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Our findings support that oral treatment with GOS is beneficial to the skin and present the possibility of new nutritional strategies for skin care. ..
  22. Monteiro Rodrigues L, Palma L, Santos O, Almeida M, Bujan J, Tavares L. Excessive Weight Favours Skin Physiology - Up to a Point: Another Expression of the Obesity Paradox. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2017;30:94-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Results suggest that excessive weight might favour skin performance within certain limits, reflecting a particular adaptation of the skin to the weight gain and body contour. ..
  23. Schulze R, Sazgar M, Karle H, de Las Heras Gala H. Influence of a Commercial Lead Apron on Patient Skin Dose Delivered During Oral and Maxillofacial Examinations under Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). Health Phys. 2017;113:129-134 pubmed publisher
    ..Dose reduction by means of a commercial lead apron was significant in all other regions, particularly in the region of the female breast. ..
  24. Chen S, Liu B, Carlson M, Gombart A, Reilly D, Xie J. Recent advances in electrospun nanofibers for wound healing. Nanomedicine (Lond). 2017;12:1335-1352 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we finish with conclusions and future perspective in this field. ..
  25. Sherratt M. Body mass index and dermal remodelling. Exp Dermatol. 2015;24:922-3 pubmed publisher
  26. Hearing V. Milestones in melanocytes/melanogenesis. J Invest Dermatol. 2011;131:E1 pubmed publisher
  27. Meyer W, Schwarz R, Neurand K. The skin of domestic mammals as a model for the human skin, with special reference to the domestic pig. Curr Probl Dermatol. 1978;7:39-52 pubmed
  28. Larrabee W, Sutton D. A finite element model of skin deformation. II. An experimental model of skin deformation. Laryngoscope. 1986;96:406-12 pubmed
    ..Limitations of the model and areas for future investigation are discussed (III). ..
  29. Raghunath M, Unsöld C, Kubitscheck U, Bruckner Tuderman L, Peters R, Meuli M. The cutaneous microfibrillar apparatus contains latent transforming growth factor-beta binding protein-1 (LTBP-1) and is a repository for latent TGF-beta1. J Invest Dermatol. 1998;111:559-64 pubmed
    ..Thus, this major connective tissue structure does not only serve as a force bearing element and scaffold for elastin deposition in the dermis, but also as an important repository for latent TGF-beta in the skin. ..
  30. Tan H, Ellis J, Koplin J, Martino D, Dang T, Suaini N, et al. Methylation of the filaggrin gene promoter does not affect gene expression and allergy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2014;25:608-10 pubmed publisher
  31. Sauvaigo S, Caillat S, Odin F, Nkengne A, Bertin C, Oddos T. Effect of aging on DNA excision/synthesis repair capacities of human skin fibroblasts. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130:1739-41 pubmed publisher
  32. Antonov D, Schliemann S, Elsner P. Methods for the Assessment of Barrier Function. Curr Probl Dermatol. 2016;49:61-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The modern imaging methods are important developments in the last decades which, however, determine the structure and, hence, cannot replace the measurement of TEWL in questions related to function. ..
  33. Shadwick R, Russell A, Lauff R. The structure and mechanical design of rhinoceros dermal armour. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1992;337:419-28 pubmed
  34. Qiang B, Greenleaf J, Zhang X. Quantifying viscoelasticity of gelatin phantoms by measuring impulse response using compact optical sensors. IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control. 2010;57:1696-700 pubmed publisher
    ..The results are validated with a standard continuous wave (CW) method. ..
  35. Yin N. [Functional repair of cleft lip: from anatomical resetting to biomechanical simulation]. Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2017;52:212-217 pubmed publisher
  36. Kim Y, Yoo S, Park H, Lim H, Kim Y, Lee S, et al. Exosomes derived from human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells stimulates rejuvenation of human skin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;493:1102-1108 pubmed publisher
  37. Khakh B, Burnstock G. The double life of ATP. Sci Am. 2009;301:84-90, 92 pubmed
  38. Steinert P. The complexity and redundancy of epithelial barrier function. J Cell Biol. 2000;151:F5-8 pubmed
  39. Singer A, Clark R. Cutaneous wound healing. N Engl J Med. 1999;341:738-46 pubmed
  40. Kumar S, Liu G, Schloerb D, Srinivasan M. Viscoelastic characterization of the primate finger pad in vivo by microstep indentation and three-dimensional finite element models for tactile sensation studies. J Biomech Eng. 2015;137:061002 pubmed publisher
    ..Franzen and J. Westman, eds., Macmillan Press, London, UK), suggesting that the rate of adaptation of SA-1 mechanoreceptors is governed by the viscoelastic nature of its surrounding tissue. ..
  41. Poranki D, Whitener W, Howse S, Mesen T, Howse E, Burnell J, et al. Evaluation of skin regeneration after burns in vivo and rescue of cells after thermal stress in vitro following treatment with a keratin biomaterial. J Biomater Appl. 2014;29:26-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment of burns with gamma keratin may therefore represent a potential therapy for wounds with an intermediate zone of damaged tissue that has the potential to contribute to spontaneous healing. ..
  42. Balin A, Pratt L. Physiological consequences of human skin aging. Cutis. 1989;43:431-6 pubmed
    ..We summarize the major changes that occur during the intrinsic aging process of the skin to facilitate the recognition and treatment of skin disease in the older patient. ..
  43. Belkoff S, Haut R. A structural model used to evaluate the changing microstructure of maturing rat skin. J Biomech. 1991;24:711-20 pubmed
    ..The results of this study indicate that this simple three-parameter model might be a useful tool in future studies to analyze pathological changes in the collagenous microstructure. ..
  44. Cox P. Insensible water loss and its assessment in adult patients: a review. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1987;31:771-6 pubmed
    ..Finally, a suggestion is put forward regarding a simplified formula for estimating insensible water loss in adult patients, based on information currently available in the literature. ..
  45. Uchinaka A, Kawaguchi N, Ban T, Hamada Y, Mori S, Maeno Y, et al. Evaluation of dermal wound healing activity of synthetic peptide SVVYGLR. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;491:714-720 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, SV peptide has a beneficial function to promote wound healing by stimulating granulation via stimulating angiogenesis, cell migration, and the myofibroblastic differentiation of fibroblasts. ..
  46. Trivisonno A, Rossi A, Monti M, Di Nunno D, Desouches C, Cannistra C, et al. Facial skin rejuvenation by autologous dermal microfat transfer in photoaged patients: Clinical evaluation and skin surface digital profilometry analysis. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2017;70:1118-1128 pubmed publisher
  47. Fukagawa S, Haramizu S, Sasaoka S, Yasuda Y, Tsujimura H, Murase T. Coffee polyphenols extracted from green coffee beans improve skin properties and microcirculatory function. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2017;81:1814-1822 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that an 8-week intake of CPPs improve skin permeability barrier function and hydration, with a concomitant improvement in microcirculatory function, leading to efficacy in the alleviation of mildly xerotic skin. ..
  48. Lanir Y, Fung Y. Two-dimensional mechanical properties of rabbit skin. II. Experimental results. J Biomech. 1974;7:171-82 pubmed
  49. Schamhardt H, van den Bogert A, Hartman W. Measurement techniques in animal locomotion analysis. Acta Anat (Basel). 1993;146:123-9 pubmed
    ..Strain in tendons is difficult to measure due to problems in defining a'zero' or reference length.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  50. Muzaffar F, Hussain I, Haroon T. Physiologic skin changes during pregnancy: a study of 140 cases. Int J Dermatol. 1998;37:429-31 pubmed
    ..7%), striae (77.1%), edema (48.5), melasma (46.4%), vascular changes (34.2%), and others. Pigmentary changes were the most common finding, whereas the incidence of vascular changes was quite low (p < 0.01). ..
  51. Jabbari A, Suárez Fariñas M, Dewell S, Krueger J. Transcriptional profiling of psoriasis using RNA-seq reveals previously unidentified differentially expressed genes. J Invest Dermatol. 2012;132:246-9 pubmed publisher
  52. de Haan G, Jeanne V. Robust pulse rate from chrominance-based rPPG. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2013;60:2878-86 pubmed publisher
    ..We expect the greatly improved robustness to considerably widen the application scope of the technology. ..
  53. Wang W, Stuijk S, de Haan G. Exploiting spatial redundancy of image sensor for motion robust rPPG. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2015;62:415-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The rPPG method developed in this study has a performance that is very close to that of the contact-based sensor under realistic situations, while its computational efficiency allows real-time processing on an off-the-shelf computer. ..