integumentary system


Summary: The outer covering of the body composed of the SKIN and the skin appendages, which are the HAIR, the NAILS; and the SEBACEOUS GLANDS and the SWEAT GLANDS and their ducts.

Top Publications

  1. Moussian B, Tång E, Tonning A, Helms S, Schwarz H, NUSSLEIN VOLHARD C, et al. Drosophila Knickkopf and Retroactive are needed for epithelial tube growth and cuticle differentiation through their specific requirement for chitin filament organization. Development. 2006;133:163-71 pubmed
    ..We propose a model in which Knk and the predicted chitin-binding protein Rtv form membrane complexes essential for epithelial tubulogenesis and cuticle formation through their specific role in directing chitin filament assembly...
  2. Feduccia A, Lingham Soliar T, Hinchliffe J. Do feathered dinosaurs exist? Testing the hypothesis on neontological and paleontological evidence. J Morphol. 2005;266:125-66 pubmed
    ..g., microraptors and others) may be a separate clade, distinctive from the main lineage of Theropoda, a remnant of the early avian radiation, exhibiting all stages of flight and flightlessness...
  3. Futahashi R, Okamoto S, Kawasaki H, Zhong Y, Iwanaga M, Mita K, et al. Genome-wide identification of cuticular protein genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2008;38:1138-46 pubmed
    ..This study reveals many novel cuticular protein genes as well as insights into cuticular protein gene regulation. ..
  4. Allam A, Abo Eleneen R. Scales microstructure of snakes from the Egyptian area. Zoolog Sci. 2012;29:770-5 pubmed publisher
  5. Dembeck L, Böröczky K, Huang W, Schal C, Anholt R, Mackay T. Genetic architecture of natural variation in cuticular hydrocarbon composition in Drosophila melanogaster. elife. 2015;4: pubmed publisher
    ..Disruption of expression of 24 candidate genes affected CHC composition in at least one sex. These genes are associated with fatty acid metabolism and represent mechanistic targets for individual variation in CHC composition. ..
  6. Plochocki J, Ruiz S, Rodriguez Sosa J, Hall M. Histological study of white rhinoceros integument. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0176327 pubmed publisher
    ..Simple coiled sweat glands were present in the dermis, but hair and sebaceous glands were absent. Together, these data suggest the white rhinoceros has a unique integumentary system among large terrestrial herbivores.
  7. Meyer W, Godynicki S, Tsukise A. Lectin histochemistry of the endothelium of blood vessels in the mammalian integument, with remarks on the endothelial glycocalyx and blood vessel system nomenclature. Ann Anat. 2008;190:264-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The results obtained are discussed from a comparative point of view, also with regard to certain basic functions of the endothelial cells and their glycocalyx. ..
  8. Voigt D, Gorb S. An insect trap as habitat: cohesion-failure mechanism prevents adhesion of Pameridea roridulae bugs to the sticky surface of the plant Roridula gorgonias. J Exp Biol. 2008;211:2647-57 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that, when trapping prey, the plant adhesive might form proper contact with solid islands of the insect cuticle that are free of epicuticular grease. ..
  9. Gosden T, Chenoweth S. On the evolution of heightened condition dependence of male sexual displays. J Evol Biol. 2011;24:685-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that there is limited opportunity for males to evolve further condition dependence in response to yeast availability in this population. ..

More Information

Publications112 found, 100 shown here

  1. Hill R. Integration of morphological data sets for phylogenetic analysis of Amniota: the importance of integumentary characters and increased taxonomic sampling. Syst Biol. 2005;54:530-47 pubmed
  2. Kato T, Sawada H, Yamamoto T, Mase K, Nakagoshi M. Pigment pattern formation in the quail mutant of the silkworm, Bombyx mori: parallel increase of pteridine biosynthesis and pigmentation of melanin and ommochromes. Pigment Cell Res. 2006;19:337-45 pubmed
    ..It is also suggested here that in the silkworm a recessive gene (q) may be involved in the regulation of its pigment pattern formation. ..
  3. Lerosey Aubril R, Meyer R. The sensory dorsal organs of crustaceans. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 2013;88:406-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The description of a SDO in freshwater carideans, which can be easily reared in a laboratory, opens the way for behavioural and physiological experiments to be undertaken that could prove crucial for the determination of this function. ..
  4. Wada H, Iwasaki M, Kawakami K. Development of the lateral line canal system through a bone remodeling process in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2014;392:1-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we found that lateral line cells are required for the formation of canals, suggesting the existence of mutual interactions between the sensory system and surrounding connective tissues. ..
  5. Lavezzo M, Sakata V, Morita C, Rodriguez E, Abdallah S, da Silva F, et al. Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease: review of a rare autoimmune disease targeting antigens of melanocytes. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2016;11:29 pubmed publisher
    ..After the acute uveitic stage, ocular and integumentary system pigmentary changes may appear...
  6. Moussian B, Söding J, Schwarz H, NUSSLEIN VOLHARD C. Retroactive, a membrane-anchored extracellular protein related to vertebrate snake neurotoxin-like proteins, is required for cuticle organization in the larva of Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Dyn. 2005;233:1056-63 pubmed
    ..We propose that this binding function of Rtv may assist the organization of chitin fibers at the epidermal cell surface during cuticle assembly. ..
  7. Bickenbach J, Kulesz Martin M. Signaling to structures: skin appendages, development and diseases--meeting report of the 55th annual Montagna Symposium on the Biology of Skin. J Invest Dermatol. 2007;127:988-90 pubmed
  8. Hu H, Watson G, Cribb B, Watson J. Non-wetting wings and legs of the cranefly aided by fine structures of the cuticle. J Exp Biol. 2011;214:915-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that this fine hair structure enhances the ability of the hairs to resist penetration into water bodies. ..
  9. Arienti M, Antony C, Wicker Thomas C, Delbecque J, Jallon J. Ontogeny of Drosophila melanogaster female sex-appeal and cuticular hydrocarbons. Integr Zool. 2010;5:272-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This supports the hypothesis that late male courtship steps might be triggered by the CHCs, which build up after this age, especially female-specific (Z,Z)-7,11 - and (Z,Z)-5,9-dienes. ..
  10. Yu Q, Lu C, Li W, Xiang Z, Zhang Z. Annotation and expression of carboxylesterases in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. BMC Genomics. 2009;10:553 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide some new insights into functions and evolutionary characteristics of COEs in phytophagous insects...
  11. Fu Q, Li P, Xu Y, Zhang S, Jia L, Zha X, et al. Proteomic analysis of larval integument, trachea and adult scale from the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Proteomics. 2011;11:3761-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Seventy-three non-cuticular proteins were also identified in this analysis mainly including muscular proteins, proteinases, inhibitors, transport proteins, and redox-related proteins...
  12. Niederegger S, Spiess R. Cuticular muscle attachment sites as a tool for species determination in blowfly larvae. Parasitol Res. 2012;110:1903-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Interspecific morphological similarity of the larvae and differences in growth rate make species determination an essential requisite for an exact PMI calculation. ..
  13. Salvatierra L, Tourinho A. The integumentary ultrastructure of Cryptocellus bordoni Dumitresco and Jurvara-Bals, 1976 (Arachnida, Ricinulei). Micron. 2016;81:48-66 pubmed publisher
    ..We compare the new structures to those previously described for other Ricinulei species and discuss their taxonomic implications and the placement of C. bordoni in the genus Cryptocellus. ..
  14. Lillywhite H. Water relations of tetrapod integument. J Exp Biol. 2006;209:202-26 pubmed
    ..Advances in such knowledge have didactic significance for understanding vertebrate evolution as well as practical application to clinical dermatology. ..
  15. Lemke S, Schmidt Ott U. Evidence for a composite anterior determinant in the hover fly Episyrphus balteatus (Syrphidae), a cyclorrhaphan fly with an anterodorsal serosa anlage. Development. 2009;136:117-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss our findings in a phylogenetic context and propose that Episyrphus employs a primitive cyclorrhaphan mechanism of AP axis specification. ..
  16. Ye F, Liang L, Mi Q, Yang J, Lou Z, Sun Y, et al. Preliminary crystallographic study of two cuticle-degrading proteases from the nematophagous fungi Lecanicillium psalliotae and Paecilomyces lilacinus. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2009;65:271-4 pubmed publisher
    ..7, b = 67.8, c = 76.3 A, alpha = beta = gamma = 90 degrees . In contrast, crystals of the PL646-MSU-AAPV complex belonged to space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 65.1, b = 62.5, c = 67.6 A, beta = 92.8 degrees . ..
  17. Leys S, Riesgo A. Epithelia, an evolutionary novelty of metazoans. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2012;318:438-47 pubmed publisher
  18. Gorb S, Schuppert J, Walther P, Schwarz H. Contact behaviour of setal tips in the hairy attachment system of the fly Calliphora vicina (Diptera, Calliphoridae): a cryo-SEM approach. Zoology (Jena). 2012;115:142-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Second, the flexible central part of the endplate may jump into contact with the substrate during contact formation. ..
  19. McConney M, Schaber C, Julian M, Barth F, Tsukruk V. Viscoelastic nanoscale properties of cuticle contribute to the high-pass properties of spider vibration receptor (Cupiennius salei Keys). J R Soc Interface. 2007;4:1135-43 pubmed
    ..These viscoelastic properties of the cuticular pad are suggested to be at least partly responsible for the high-pass characteristics of the vibration sensor's physiological properties demonstrated earlier. ..
  20. Pantalacci S, Chaumot A, Beno t G, Sadier A, Delsuc F, Douzery E, et al. Conserved features and evolutionary shifts of the EDA signaling pathway involved in vertebrate skin appendage development. Mol Biol Evol. 2008;25:912-28 pubmed publisher
  21. Elstnerová P, Friák M, Fabritius H, Lymperakis L, Hickel T, Petrov M, et al. Ab initio study of thermodynamic, structural, and elastic properties of Mg-substituted crystalline calcite. Acta Biomater. 2010;6:4506-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to the quite large size-mismatch of Mg and Ca atoms, Mg substitution results in local distortions such as off-planar tilting of the CO?²? group. ..
  22. Buchholz F, Buchholz C. Growth and moulting in Northern krill (Meganyctiphanes norvegica Sars). Adv Mar Biol. 2010;57:173-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Its potential proliferation in new environments may also have implications to regional food webs, given the krill's high level of growth and productivity and their pivotal trophic role. ..
  23. de la Torre Escudero E, Manzano Román R, Pérez Sánchez R, Siles Lucas M, Oleaga A. Cloning and characterization of a plasminogen-binding surface-associated enolase from Schistosoma bovis. Vet Parasitol. 2010;173:76-84 pubmed publisher
  24. Delannoy Y, Bécart Robert A, Houssaye C, Pollard J, Cornez R, Tournel G, et al. [Body's integumentary restoration after autopsy: legislative, technical and ethical issues]. Presse Med. 2013;42:145-50 pubmed publisher
    ..This legislative evolution allows the harmonization of practices; forensic pathologists must be involved in these changes by bringing their scientific expertise, notably through improving their autopsy techniques. ..
  25. Omori K, Wada S, Maruyama Y, Hattori A, Kitamura K, Sato Y, et al. Prostaglandin E? increases both osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity in the scales and participates in calcium metabolism in goldfish. Zoolog Sci. 2012;29:499-504 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that, in teleosts, PGE? activates both osteoblasts and osteoclasts and participates in calcium metabolism...
  26. Miller M, Moore G, Bertin F, Kritchevsky J. What's New in Old Horses? Postmortem Diagnoses in Mature and Aged Equids. Vet Pathol. 2016;53:390-8 pubmed publisher
    ..6%), urinary system (4.6%), reproductive system (4.2%), respiratory system (4.2%), integumentary system (4.2%), lymphoid system (2.5%), liver (2.5%), or systemic neoplasia (1.2%)...
  27. Dapporto L, Matthew Sledge F, Turillazzi S. Dynamics of cuticular chemical profiles of Polistes dominulus workers in orphaned nests (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). J Insect Physiol. 2005;51:969-73 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the composition of epicuticular lipids is not determined at the pre-imaginal stage, and that physiological pathways leading to cuticular chemical changes are similar in foundresses and workers of P. dominulus. ..
  28. McConville M, Brennan G, Flanagan A, Edgar H, McCoy M, Castillo R, et al. Surface and internal tegumental changes in juvenile Fasciola hepatica following treatment in vivo with the experimental fasciolicide, compound alpha. Vet Parasitol. 2008;153:52-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Both the circular and longitudinal muscle bundles were severely disrupted 72h post-treatment. They frequently contained a reduced number of muscle fibres and, in more severe instances, there was an absence of fibres altogether. ..
  29. Tsao I, Christensen B, Chen C. Armigeres subalbatus (Diptera: Culicidae) prophenoloxidase III is required for mosquito cuticle formation: ultrastructural study on dsRNA-knockdown mosquitoes. J Med Entomol. 2010;47:495-503 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that As-pro-PO III plays a role in cuticle formation in mosquitoes, a novel function for phenol-oxidizing enzymes. ..
  30. Terblanche J, Clusella Trullas S, Chown S. Phenotypic plasticity of gas exchange pattern and water loss in Scarabaeus spretus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae): deconstructing the basis for metabolic rate variation. J Exp Biol. 2010;213:2940-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are significant for understanding the evolution of gas exchange patterns and trade-offs between metabolic rate and water balance in insects and other terrestrial arthropods. ..
  31. Bragulla H, Hirschberg R. Horse hooves and bird feathers: Two model systems for studying the structure and development of highly adapted integumentary accessory organs--the role of the dermo-epidermal interface for the micro-architecture of complex epidermal structures. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2003;298:140-51 pubmed
  32. Reeb D, Best P, Kidson S. Structure of the integument of southern right whales, Eubalaena australis. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2007;290:596-613 pubmed
    ..Epidermal thickness, presence of epidermal rods, and callosities may act as barriers against mechanical injury from bodily contact with conspecifics or hard surfaces in the environment (e.g., rocks, ice). ..
  33. Brandt M, van Wilgenburg E, Tsutsui N. Global-scale analyses of chemical ecology and population genetics in the invasive Argentine ant. Mol Ecol. 2009;18:997-1005 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings shed light on the behaviour and sociality of these unicolonial invaders, and pose new questions about the history and origins of introduced populations. ..
  34. Dhananjeyan K, Paramasivan R, Tewari S, Rajendran R, Thenmozhi V, Leo S, et al. Molecular identification of mosquito vectors using genomic DNA isolated from eggshells, larval and pupal exuvium. Trop Biomed. 2010;27:47-53 pubmed
    ..The genomic DNA from these alternate sources also supported the species-specific PCR to distinguish the Culex vishnui subgroup mosquitoes. ..
  35. Calderón Fernández G, Girotti J, Juárez M. Cuticular hydrocarbon pattern as a chemotaxonomy marker to assess intraspecific variability in Triatoma infestans, a major vector of Chagas' disease. Med Vet Entomol. 2012;26:201-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Pyrethroid-resistant and -susceptible specimens were differentiated based on relative amounts of some straight and monomethyl-branched hydrocarbon components. ..
  36. Byrne C, Hardman M, Nield K. Covering the limb--formation of the integument. J Anat. 2003;202:113-23 pubmed
  37. Talarico G, Palacios Vargas J, Fuentes Silva M, Alberti G. Ultrastructure of tarsal sensilla and other integument structures of two Pseudocellus species (Ricinulei, Arachnida). J Morphol. 2006;267:441-63 pubmed
    ..Several of these sensilla form a sensory field on the dorsofrontal surface which is particularly pronounced on the distal tarsomeres of legs I and II...
  38. Gold R, Brown M. One little lesion--so many choices. Part 1 of 2: the CPT aspect. J AHIMA. 2004;75:64-6 pubmed
  39. Higgie M, Blows M. The evolution of reproductive character displacement conflicts with how sexual selection operates within a species. Evolution. 2008;62:1192-203 pubmed publisher
    ..Sympatric populations display suboptimal phenotypes relative to their allopatric conspecifics. The combination of reinforcement and sexual selection can therefore generate divergence in female preferences and male display traits. ..
  40. Chen P, Lin A, McKittrick J, Meyers M. Structure and mechanical properties of crab exoskeletons. Acta Biomater. 2008;4:587-96 pubmed publisher
    ..It was found that the exocuticle (outer layer) is two times harder than the endocuticle (inner layer). Fracture surfaces after testing were observed using scanning electron microscopy; the fracture mechanism is discussed. ..
  41. Cumino A, Nicolao M, Loos J, Denegri G, Elissondo M. Echinococcus granulosus tegumental enzymes as in vitro markers of pharmacological damage: a biochemical and molecular approach. Parasitol Int. 2012;61:579-85 pubmed publisher
    ..granulosus protoscoleces. ..
  42. Braga M, Pinto Z, de Carvalho Queiroz M, Matsumoto N, Blomquist G. Cuticular hydrocarbons as a tool for the identification of insect species: puparial cases from Sarcophagidae. Acta Trop. 2013;128:479-85 pubmed publisher
  43. Kather R, Drijfhout F, Martin S. Task group differences in cuticular lipids in the honey bee Apis mellifera. J Chem Ecol. 2011;37:205-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Newly emerged bees had low levels of cuticular lipids, supporting the Blank Slate theory and potentially explaining their acceptance into foreign colonies. ..
  44. Sire J, Donoghue P, Vickaryous M. Origin and evolution of the integumentary skeleton in non-tetrapod vertebrates. J Anat. 2009;214:409-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Given its widespread distribution in non-tetrapod lineages we further propose that elasmodine is a very ancient tissue in vertebrates and predict that it will be found in ancestral rhombic scales and cosmoid scales...
  45. Farine J, Ferveur J, Everaerts C. Volatile Drosophila cuticular pheromones are affected by social but not sexual experience. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40396 pubmed publisher
  46. McLafferty E, Hendry C, Alistair F. The integumentary system: anatomy, physiology and function of skin. Nurs Stand. 2012;27:35-42 pubmed
    ..which forms part of the life sciences series, examines the anatomy and physiology of skin, also termed the integumentary system. Skin is composed of two main layers, the epidermis and dermis...
  47. Dubovskiy I, Whitten M, Yaroslavtseva O, Greig C, Kryukov V, Grizanova E, et al. Can insects develop resistance to insect pathogenic fungi?. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e60248 pubmed publisher
    ..bassiana but not M. anisopliae. This too occurs primarily in the integument, and probably contributes to antifungal defense and/or helps ameliorate the damage inflicted by the fungus or the host's own immune responses...
  48. Tiklová K, Tsarouhas V, Samakovlis C. Control of airway tube diameter and integrity by secreted chitin-binding proteins in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e67415 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Obst-A and Gasp organize luminal matrix assembly, which in turn controls the apical shapes of adjacent cells during tube diameter expansion. ..
  49. Mountjoy K, Jenny Wu C, Dumont L, Wild J. Melanocortin-4 receptor messenger ribonucleic acid expression in rat cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and integumentary systems. Endocrinology. 2003;144:5488-96 pubmed
    ..The expression of the MC4-R in cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and integumentary systems supports functional roles for the MC4-R in addition to its roles in appetite, weight control, and regulation of linear growth...
  50. Felsemburgh F, Carvalho e Silva S, de Brito Gitirana L. Morphological characterization of the anuran integument of the Proceratophrys and Odontophrynus genera (Amphibia, Anuran, Leptodactylidae). Micron. 2007;38:439-45 pubmed
    ..The integument morphology showed peculiar characteristics that may be helpful for genus distinction. Thus, morphological methods may be considered as an efficient means to characterize and to differentiate anuran genera...
  51. Shultz J. Morphology of the prosomal endoskeleton of Scorpiones (Arachnida) and a new hypothesis for the evolution of cuticular cephalic endoskeletons in arthropods. Arthropod Struct Dev. 2007;36:77-102 pubmed
    ..The model is used to interpret the cephalic endoskeletons of two non-chelicerate arthropods, Archaeognatha (Hexapoda) and Symphyla (Myriapoda), to demonstrate the generality of the model...
  52. Weldon P, Flachsbarth B, Schulz S. Natural products from the integument of nonavian reptiles. Nat Prod Rep. 2008;25:738-56 pubmed publisher
    ..This review describes the epidermal and glandular chemistry of nonavian reptiles in relation to proposed functions, and includes more than 170 references. The results are presented according to the different reptile taxa...
  53. Skorobrechova E, Nikishin V. Structure of capsule surrounding acanthocephalans Corynosoma strumosum in paratenic hosts of three species. Parasitol Res. 2011;108:467-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The obtained results allow considering the smelts as the most suitable paratenic hosts and the yellow-finned sole as unsuitable paratenic host for the studied acanthocephalans...
  54. Melcón M, Lazzari C, Manrique G. Repeated plasticization and recovery of cuticular stiffness in the blood-sucking bug Triatoma infestans in the feeding context. J Insect Physiol. 2005;51:989-93 pubmed
    ..Accordingly to this, their cuticle recovers stiffness in some hours and becomes able to respond repeatedly to sensory inputs associated with feeding...
  55. Maoka T, Tanimoto F, Sano M, Tsurukawa K, Tsuno T, Tsujiwaki S, et al. Effects of dietary supplementation of ferulic acid and gamma-oryzanol on integument color and suppression of oxidative stress in cultured red sea bream, Pagrus major. J Oleo Sci. 2008;57:133-7 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that FA and OZ suppressed not only dark-color pigmentation but also oxidative stress in cultured red sea bream...
  56. Gangishetti U, Breitenbach S, Zander M, Saheb S, Muller U, Schwarz H, et al. Effects of benzoylphenylurea on chitin synthesis and orientation in the cuticle of the Drosophila larva. Eur J Cell Biol. 2009;88:167-80 pubmed publisher
  57. Pedrini N, Villaverde M, Fuse C, Dal Bello G, Juárez M. Beauveria bassiana infection alters colony development and defensive secretions of the beetles Tribolium castaneum and Ulomoides dermestoides (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). J Econ Entomol. 2010;103:1094-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that after infection events take place, fungus-induced diminished secretion of the defensive pheromones may be a physiologic clue for behavioral changes in infected beetles...
  58. Anh N, Nishitani M, Harada S, Yamaguchi M, Kamei K. Essential role of Duox in stabilization of Drosophila wing. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:33244-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These dDuox-knockdown fly lines would be useful tools for further studying dDuox functions during the development of Drosophila...
  59. Carvalho E, Fuentes J, Power D. Integument structure and function in juvenile Xenopus laevis with disrupted thyroid balance. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2011;174:301-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Modifications in skin structure are presumably the basis for its changed bioelectric properties and the study highlights a site of action for environmental chemicals which has been largely neglected...
  60. Suzuki N, Hattori A. Bisphenol A suppresses osteoclastic and osteoblastic activities in the cultured scales of goldfish. Life Sci. 2003;73:2237-47 pubmed
  61. Espinoza I, Galindo M, Bizarro C, Ferreira H, Zaha A, Galanti N. Early post-larval development of the endoparasitic platyhelminth Mesocestoides corti: trypsin provokes reversible tegumental damage leading to serum-induced cell proliferation and growth. J Cell Physiol. 2005;205:211-7 pubmed
  62. Muller M, Olek M, Giersig M, Schmitz H. Micromechanical properties of consecutive layers in specialized insect cuticle: the gula of Pachnoda marginata (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) and the infrared sensilla of Melanophila acuminata (Coleoptera, Buprestidae). J Exp Biol. 2008;211:2576-83 pubmed publisher
    ..53GPa whereas the inner mesocuticular core of the sensillum represents the most elastic and softest layer with values of H=0.29GPa and E(r)=4.8GPa. Results are discussed with regard to the proposed functions...
  63. D Amico V, Slavicek J, Podgwaite J, Webb R, Fuester R, Peiffer R. Deletion of v-chiA from a baculovirus reduces horizontal transmission in the field. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2013;79:4056-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this study tests the pivotal role of liquefaction and the v-chiA gene in field transmission for the first time and uses complementary laboratory data to provide a likely explanation for our findings...
  64. Arbour V, Burns M, Bell P, Currie P. Epidermal and dermal integumentary structures of ankylosaurian dinosaurs. J Morphol. 2014;275:39-50 pubmed publisher
  65. Tong X, Coulombe P. A novel mouse type I intermediate filament gene, keratin 17n (K17n), exhibits preferred expression in nail tissue. J Invest Dermatol. 2004;122:965-70 pubmed
    ..Depending on the existence of a human ortholog or a functional equivalent, our findings may also provide a molecular explanation for several unusual aspects of hK17-based diseases...
  66. Jones M, Gobert G, Zhang L, Sunderland P, McManus D. The cytoskeleton and motor proteins of human schistosomes and their roles in surface maintenance and host-parasite interactions. Bioessays. 2004;26:752-65 pubmed
    ..Unresolved questions in relation to the structure and function of the tegument relate to dynamic organization of the syncytial layer...
  67. Georgieva K, Yoneva A, Mizinska Boevska Y, Todev I. Ultrastructure of the contact surfaces of Passalurus ambiguus (Rudolphi, 1819) (Nematoda). Acta Biol Hung. 2005;56:297-303 pubmed
    ..The intestinal wall consists of epithelial cells with microvilli. The ultrastructural characteristics of both contact surfaces indicate their main functions--absorption, secretion, transport, protection, movement, etc...
  68. Burrows M, Sutton G. Locusts use a composite of resilin and hard cuticle as an energy store for jumping and kicking. J Exp Biol. 2012;215:3501-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In this way all the stored energy is returned and the natural shape of the femur is restored rapidly so that a jump or kick can be repeated...
  69. Böröczky K, Wada Katsumata A, Batchelor D, Zhukovskaya M, Schal C. Insects groom their antennae to enhance olfactory acuity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:3615-20 pubmed publisher
  70. Beeching S, Glass B, Rehorek S. Histology of melanic flank and opercular color pattern elements in the Firemouth Cichlid, Thorichthys meeki. J Morphol. 2013;274:743-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Regional differences in epidermal structure, scale distribution, and connective tissues were also identified. ..
  71. Tsonis P. Regenerative biology: the emerging field of tissue repair and restoration. Differentiation. 2002;70:397-409 pubmed
    ..This review will present an overview of the potential of all vertebrate organs to regenerate and of the basic mechanisms involved...
  72. Pertsis V, Sverdlov A, Ishay J. The thermo-photoelectric (TPE) properties of the hornet cuticle: correlation with the morphological structure. Physiol Chem Phys Med NMR. 2003;35:73-90 pubmed
    ..The specific heat of the yellow stripes in the cuticle is about twice as high as that of the same stripes that had been depleted of their yellow pigment, amounting to 1.8-1.9 J/g.K vs. 0.8 J/g.K...
  73. Juárez M, Fernandez G. Cuticular hydrocarbons of triatomines. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2007;147:711-30 pubmed
    ..We will also review the utility of cuticular hydrocarbon fingerprints in chemotaxonomy...
  74. Everaerts C, Maekawa K, Farine J, Shimada K, Luykx P, Brossut R, et al. The Cryptocercus punctulatus species complex (Dictyoptera: Cryptocercidae) in the eastern United States: comparison of cuticular hydrocarbons, chromosome number, and DNA sequences. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2008;47:950-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide support for the parallel model of chromosome evolution in the species complex...
  75. Martin S, Drijfhout F. A review of ant cuticular hydrocarbons. J Chem Ecol. 2009;35:1151-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Unlike the ubiquitous n-alkanes and monomethylalkanes, there is a huge diversity of species-specific dimethylalkanes that makes them likely candidates for species and nest-mate discrimination signals...
  76. Taylor J, Patek S. Ritualized fighting and biological armor: the impact mechanics of the mantis shrimp's telson. J Exp Biol. 2010;213:3496-504 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reveals the mechanical infrastructure of impact resistance in biological armor and opens a new window to the biomechanical underpinnings of animal behavior and assessment...
  77. Liang L, Liu S, Yang J, Meng Z, Lei L, Zhang K. Comparison of homology models and crystal structures of cuticle-degrading proteases from nematophagous fungi: structural basis of nematicidal activity. FASEB J. 2011;25:1894-902 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that nematode-parasitic and nematode-trapping fungi have evolved for distinct adaptation under selective pressure...
  78. Cabán Hernández K, Espino A. Differential expression and localization of saposin-like protein 2 of Fasciola hepatica. Acta Trop. 2013;128:591-7 pubmed publisher
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