thiouridine

Summary

Summary: A photoactivable URIDINE analog that is used as an affinity label.

Top Publications

  1. Durant P, Bajji A, Sundaram M, Kumar R, Davis D. Structural effects of hypermodified nucleosides in the Escherichia coli and human tRNALys anticodon loop: the effect of nucleosides s2U, mcm5U, mcm5s2U, mnm5s2U, t6A, and ms2t6A. Biochemistry. 2005;44:8078-89 pubmed
    ..Wobble modifications, t(6)A37, and magnesium each make unique contributions toward promoting canonical tRNA structure in the fundamentally dynamic tRNA(Lys)(UUU) anticodon. ..
  2. Noma A, Sakaguchi Y, Suzuki T. Mechanistic characterization of the sulfur-relay system for eukaryotic 2-thiouridine biogenesis at tRNA wobble positions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:1335-52 pubmed publisher
    The wobble modification in tRNAs, 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thiouridine (mcm(5)s(2)U), is required for the proper decoding of NNR codons in eukaryotes...
  3. Lauhon C, Erwin W, Ton G. Substrate specificity for 4-thiouridine modification in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:23022-9 pubmed
    The biosynthesis of 4-thiouridine (s4U) in Escherichia coli tRNA requires the action of both the thiamin pathway enzyme ThiI and the cysteine desulfurase IscS...
  4. Kambampati R, Lauhon C. Evidence for the transfer of sulfane sulfur from IscS to ThiI during the in vitro biosynthesis of 4-thiouridine in Escherichia coli tRNA. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:10727-30 pubmed
    ..Recently, we reported that IscS can donate sulfur for the in vitro biosynthesis of 4-thiouridine (s(4)U), a modified nucleotide in tRNA. In addition to IscS, s(4)U synthesis in E...
  5. Songe Møller L, van den Born E, Leihne V, Vågbø C, Kristoffersen T, Krokan H, et al. Mammalian ALKBH8 possesses tRNA methyltransferase activity required for the biogenesis of multiple wobble uridine modifications implicated in translational decoding. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:1814-27 pubmed publisher
    ..is a prerequisite for the thiolation and 2'-O-ribose methylation that form 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thiouridine (mcm5s2U) and 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2'-O-methyluridine (mcm5Um), respectively...
  6. Carlucci M, Kierzek E, Olejnik A, Turner D, Kierzek R. Chemical synthesis of LNA-2-thiouridine and its influence on stability and selectivity of oligonucleotide binding to RNA. Biochemistry. 2009;48:10882-93 pubmed publisher
    ..It is known, however, that replacement of uridine with 2-thiouridine significantly improves binding and selectivity...
  7. Hagervall T, Pomerantz S, McCloskey J. Reduced misreading of asparagine codons by Escherichia coli tRNALys with hypomodified derivatives of 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridine in the wobble position. J Mol Biol. 1998;284:33-42 pubmed
    ..MS2 mRNA by different hypomodified derivatives of tRNALys, normally containing 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridine (mnm5s2U34) in the wobble position, has been analysed...
  8. Kambampati R, Lauhon C. IscS is a sulfurtransferase for the in vitro biosynthesis of 4-thiouridine in Escherichia coli tRNA. Biochemistry. 1999;38:16561-8 pubmed
    We have improved the in vitro assay for 4-thiouridine (s(4)U) biosynthesis in Escherichia coli tRNA by substituting an unmodified tRNA transcript as substrate and including recombinant ThiI protein, a known factor required for s(4)U ..
  9. Huang B, Lu J, Byström A. A genome-wide screen identifies genes required for formation of the wobble nucleoside 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thiouridine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. RNA. 2008;14:2183-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Glu), tRNA(mcm5s2UUU Lys), and tRNA(mcm5s2UUG Gln) 3' of the wobble nucleoside 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thiouridine (mcm(5)s(2)U)...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Dubreuil Y, Expert Bezançon A, Favre A. Conformation and structural fluctuations of a 218 nucleotides long rRNA fragment: 4-thiouridine as an intrinsic photolabelling probe. Nucleic Acids Res. 1991;19:3653-60 pubmed
    ..coli 16S rRNA domain 2 has been studied using the intrinsic photoaffinity probe 4-thiouridine (s4U)...
  2. Okamoto I, Shohda K, Seio K, Sekine M. A new route to 2'-O-alkyl-2-thiouridine derivatives via 4-O-protection of the uracil base and hybridization properties of oligonucleotides incorporating these modified nucleoside derivatives. J Org Chem. 2003;68:9971-82 pubmed
    Oligonucleotides containing 2-thiouridine (s2U) in place of uridine form stable RNA duplexes with complementary RNAs...
  3. Nanda K, Wollenzien P. Pattern of 4-thiouridine-induced cross-linking in 16S ribosomal RNA in the Escherichia coli 30S subunit. Biochemistry. 2004;43:8923-34 pubmed
    The locations of RNA-RNA cross-links in 16S rRNA were determined after in vivo incorporation of 4-thiouridine (s(4)U) into RNA in a strain of Escherichia coli deficient in pyrimidine synthesis and irradiation at >320 nm...
  4. Sochacka E. Efficient assessment of modified nucleoside stability under conditions of automated oligonucleotide synthesis: characterization of the oxidation and oxidative desulfurization of 2-thiouridine. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2001;20:1871-9 pubmed
    ..Stability of 2-thiouridine against different oxidizers was investigated...
  5. Shigi N, Sakaguchi Y, Asai S, Suzuki T, Watanabe K. Common thiolation mechanism in the biosynthesis of tRNA thiouridine and sulphur-containing cofactors. EMBO J. 2008;27:3267-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identified an ATPase (tRNA-two-thiouridine C, TtuC) required for the 2-thiolation of s(2)T in Thermus thermophilus and examined in vitro s(2)T formation ..
  6. Rogers K, Crescenzo A, Soll D. Aminoacylation of transfer RNAs with 2-thiouridine derivatives in the wobble position of the anticodon. Biochimie. 1995;77:66-74 pubmed
    ..In Escherichia coli, glutamine, glutamate, and lysine tRNAs contain 2-thiouridine derivatives in this position, and the significance of these modifications has been under investigation since ..
  7. Veres Z, Stadtman T. A purified selenophosphate-dependent enzyme from Salmonella typhimurium catalyzes the replacement of sulfur in 2-thiouridine residues in tRNAs with selenium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:8092-6 pubmed
    ..This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of a 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridine residue in the tRNA substrate to 5-methylaminomethyl-2-selenouridine...
  8. Zhang R, Eriksson L. Theoretical study on conformational preferences of ribose in 2-thiouridine--the role of the 2'OH group. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2010;12:3690-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanism of selectivity towards C3'-endo conformation (conformer b) in ribose of 2-thiouridine has been studied using DFT (B3LYP) and MP2 methodology, together with 6-31+G(d,p) basis set...
  9. Rajakovich L, Tomlinson J, Dos Santos P. Functional Analysis of Bacillus subtilis Genes Involved in the Biosynthesis of 4-Thiouridine in tRNA. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:4933-40 pubmed publisher
    ..as an essential enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of thiamine and the tRNA thionucleoside modification, 4-thiouridine. In Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica, ThiI acts as a sulfurtransferase, receiving the sulfur donated ..
  10. Mueller E, Palenchar P. Using genomic information to investigate the function of ThiI, an enzyme shared between thiamin and 4-thiouridine biosynthesis. Protein Sci. 1999;8:2424-7 pubmed
    ..thiI encodes a protein (ThiI) that plays a role in the transfer of sulfur from cysteine to both thiamin and 4-thiouridine, but the reaction catalyzed by ThiI remains undetermined...
  11. Palenchar P, Buck C, Cheng H, Larson T, Mueller E. Evidence that ThiI, an enzyme shared between thiamin and 4-thiouridine biosynthesis, may be a sulfurtransferase that proceeds through a persulfide intermediate. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:8283-6 pubmed
    ThiI is an enzyme common to the biosynthetic pathways leading to both thiamin and 4-thiouridine in tRNA...
  12. You D, Xu T, Yao F, Zhou X, Deng Z. Direct evidence that ThiI is an ATP pyrophosphatase for the adenylation of uridine in 4-thiouridine biosynthesis. Chembiochem. 2008;9:1879-82 pubmed publisher
  13. Roovers M, Oudjama Y, Kaminska K, Purta E, Caillet J, Droogmans L, et al. Sequence-structure-function analysis of the bifunctional enzyme MnmC that catalyses the last two steps in the biosynthesis of hypermodified nucleoside mnm5s2U in tRNA. Proteins. 2008;71:2076-85 pubmed publisher
    MnmC catalyses the last two steps in the biosynthesis of 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridine (mnm(5)s(2)U) in tRNA...
  14. Juzumiene D, Wollenzien P. Arrangement of the central pseudoknot region of 16S rRNA in the 30S ribosomal subunit determined by site-directed 4-thiouridine crosslinking. RNA. 2001;7:71-84 pubmed
    ..rRNA central pseudoknot region in the 30S ribosomal subunit has been investigated by photocrosslinking from 4-thiouridine (s4U) located in the first 20 nt of the 16S rRNA...
  15. Aravind L, Koonin E. THUMP--a predicted RNA-binding domain shared by 4-thiouridine, pseudouridine synthases and RNA methylases. Trends Biochem Sci. 2001;26:215-7 pubmed
    Sequence profile searches were used to identify an ancient domain in ThiI-like thiouridine synthases, conserved RNA methylases, archaeal pseudouridine synthases and several uncharacterized proteins...
  16. Okamoto I, Seio K, Sekine M. Triplex forming ability of oligonucleotides containing 2'-O-methyl-2-thiouridine or 2-thiothymidine. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2006;16:3334-6 pubmed
    The triplex forming ability of oligonucleotides containing 2'-O-methyl-2-thiouridine (s2Um) and 2-thiothymidine (s2T) was studied...
  17. Nakagawa H, Kuratani M, Goto Ito S, Ito T, Katsura K, Terada T, et al. Crystallographic and mutational studies on the tRNA thiouridine synthetase TtuA. Proteins. 2013;81:1232-44 pubmed publisher
    ..T54 2-thiolation is achieved by the tRNA thiouridine synthetase TtuA and sulfur-carrier proteins...
  18. Lundgren H, Bj rk G. Structural alterations of the cysteine desulfurase IscS of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium reveal substrate specificity of IscS in tRNA thiolation. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:3052-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The synthesis of 4-thiouridine (s(4)U) and 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridine (mnm(5)s(2)U) occurs by a transfer of sulfur from IscS via ..
  19. Lauhon C. Orchestrating sulfur incorporation into RNA. Nat Chem Biol. 2006;2:182-3 pubmed
  20. Nakai Y, Umeda N, Suzuki T, Nakai M, Hayashi H, Watanabe K, et al. Yeast Nfs1p is involved in thio-modification of both mitochondrial and cytoplasmic tRNAs. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:12363-8 pubmed
    ..of Nfs1p resulted in an immediate impairment of the 2-thio-modification of 5-carboxymethylaminomethyl-2-thiouridine at the wobble positions of mt-tRNA(UUU)(Lys) and mt-tRNA(UUG)(Gln)...
  21. Elseviers D, Petrullo L, Gallagher P. Novel E. coli mutants deficient in biosynthesis of 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridine. Nucleic Acids Res. 1984;12:3521-34 pubmed
    Novel E. coli mutants deficient in biosynthesis of 5- methylaminomethyl -2-thiouridine were isolated based on a phenotype of reduced readthrough at UAG codons. They define 2 new loci trmE and trmF , near 83' on the E. coli map...
  22. Yasukawa T, Suzuki T, Ishii N, Ohta S, Watanabe K. Wobble modification defect in tRNA disturbs codon-anticodon interaction in a mitochondrial disease. EMBO J. 2001;20:4794-802 pubmed
    ..fibers (MERRF), a subgroup of mitochondrial encephalomyopathic diseases, the normally modified wobble base (a 2-thiouridine derivative) remains unmodified...
  23. Sochacka E, Bartos P, Kraszewska K, Nawrot B. Desulfuration of 2-thiouridine with hydrogen peroxide in the physiological pH range 6.6-7.6 is pH-dependent and results in two distinct products. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013;23:5803-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Desulfuration of 2-thiouridine (S2U) was investigated in the (1)H NMR scale in the presence of 100mM H2O2 and phosphate buffer in the ..
  24. Windhager L, Bonfert T, Burger K, Ruzsics Z, Krebs S, Kaufmann S, et al. Ultrashort and progressive 4sU-tagging reveals key characteristics of RNA processing at nucleotide resolution. Genome Res. 2012;22:2031-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Metabolic tagging of newly transcribed RNA by 4-thiouridine (4sU) can reveal the relative contributions of RNA synthesis and decay rates...
  25. Bujnicki J, Oudjama Y, Roovers M, Owczarek S, Caillet J, Droogmans L. Identification of a bifunctional enzyme MnmC involved in the biosynthesis of a hypermodified uridine in the wobble position of tRNA. RNA. 2004;10:1236-42 pubmed
    ..the bifunctional enzyme MnmC that catalyzes the two last steps in the biosynthesis of 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridine (mnm5s2U) in tRNA has been previously mapped at about 50 min on the Escherichia coli K12 chromosome, but to ..
  26. Sasarman F, Antonicka H, Horvath R, Shoubridge E. The 2-thiouridylase function of the human MTU1 (TRMU) enzyme is dispensable for mitochondrial translation. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:4634-43 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates that MTU1 is not required for mitochondrial translation at normal steady-state levels of tRNAs, and that it may possess an as yet uncharacterized function in another sulfur-trafficking pathway...
  27. Yarian C, Townsend H, Czestkowski W, Sochacka E, Malkiewicz A, Guenther R, et al. Accurate translation of the genetic code depends on tRNA modified nucleosides. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:16391-5 pubmed
    ..In particular, the nucleoside modifications 2-thiouridine at position 34 (s(2)U(34)), 5-methylaminomethyluridine at position 34 (mnm(5)U(34)), and 6-..
  28. Igloi G. Interaction of tRNAs and of phosphorothioate-substituted nucleic acids with an organomercurial. Probing the chemical environment of thiolated residues by affinity electrophoresis. Biochemistry. 1988;27:3842-9 pubmed
    The interactions of 4-thiouridine and 5-[(methylamino)methyl]-2-thiouridine in tRNA and of phosphorothioate esters in nucleic acids with an organomercurial have been investigated...
  29. Mueller E, Buck C, Palenchar P, Barnhart L, Paulson J. Identification of a gene involved in the generation of 4-thiouridine in tRNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 1998;26:2606-10 pubmed
    ..One modified base of known function is 4-thiouridine at position 8 of certain bacterial tRNAs, which serves as a photosensor for near-UV light...
  30. Lauhon C, Kambampati R. The iscS gene in Escherichia coli is required for the biosynthesis of 4-thiouridine, thiamin, and NAD. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:20096-103 pubmed
    ..in the repair of Fe-S clusters, was recently shown to act as a sulfurtransferase in the biosynthesis of 4-thiouridine (s(4)U) in tRNA (Kambampati, R., and Lauhon, C. T. (1999) Biochemistry 38, 16561-16568)...
  31. Pearson D, Carell T. Assay of both activities of the bifunctional tRNA-modifying enzyme MnmC reveals a kinetic basis for selective full modification of cmnm5s2U to mnm5s2U. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:4818-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The assay method developed here represents a general approach for the comparative analysis of tRNA-modifying enzymes. ..
  32. Sylvers L, Rogers K, Shimizu M, Ohtsuka E, Soll D. A 2-thiouridine derivative in tRNAGlu is a positive determinant for aminoacylation by Escherichia coli glutamyl-tRNA synthetase. Biochemistry. 1993;32:3836-41 pubmed
    ..glutamyl-tRNA synthetase (GluRS) and tRNAGlu have implicated the modified nucleoside 5-[(methylamino)methyl]-2-thiouridine in the first position of the anticodon as an important contact for efficient aminoacylation...
  33. Liu Y, Zhu X, Nakamura A, Orlando R, S ll D, Whitman W. Biosynthesis of 4-thiouridine in tRNA in the methanogenic archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:36683-92 pubmed publisher
    4-Thiouridine (s(4)U) is a conserved modified nucleotide at position 8 of bacterial and archaeal tRNAs and plays a role in protecting cells from near-UV killing...
  34. Mueller E, Palenchar P, Buck C. The role of the cysteine residues of ThiI in the generation of 4-thiouridine in tRNA. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:33588-95 pubmed
    The enzyme ThiI is common to the biosynthetic pathways leading to both thiamin and 4-thiouridine in tRNA...
  35. Ikeuchi Y, Shigi N, Kato J, Nishimura A, Suzuki T. Mechanistic insights into sulfur relay by multiple sulfur mediators involved in thiouridine biosynthesis at tRNA wobble positions. Mol Cell. 2006;21:97-108 pubmed
    The wobble bases of bacterial tRNAs responsible for NNR codons are modified to 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridine (mnm5s2U). 2-thio modification of mnm5s2U is required for accurate decoding and essential for normal cell growth...
  36. Bajji A, Sundaram M, Myszka D, Davis D. An RNA complex of the HIV-1 A-loop and tRNA(Lys,3) is stabilized by nucleoside modifications. J Am Chem Soc. 2002;124:14302-3 pubmed
    ..One model for the anticodon/A-loop RNA complex that is consistent with the known modification effects on tRNA structure and function is that of complementary tRNAs, as seen for the published crystal structure of tRNAAsp. ..
  37. Kambampati R, Lauhon C. MnmA and IscS are required for in vitro 2-thiouridine biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 2003;42:1109-17 pubmed
    ..In many organisms, tRNA specific for Lys, Glu, and Gln contain hypermodified 2-thiouridine (s(2)U) derivatives at wobble position 34...
  38. Evaldsson C, Ryden I, Rosen A, Uppugunduri S. 4-thiouridine induces dose-dependent reduction of oedema, leucocyte influx and tumour necrosis factor in lung inflammation. Clin Exp Immunol. 2009;155:330-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) concentration was also reduced. Previous in vivo observations indicated that 4-thiouridine might have similar effects on leucocyte infiltration and TNF release...
  39. Al Awadi N, Ibrahim Y, Ibrahim M. A direct synthetic approach to uracil anhydrothionucleoside derivatives. Carbohydr Res. 2009;344:2322-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Heating at 210-220 degrees C was found to give the best yield of a single isomer. The structures of the new anhydrothionucleosides were confirmed by NMR techniques. ..
  40. Abdo M, Sun Z, Knapp S. Biohybrid -Se-S- coupling reactions of an amino acid derived seleninate. Molecules. 2013;18:1963-72 pubmed publisher
    ..serving here as a peptide model, and its reductive coupling reactions under mild conditions with unprotected thiouridine and glutathione...
  41. Boczonadi V, Smith P, Pyle A, Gómez Durán A, Schara U, Tulinius M, et al. Altered 2-thiouridylation impairs mitochondrial translation in reversible infantile respiratory chain deficiency. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22:4602-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that l-cysteine supplementation is a potential treatment for RIRCD and for TRMU deficiency, and is likely to have broader application for the growing group of intra-mitochondrial translation disorders. ..
  42. Maynard N, Birch E, Sanghvi J, Chen L, Gutschow M, Covert M. A forward-genetic screen and dynamic analysis of lambda phage host-dependencies reveals an extensive interaction network and a new anti-viral strategy. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001017 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on our data, it appears that 2-thiouridine modification of tRNAGlu, tRNAGln, and tRNALys is particularly important for the efficient production of ..
  43. Leszczynska G, Leonczak P, Wozniak K, Malkiewicz A. Chemical synthesis of the 5-taurinomethyl(-2-thio)uridine modified anticodon arm of the human mitochondrial tRNA(Leu(UUR)) and tRNA(Lys). RNA. 2014;20:938-47 pubmed publisher
    5-Taurinomethyluridine (?m(5)U) and 5-taurinomethyl-2-thiouridine (?m(5)s(2)U) are located at the wobble position of human mitochondrial (hmt) tRNA(Leu(UUR)) and tRNA(Lys), respectively...
  44. Leszczynska G, Leonczak P, Dziergowska A, Malkiewicz A. mt-tRNA components: synthesis of (2-thio)uridines modified with blocked glycine/taurine moieties at C-5,1. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2013;32:599-616 pubmed publisher
    ..The first synthesis of 5-formyl-2',3'-O-isopropylidene-2-thiouridine is also reported.
  45. Dontsova O, Dokudovskaya S, Kopylov A, Bogdanov A, Rinke Appel J, Jünke N, et al. Three widely separated positions in the 16S RNA lie in or close to the ribosomal decoding region; a site-directed cross-linking study with mRNA analogues. EMBO J. 1992;11:3105-16 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the data are incompatible with some current models both for the three-dimensional arrangement of 16S RNA and for the orientation of the tRNA-mRNA complex in the ribosome. ..
  46. Chen C, Huang B, Anderson J, Byström A. Unexpected accumulation of ncm(5)U and ncm(5)S(2) (U) in a trm9 mutant suggests an additional step in the synthesis of mcm(5)U and mcm(5)S(2)U. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20783 pubmed publisher
    ..ncm(5)Um), 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-uridine (mcm(5)U) or 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thiouridine (mcm(5)s(2)U)...
  47. Lu J, Esberg A, Huang B, Byström A. Kluyveromyces lactis gamma-toxin, a ribonuclease that recognizes the anticodon stem loop of tRNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:1072-80 pubmed
    ..All three substrate tRNAs carry a 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thiouridine (mcm(5)s(2)U) residue at position 34 (wobble position) of which the mcm(5) group is required for efficient ..
  48. Kemeny Beke A, Berenyi E, Facsko A, Damjanovich J, Horvath A, Bodnar A, et al. Antiproliferative effect of 4-thiouridylate on OCM-1 uveal melanoma cells. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2006;16:680-5 pubmed
    ..The authors showed that s4UMP, a naturally occurring nucleotide, could induce apoptosis in uveal melanoma cells, suggesting a potential supplementary therapeutic application of the compound. ..
  49. Wenska G, Taras Goslinska K, Skalski B, Hug G, Carmichael I, Marciniak B. Generation of thiyl radicals by the photolysis of 5-iodo-4-thiouridine. J Org Chem. 2005;70:982-8 pubmed
    The photochemistry of 2',3',5'-tri-O-acetyl-5-iodo-4-thiouridine (3) in deoxygenated 1:1 CH(3)CN-H(2)O pH 5.8 (phosphate buffer) solution has been studied by means of steady-state and nanosecond laser flash photolysis methods...
  50. Brégeon D, Colot V, Radman M, Taddei F. Translational misreading: a tRNA modification counteracts a +2 ribosomal frameshift. Genes Dev. 2001;15:2295-306 pubmed
    ..The difference in the impact of the mutant gene on cell growth, however, indicates that GidA has at least one other function. ..
  51. Degreve B, Esnouf R, De Clercq E, Balzarini J. Mutation of Gln125 to Asn selectively abolishes the thymidylate kinase activity of herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase. Mol Pharmacol. 2001;59:285-93 pubmed
    ..e., 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylthymine and (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyluracil]. ..
  52. Komatsu Y, Kumagai I, Ohtsuka E. Investigation of the recognition of an important uridine in an internal loop of a hairpin ribozyme prepared using post-synthetically modified oligonucleotides. Nucleic Acids Res. 1999;27:4314-23 pubmed
    ..We propose here the conformational change of U+2 from the ground state to the active molecule during the reaction. ..
  53. Ing N, Ott T. Estradiol up-regulates estrogen receptor-alpha messenger ribonucleic acid in sheep endometrium by increasing its stability. Biol Reprod. 1999;60:134-9 pubmed
    ..inhibitor 5, 6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole, as well as by labeling RNA in vivo with 4-thiouridine. Both assays indicated that estradiol enhanced ER mRNA stability (half-life increased from 9 h to >/= 24 h)...