dithionite

Summary

Summary: Dithionite. The dithionous acid ion and its salts.

Top Publications

  1. Moreno M, Estronca L, Vaz W. Translocation of phospholipids and dithionite permeability in liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered membranes. Biophys J. 2006;91:873-81 pubmed
    ..The permeability of the lipid bilayers to dithionite has also been measured...
  2. Davydov D, Fernando H, Baas B, Sligar S, Halpert J. Kinetics of dithionite-dependent reduction of cytochrome P450 3A4: heterogeneity of the enzyme caused by its oligomerization. Biochemistry. 2005;44:13902-13 pubmed
    To explore the basis of apparent conformational heterogeneity of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the kinetics of dithionite-dependent reduction was studied in solution, in proteoliposomes, and in Nanodiscs...
  3. Seok S, Kim Y, Gil H, Song H, Hong S. The time between paraquat ingestion and a negative dithionite urine test in an independent risk factor for death and organ failure in acute paraquat intoxication. J Korean Med Sci. 2012;27:993-8 pubmed publisher
    ..in the elapsed time since paraquat ingestion, we assessed the time between paraquat ingestion and a negative dithionite urine test as a prognostic parameter in patients with acute paraquat intoxication...
  4. Koo J, Yoon J, Han S, Choi M, Park I, Lee Y, et al. Rapid analysis of plasma paraquat using sodium dithionite as a predictor of outcome in acute paraquat poisoning. Am J Med Sci. 2009;338:373-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, a convenient prognostic test is necessary to guide therapy for acute paraquat poisoning. Sodium dithionite reduces paraquat to a blue radical form in alkaline plasma with a paraquat detection sensitivity of 2...
  5. Salhany J. Kinetics of reaction of nitrite with deoxy hemoglobin after rapid deoxygenation or predeoxygenation by dithionite measured in solution and bound to the cytoplasmic domain of band 3 (SLC4A1). Biochemistry. 2008;47:6059-72 pubmed publisher
    The reaction of deoxyhemoglobin with nitrite was characterized in the presence of dithionite using hemoglobin in solution or bound to the cytoplasmic domain of band 3 (CDB3)...
  6. Zucchi P, Zick M. Membrane fusion catalyzed by a Rab, SNAREs, and SNARE chaperones is accompanied by enhanced permeability to small molecules and by lysis. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:4635-46 pubmed publisher
    ..With several probes (biotin, methylumbelliferyl-N-acetyl-?-D-neuraminic acid, and dithionite), we find that yeast vacuolar SNAREs (SNAP [Soluble NSF attachment protein] Receptors) increase the permeability ..
  7. Makino M, Sawai H, Shiro Y, Sugimoto H. Crystal structure of the carbon monoxide complex of human cytoglobin. Proteins. 2011;79:1143-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study provides the structural basis for further discussion of the unique ligand-binding properties of Cgb...
  8. Bhuyan A, Rao D, Prabhu N. Protein folding in classical perspective: folding of horse cytochrome c. Biochemistry. 2005;44:3034-40 pubmed
  9. Pazicni S, Lukat Rodgers G, Oliveriusova J, Rees K, Parks R, Clark R, et al. The redox behavior of the heme in cystathionine beta-synthase is sensitive to pH. Biochemistry. 2004;43:14684-95 pubmed
    ..Given that the redox behavior of the CBS heme appears to be controlled by pH, interplay of pH and oxidation state effects must occur if CBS activity is redox regulated...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Pierik A, Hagen W, Dunham W, Sands R. Multi-frequency EPR and high-resolution Mössbauer spectroscopy of a putative [6Fe-6S] prismane-cluster-containing protein from Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough). Characterization of a supercluster and superspin model protein. Eur J Biochem. 1992;206:705-19 pubmed
    ..8 fractional enrichment in 57Fe, as determined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)..
  2. Johansen D, Cruciani V, Sundset R, Ytrehus K, Mikalsen S. Ischemia induces closure of gap junctional channels and opening of hemichannels in heart-derived cells and tissue. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2011;28:103-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) and hemichannel permeability may have important roles during an ischemic insult. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of ischemia on gap junction channels and hemichannels...
  3. Farrell S, Thorpe C. Augmenter of liver regeneration: a flavin-dependent sulfhydryl oxidase with cytochrome c reductase activity. Biochemistry. 2005;44:1532-41 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that this poorly understood flavoenzyme may not function as a sulfhydryl oxidase within the mitochondrial intermembrane space but may communicate with the respiratory chain via the mediation of cytochrome c...
  4. Hubmacher D, Matzanke B, Anemüller S. Effects of iron limitation on the respiratory chain and the membrane cytochrome pattern of the Euryarchaeon Halobacterium salinarum. Biol Chem. 2003;384:1565-73 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results strongly suggest for the first time an important role of iron supply for the bioenergetics of an Archaeon...
  5. Hurshman A, Krebs C, Edmondson D, Marletta M. Ability of tetrahydrobiopterin analogues to support catalysis by inducible nitric oxide synthase: formation of a pterin radical is required for enzyme activity. Biochemistry. 2003;42:13287-303 pubmed
    ..Although binding of H(4)B also stabilizes the NOS structure and active site, the most critical role of the pterin cofactor in NOS appears to be in electron transfer...
  6. Cafaro V, Scognamiglio R, Viggiani A, Izzo V, Passaro I, Notomista E, et al. Expression and purification of the recombinant subunits of toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase and reconstitution of the active complex. Eur J Biochem. 2002;269:5689-99 pubmed
    ..Subunit F is the first member of an electron transport chain which transfers electrons from NADH to C, which tunnels them to H subcomplex, and eventually to molecular oxygen...
  7. Ugulava N, Gibney B, Jarrett J. Biotin synthase contains two distinct iron-sulfur cluster binding sites: chemical and spectroelectrochemical analysis of iron-sulfur cluster interconversions. Biochemistry. 2001;40:8343-51 pubmed
    ..and is inactive in the absence of additional iron and reductants, and anaerobic reduction of BioB with sodium dithionite results in conversion to enzyme containing [4Fe-4S](2+) and/or [4Fe-4S](+) clusters...
  8. Wahl R, Warner C, Finnerty V, Rajagopalan K. Drosophila melanogaster ma-l mutants are defective in the sulfuration of desulfo Mo hydroxylases. J Biol Chem. 1982;257:3958-62 pubmed
    ..and the cyanide-inactivated desulfo enzyme was reactivated by anaerobic incubation with 1 mM sulfide and 1 mM dithionite. Application of the resulfuration procedure to crude extracts of Drosophila ma-l flies which slow pleiotropic ..
  9. Giuffre A, Antonini G, Brunori M, D Itri E, Malatesta F, Nicoletti F, et al. Sulfolobus acidocaldarius terminal oxidase. A kinetic investigation and its structural interpretation. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:31006-11 pubmed
    ..oxidase) are reduced synchronously by both ascorbate plus N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylendiamine (TMPD) and dithionite, and they are very rapidly oxidized by molecular oxygen...
  10. Luba J, Charrier V, Claiborne A. Coenzyme A-disulfide reductase from Staphylococcus aureus: evidence for asymmetric behavior on interaction with pyridine nucleotides. Biochemistry. 1999;38:2725-37 pubmed
    ..focusing on the role of Cys43 in the catalytic redox cycle, the behavior of both enzyme forms on reduction with dithionite and NADPH, and the interaction of NADP+ with the corresponding reduced enzyme species...
  11. Bramlett M, Stubna A, Tan X, Surovtsev I, Munck E, Lindahl P. Mössbauer and EPR study of recombinant acetyl-CoA synthase from Moorella thermoacetica. Biochemistry. 2006;45:8674-85 pubmed
    ..Upon reduction with dithionite or Ti3+ citrate, samples of Ni-activated alpha developed the ability to accept a methyl group...
  12. Kudo M, Ohi M, Aoyama Y, Nitahara Y, Chung S, Yoshida Y. Effects of Y132H and F145L substitutions on the activity, azole resistance and spectral properties of Candida albicans sterol 14-demethylase P450 (CYP51): a live example showing the selection of altered P450 through interaction with environmental com. J Biochem. 2005;137:625-32 pubmed
    ..This may be a live example showing one of the important processes of P450 diversification, the selection of altered P450 through the interaction with environmental compounds...
  13. Shi W, Mersfelder J, Hille R. The interaction of trimethylamine dehydrogenase and electron-transferring flavoprotein. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:20239-46 pubmed
  14. Boison G, Schmitz O, Mikheeva L, Shestakov S, Bothe H. Cloning, molecular analysis and insertional mutagenesis of the bidirectional hydrogenase genes from the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans. FEBS Lett. 1996;394:153-8 pubmed
    ..nidulans possesses both an uptake and a bidirectional hydrogenase. The physiological role(s) of the two hydrogenases in unicellular non-N2-fixing cyanobacteria is not yet understood...
  15. Baskin S, Kirby S. The effect of sodium tetrathionate on cyanide conversion to thiocyanate by enzymatic and non-enzymatic mechanisms. J Appl Toxicol. 1990;10:379-82 pubmed
    ..We investigated the effect of tetrathionate and an analog, dithionite, on rhodanese activity because of their structural similarity to thiosulfate, a known sulfane sulfur donor for ..
  16. Leriche G, Budin G, Darwich Z, Weltin D, Mely Y, Klymchenko A, et al. A FRET-based probe with a chemically deactivatable quencher. Chem Commun (Camb). 2012;48:3224-6 pubmed publisher
    ..a FRET-based probe that turns-on its fluorescence by either an enzymatic cleavage or a chemical reagent (sodium dithionite)...
  17. Pateiro Moure M, Pérez Novo C, Arias Estévez M, Rial Otero R, Simal Gándara J. Effect of organic matter and iron oxides on quaternary herbicide sorption-desorption in vineyard-devoted soils. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2009;333:431-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This work shows that the amount and nature of the surface that remains available after the removal of single soil constituents is a critical parameter in determining the sorptive behavior of cationic contaminants...
  18. Ramsay R, Hunter D. Inhibitors alter the spectrum and redox properties of monoamine oxidase A. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1601:178-84 pubmed
    ..D-Amphetamine, harmine, and tetrindole stabilise the semiquinone form of FAD during reduction of MAO A by dithionite and no further reduction of these inhibitor-MAO A complexes has been observed...
  19. Kavanagh K, Murphy E, Harmey M, Farrell M, Hardimann O, Perryman R, et al. Microspectrophotometric analysis of respiratory pigments using a novel fibre optic dip probe in microsamples. Physiol Meas. 1999;20:303-11 pubmed
    ..5 nm. Data are presented for the reduction of purified cytochrome c by the reducing agent sodium dithionite and the reduction of cytochrome c by isolated mitochondria using sodium succinate as substrate...
  20. Velthuys B, Amesz J. Charge accumulation at the reducing side of system 2 of photosynthesis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1974;333:85-94 pubmed
    ..acceptors of Photosystem 2 by measurements of the increase of chlorophyll fluorescence induced in darkness by dithionite or by 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU)...
  21. Kedderis G, Argenbright L, Miwa G. Covalent interaction of 5-nitroimidazoles with DNA and protein in vitro: mechanism of reductive activation. Chem Res Toxicol. 1989;2:146-9 pubmed
    ..covalent binding of metronidazole, the stoichiometry of anaerobic reductive activation was studied with dithionite as the reductant...
  22. Yang L, Lin G, Nelson R, Jian Y, Telser J, Li L. Mechanistic studies of the spore photoproduct lyase via a single cysteine mutation. Biochemistry. 2012;51:7173-88 pubmed
    ..4 turnover, which is in sharp contrast to the >5 turnovers exhibited by the WT SPL reaction, suggesting that the enzyme catalytic cycle (SAM regeneration) is disrupted by this single mutation...
  23. Lorenz A, Kaldenhoff R, Hertel R. A major integral protein of the plant plasma membrane binds flavin. Protoplasma. 2003;221:19-30 pubmed
    ..When binding was assayed in the presence of dithionite, the reduced flavin formed a relatively stable association with the protein...
  24. Kohar I, Southwell Keely P. Reduction of 8a-hydroxy-2,2,5,7,8-pentamethyl-6-chromanone. Redox Rep. 2002;7:251-5 pubmed
    ..Sodium ascorbate did not reduce POH or PQ at all after 40 min. Sodium dithionite reduced POH to PH (85%) in 20 min, but reduced PQ to its hydroquinone, PQH2 (67%) in 40 min...
  25. Bennett B, Gruer M, Guest J, Thomson A. Spectroscopic characterisation of an aconitase (AcnA) of Escherichia coli. Eur J Biochem. 1995;233:317-26 pubmed
    ..A novel S = 1/2 EPR signal with g approximately 2 was observed in AcnA upon treatment with EDTA. The species giving rise to this signal is proposed to be an intermediate in cluster deconstruction...
  26. Grubina R, Basu S, Tiso M, Kim Shapiro D, Gladwin M. Nitrite reductase activity of hemoglobin S (sickle) provides insight into contributions of heme redox potential versus ligand affinity. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:3628-38 pubmed
    ..From a pathophysiological standpoint, under conditions where HbS polymers form, the rate of nitrite reduction is reduced compared with HbA and solution-phase HbS, indicating that HbS polymers reduce nitrite more slowly...
  27. Minagawa J, Mogi T, Gennis R, Anraku Y. Identification of heme and copper ligands in subunit I of the cytochrome bo complex in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:2096-104 pubmed
    ..We present a helical wheel model of the redox center in subunit I, which consists of the membrane-spanning regions II, VI, VII, and X, and discuss the implications of the model...
  28. Vass I, Styring S. Spectroscopic characterization of triplet forming states in photosystem II. Biochemistry. 1992;31:5957-63 pubmed
    ..The triplet P680 EPR signal is also suppressed in the presence of oxygen. This effect, which is almost completely reversible by removing the oxygen, is attributed to the interaction of triplet P680 with triplet O2...
  29. Drin G, Mazel M, Clair P, Mathieu D, Kaczorek M, Temsamani J. Physico-chemical requirements for cellular uptake of pAntp peptide. Role of lipid-binding affinity. Eur J Biochem. 2001;268:1304-14 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we determined the fraction of internalized peptide by using a dithionite treatment...
  30. McMillan P, Arscott L, Ballou D, Becker K, Williams C, Muller S. Identification of acid-base catalytic residues of high-Mr thioredoxin reductase from Plasmodium falciparum. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:32967-77 pubmed
    ..In addition, Glu-514 appears to greatly enhance the role of His-509 in acid-base catalysis. It can be concluded that the His-509-Glu-514 dyad, in analogy to those in related oxidoreductases, acts as the acid-base catalyst in PfTrxR...
  31. Warner M, Lukose V, Lee K, Lopez K, H Sazinsky M, Crane E. Characterization of an NADH-dependent persulfide reductase from Shewanella loihica PV-4: implications for the mechanism of sulfur respiration via FAD-dependent enzymes. Biochemistry. 2011;50:194-206 pubmed
    ..Titrations of the enzyme with NADH, dithionite, titanium(III), or TCEP demonstrate the presence of a mixed-disulfide between C43 and a tightly bound CoA, and ..
  32. Veine D, Mulrooney S, Wang P, Williams C. Formation and properties of mixed disulfides between thioredoxin reductase from Escherichia coli and thioredoxin: evidence that cysteine-138 functions to initiate dithiol-disulfide interchange and to accept the reducing equivalent from reduced flavin. Protein Sci. 1998;7:1441-50 pubmed
    ..Reductive titrations show that, as expected, only 1 mol of sodium dithionite/mol of FAD is required to reduce C138S...
  33. Szecsody J, Fruchter J, Williams M, Vermeul V, Sklarew D. In situ chemical reduction of aquifer sediments: enhancement of reactive iron phases and TCE dechlorination. Environ Sci Technol. 2004;38:4656-63 pubmed
    ..chemical and physical processes that occur during abiotic reduction of natural sediments during flow by sodium dithionite were investigated...
  34. Bistolas N, Christenson A, Ruzgas T, Jung C, Scheller F, Wollenberger U. Spectroelectrochemistry of cytochrome P450cam. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;314:810-6 pubmed
    ..The electrodes were modified with either 4,4(')-dithiodipyridin or sodium dithionite. Electrolysis of P450cam was carried out when the enzyme was in solution, while at the same time UV-visible ..
  35. Hirota S, Iwamoto T, Tanizawa K, Adachi O, Yamauchi O. Spectroscopic characterization of carbon monoxide complexes generated for copper/topa quinone-containing amine oxidases. Biochemistry. 1999;38:14256-63 pubmed
    ..When AGAO was reduced with dithionite, an intermediary form of the enzyme with Cu(II) reduced to Cu(I) but TPQ still in the oxidized state (TPQ(ox)) ..
  36. Wu J, Dunham W, Weiss B. Overproduction and physical characterization of SoxR, a [2Fe-2S] protein that governs an oxidative response regulon in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:10323-7 pubmed
    ..combined with stoichiometric analysis of iron content, unpaired-electron-spin density, and reduction by dithionite. The protein is active in its oxidized ([2Fe-2S]2+) state...
  37. Xu S, Ying J, Jiang B, Guo W, Adachi T, Sharov V, et al. Detection of sequence-specific tyrosine nitration of manganese SOD and SERCA in cardiovascular disease and aging. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006;290:H2220-7 pubmed
    ..Staining was decreased by sodium dithionite, which chemically reduces nitrotyrosine to aminotyrosine, and the antigenic nY-peptide blocked staining for each ..
  38. Alric J. In vivo carotenoid triplet formation in response to excess light: a supramolecular photoprotection mechanism revisited. Photosynth Res. 2005;83:335-41 pubmed
    ..This accounts for the widespread use of carotenoids among phototrophic prokaryotes and emphasizes their essential protective role in the natural environment...
  39. DerVartanian M, Menon N, Przybyla A, Peck H, DerVartanian D. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies on hydrogenase-1 (HYD1) purified from a mutant strain (AP6) of Escherichia coli enhanced in HYD1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996;227:211-5 pubmed
    ..The detection of a 4Fe-4S cluster signal was noted. Reduction of HYD1 with sodium dithionite caused all nickel signals to disappear. The 4Fe-4S complex intensity was slightly increased...
  40. Yousafzai F, Eady R. Dithionite reduction kinetics of the dissimilatory copper-containing nitrite reductase of Alcalegenes xylosoxidans. The SO(2)(.-) radical binds to the substrate binding type 2 copper site before the type 2 copper is reduced. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:34067-73 pubmed
    We report here the first detailed study of the dithionite reduction kinetics of a copper-containing dissimilatory nitrite reductase (NiR)...
  41. Lin H, Kenaan C, Zhang H, Hollenberg P. Reaction of human cytochrome P450 3A4 with peroxynitrite: nitrotyrosine formation on the proximal side impairs its interaction with NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. Chem Res Toxicol. 2012;25:2642-53 pubmed publisher
    ..CYP3A4 exhibited a reduced-CO spectrum when reduced by CPR that was much smaller than when it was reduced by dithionite. These results suggest that modification of CYP3A4 by PN may impair its interaction with CPR, leading to the ..
  42. Coelho C, González P, Moura J, Moura I, Trincao J, João Romão M. The crystal structure of Cupriavidus necator nitrate reductase in oxidized and partially reduced states. J Mol Biol. 2011;408:932-48 pubmed publisher
    ..This crystal form was obtained by soaking dithionite into crystals grown in the presence of the ionic liquid [C(4)mim]Cl(-)...
  43. Allen K, Wang S. Initial characterization of Fom3 from Streptomyces wedmorensis: The methyltransferase in fosfomycin biosynthesis. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2014;543:67-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We also provide preliminary evidence that Fom3 adds a methyl group to 2-hydroxyethylphosphonate (2-HEP) to form 2-hydroxypropylphosphonate (2-HPP) in an apparently SAM-, sodium dithionite-, and methylcobalamin-dependent manner.
  44. Sahu S, Gopala Krishna A, Gummadi S. Over-expression of recombinant human phospholipid scramblase 1 in E. coli and its purification from inclusion bodies. Biotechnol Lett. 2008;30:2131-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Binding studies with the calcium analogue "Stains-all" dye showed a characteristic peak, termed as the J band, at 650 nm. This is the first report on high level expression of hPLSCR1 with histidine tag in E. coli...
  45. Ludwig R, Su C, Lee T, Wilkin R, Acree S, Ross R, et al. In situ chemical reduction of Cr(VI) in groundwater using a combination of ferrous sulfate and sodium dithionite: a field investigation. Environ Sci Technol. 2007;41:5299-305 pubmed
    ..2 M ferrous sulfate and 0.2 M sodium dithionite into the path of a dissolved Cr(VI) plume within a shallow medium to fine sand unconfined aquifer formation...
  46. Wilson P, Bunker J, Lowery T, Watt G. Reduction of nitrogenase Fe protein from Azotobacter vinelandii by dithionite: quantitative and qualitative effects of nucleotides, temperature, pH and reaction buffer. Biophys Chem. 2004;109:305-24 pubmed
    Oxidized Fe protein from Azotobacter vinelandii (Av2(0)) was reduced by dithionite (DT) in the absence and presence of nucleotides, over the temperature range 10-40 degrees C, over the pH range 7-8, and in various buffers--inorganic ..
  47. Gadella B, Miller N, Colenbrander B, van Golde L, Harrison R. Flow cytometric detection of transbilayer movement of fluorescent phospholipid analogues across the boar sperm plasma membrane: elimination of labeling artifacts. Mol Reprod Dev. 1999;53:108-25 pubmed
    ..of translocated phospholipid fluorescence were determined by flow cytometric analysis before, and after, dithionite destruction of outer leaflet fluorescence...
  48. Butler C, Charnock J, Garner C, Thomson A, Ferguson S, Berks B, et al. Thiocyanate binding to the molybdenum centre of the periplasmic nitrate reductase from Paracoccus pantotrophus. Biochem J. 2000;352 Pt 3:859-64 pubmed
    ..Mo K-edge EXAFS analysis of the dithionite-reduced NAP was best fitted as a mono-oxo Mo(IV) species with three Mo-S ligands at 2.35 A (1 A=0...
  49. Dayer M, Moosavi Movahedi A, Dayer M. Band assignment in hemoglobin porphyrin ring spectrum: using four-orbital model of Gouterman. Protein Pept Lett. 2010;17:473-9 pubmed
    ..Conformational changes of hemoglobin were interpreted using four-orbital model of Gouterman. Our results indicated that Goutherman model can predict the predominant conformations of hemoglobin...
  50. Schreiter E, Rodriguez M, Weichsel A, Montfort W, Bonaventura J. S-nitrosylation-induced conformational change in blackfin tuna myoglobin. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:19773-80 pubmed
    ..we have demonstrated in solution and in a single crystal that reduction of the S-nitrosylated myoglobin with dithionite results in NO cleavage from the sulfur of Cys-10 and rebinding to the reduced heme iron, showing the ..
  51. Armstrong J, Bivalacqua T, Chamulitrat W, Sikka S, Hellstrom W. A comparison of the NADPH oxidase in human sperm and white blood cells. Int J Androl. 2002;25:223-9 pubmed
    ..The characteristic spectra of b cytochrome observed after dithionite reduction of WBCs was not observed with sperm under similar conditions...
  52. Naseeruddin S, Srilekha Yadav K, Sateesh L, Manikyam A, Desai S, Venkateswar Rao L. Selection of the best chemical pretreatment for lignocellulosic substrate Prosopis juliflora. Bioresour Technol. 2013;136:542-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Among all the chemicals investigated, pretreatment with sodium dithionite at concentration of 2% (w/v) removed maximum lignin (80.46±1.35%) with a minimum sugar loss (2.56±0.021%)...
  53. Wittung Stafshede P, Gomes C, Teixeira M. Stability and folding of the ferredoxin from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Acidianus ambivalens. J Inorg Biochem. 2000;78:35-41 pubmed
    ..Possible structural properties that contribute to the large thermal stability of the Acidianus ambivalens ferredoxin are discussed using a three-dimensional protein model...