Summary: An intermediate in the pathway of coenzyme A formation in mammalian liver and some microorganisms.

Top Publications

  1. Pins J, Keenan J. Dietary and nutraceutical options for managing the hypertriglyceridemic patient. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 2006;21:89-93 pubmed
    ..This review will focus on management options for the hypertriglyceridemic patient with an emphasis on nicotinic acid, pantethine, fish oils (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids), and modified carbohydrate diets. ..
  2. Yen M, Yin J. High-throughput profiling of posttranslational modification enzymes by phage display. Biotechniques. 2007;43:31, 33, 35 passim pubmed
    ..Here, we highlight recent work elucidating the downstream targets of PTM enzymes by phage display, including the genome-wide profiling of biosynthetic enzymes subject to phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPTase) modification. ..
  3. Franchi J, Coutadeur M, Marteau C, Mersel M, Kupferberg A. Depigmenting effects of calcium D-pantetheine-S-sulfonate on human melanocytes. Pigment Cell Res. 2000;13:165-71 pubmed
    The effects of calcium D-pantetheine-S-sulfonate (PaSSO3Ca) on human pigmentation were examined by in vitro assays using two types of human melanocytes: normal adult melanocytes (HNM) and M4Be melanoma cells...
  4. Izard T. The crystal structures of phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase with bound substrates reveal the enzyme's catalytic mechanism. J Mol Biol. 2002;315:487-95 pubmed
    ..Within the PPAT hexamer, one trimer is in its substrate-free state, whereas the other is in a substrate-bound state. ..
  5. Rana A, Seinen E, Siudeja K, Muntendam R, Srinivasan B, van der Want J, et al. Pantethine rescues a Drosophila model for pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:6988-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, this pathway is effective in the presence of disrupted pantothenate kinase function. Our data suggest that pantethine may serve as a starting point to develop a possible treatment for PKAN. ..
  6. Wubben T, Mesecar A. Kinetic, thermodynamic, and structural insight into the mechanism of phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Mol Biol. 2010;404:202-19 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that the proposed kinetic mechanism and asymmetric character in MtPPAT ligand binding may provide a means of reaction and pathway regulation in addition to that of the previously determined CoA feedback...
  7. Kaskow B, Proffitt J, Michael Proffit J, Blangero J, Moses E, Abraham L. Diverse biological activities of the vascular non-inflammatory molecules - the Vanin pantetheinases. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;417:653-8 pubmed publisher
    ..a family that encode pantetheinases involved in recycling Coenzyme A, catalysing the breakdown of intermediate pantetheine to vitamin B5 for reuse in CoA biosynthesis...
  8. Kitaoka M, Tian J, Nishimoto M. Novel putative galactose operon involving lacto-N-biose phosphorylase in Bifidobacterium longum. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:3158-62 pubmed
    ..In addition, it may also resolve the question of the nature of the bifidus factor in human milk as the lacto-N-biose structure found in milk oligosaccharides. ..
  9. Meier J, Mercer A, Rivera H, Burkart M. Synthesis and evaluation of bioorthogonal pantetheine analogues for in vivo protein modification. J Am Chem Soc. 2006;128:12174-84 pubmed
    ..A detailed study of pantetheine analogues was performed in order to identify suitable partners for covalent protein labeling inside living ..

More Information


  1. Miller J, Ohren J, Sarver R, Mueller W, de Dreu P, Case H, et al. Phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase from Escherichia coli: investigation of the kinetic mechanism and role in regulation of coenzyme A biosynthesis. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:8196-205 pubmed
    ..This model is consistent with PPAT serving as a "backup" regulator of pathway flux relative to pantothenate kinase. ..
  2. Meluzzi D, Zheng W, Hensler M, Nizet V, Dorrestein P. Top-down mass spectrometry on low-resolution instruments: characterization of phosphopantetheinylated carrier domains in polyketide and non-ribosomal biosynthetic pathways. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008;18:3107-11 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate our method by observing the formation of holo-AcpC, a putative acyl carrier protein from Streptococcus agalactiae. ..
  3. Cornille E, Abou Hamdan M, Khrestchatisky M, Nieoullon A, De Reggi M, Gharib B. Enhancement of L-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity and circulating ketone body levels by pantethine. Relevance to dopaminergic injury. BMC Neurosci. 2010;11:51 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the active moiety of CoA is pantetheine, mice were treated with pantethine, its naturally-occurring form...
  4. Penet M, Abou Hamdan M, Coltel N, Cornille E, Grau G, De Reggi M, et al. Protection against cerebral malaria by the low-molecular-weight thiol pantethine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:1321-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Pantethine is well tolerated, and it has already been administered in other contexts to man with limited side effects. Therefore, trials of pantethine treatment in adjunctive therapy for severe malaria are warranted. ..
  5. Hoppensack A, Rehm B, Steinbuchel A. Analysis of 4-phosphopantetheinylation of polyhydroxybutyrate synthase from Ralstonia eutropha: generation of beta-alanine auxotrophic Tn5 mutants and cloning of the panD gene region. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:1429-35 pubmed
    ..eutropha PHA synthase is covalently modified by posttranslational attachment of 4-phosphopantetheine, nor did the E. coli panD mutant exhibit detectable labeling of functional PHA synthase from R. eutropha. ..
  6. Kittilä T, Cryle M. An enhanced chemo-enzymatic method for loading substrates onto carrier protein domains. Biochem Cell Biol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..First, D-pantetheine and ATP are converted into dephospho-coenzyme A via the actions of two enzymes from coenzyme A (CoA) ..
  7. Mercer A, Meier J, Hur G, Smith A, Burkart M. Antibiotic evaluation and in vivo analysis of alkynyl Coenzyme A antimetabolites in Escherichia coli. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008;18:5991-4 pubmed publisher
    ..on an initial observation of growth inhibition in Escherichia coli by 3, we have synthesized a small panel of pantetheine analogues and re-examined the inhibitory properties of this class of antibiotics with an emphasis on ..
  8. Strauss E, Zhai H, Brand L, McLafferty F, Begley T. Mechanistic studies on phosphopantothenoylcysteine decarboxylase: trapping of an enethiolate intermediate with a mechanism-based inactivating agent. Biochemistry. 2004;43:15520-33 pubmed
  9. Tran L, Broadhurst R, Tosin M, Cavalli A, Weissman K. Insights into protein-protein and enzyme-substrate interactions in modular polyketide synthases. Chem Biol. 2010;17:705-16 pubmed publisher
  10. Nagakubo T, Kumano T, Hashimoto Y, Kobayashi M. Hemoglobin catalyzes CoA degradation and thiol addition to flavonoids. Sci Rep. 2018;8:1282 pubmed publisher
    ..of CoA, cell-free extracts prepared from porcine liver was found to convert 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (DHF) to a pantetheine conjugate, which was a novel flavonoid...
  11. Pacholec M, Hillson N, Walsh C. NovJ/NovK catalyze benzylic oxidation of a beta-hydroxyl tyrosyl-S-pantetheinyl enzyme during aminocoumarin ring formation in novobiocin biosynthesis. Biochemistry. 2005;44:12819-26 pubmed
    ..We also have identified a residue in NovJ that when mutated results in a 50-fold reduction in catalytic activity. ..
  12. Huang F, Bugg C, Yarus M. RNA-Catalyzed CoA, NAD, and FAD synthesis from phosphopantetheine, NMN, and FMN. Biochemistry. 2000;39:15548-55 pubmed
    ..Both ribozymes require divalent manganese for activities. The results support the availability of these coenzymes in an RNA world, and point to a chemical explanation for the complex bipartite structures of many coenzymes. ..
  13. McCarty M. Inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase by cystamine may mediate the hypotriglyceridemic activity of pantethine. Med Hypotheses. 2001;56:314-7 pubmed
    ..As a safe and effective compound of natural origin, pantethine merits broader use in the management of hyperlipidemias...
  14. Yamashita N, Yashiro M, Ogawa H, Namba H, Nosaka N, Fujii Y, et al. Metabolic pathway catalyzed by Vanin-1 pantetheinase plays a suppressive role in influenza virus replication in human alveolar epithelial A549 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;489:466-471 pubmed publisher
    ..e., its direct substrate pantetheine and its two metabolites pantothenic acid and cysteamine on the replication of IAV in the human alveolar ..
  15. Palmer M, Differding E, Gamboni R, Williams S, Peoples O, Walsh C, et al. Biosynthetic thiolase from Zoogloea ramigera. Evidence for a mechanism involving Cys-378 as the active site base. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:8369-75 pubmed
    Biosynthetic thiolase from Zoogloea ramigera was inactivated with a mechanism-based inactivator, 3-pentynoyl-S-pantetheine-11-pivalate (3-pentynoyl-SPP) where K1 = 1.25 mM and kinact = 0...
  16. Bumpus S, Evans B, Thomas P, Ntai I, Kelleher N. A proteomics approach to discovering natural products and their biosynthetic pathways. Nat Biotechnol. 2009;27:951-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We also discovered an NRPS cluster that generates a seven-residue lipopeptide. This 'protein-first' strategy complements bioassay- and sequence-based approaches by finding expressed gene clusters that produce new natural products. ..
  17. Clarke K, Mercer A, La Clair J, Burkart M. In vivo reporter labeling of proteins via metabolic delivery of coenzyme A analogues. J Am Chem Soc. 2005;127:11234-5 pubmed
    ..By accessing the coenzyme A (CoA) metabolic pathway with a cell-permeable pantetheine analogue, we deliver CoA-bound reporter molecules for post-translational protein modification in vivo...
  18. Siudeja K, Srinivasan B, Xu L, Rana A, de Jong J, Nollen E, et al. Impaired Coenzyme A metabolism affects histone and tubulin acetylation in Drosophila and human cell models of pantothenate kinase associated neurodegeneration. EMBO Mol Med. 2011;3:755-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Decreased protein acetylation and the concurrent phenotypes are partly rescued by pantethine and HDAC inhibitors, suggesting possible directions for future PKAN therapy development. ..
  19. Takahashi H, Inagaki E, Fujimoto Y, Kuroishi C, Nodake Y, Nakamura Y, et al. Structure and implications for the thermal stability of phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase from Thermus thermophilus. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2004;60:97-104 pubmed
    ..coli PPAT. Comparative analysis also revealed that the higher stability of Tt PPAT arises from stabilization of each subunit by hydrophobic effects, hydrogen bonds and entropic effects...
  20. Balibar C, Hollis Symynkywicz M, Tao J. Pantethine rescues phosphopantothenoylcysteine synthetase and phosphopantothenoylcysteine decarboxylase deficiency in Escherichia coli but not in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:3304-12 pubmed publisher
    ..coli and coaX in P. aeruginosa. ..
  21. Rusnak F, Sakaitani M, Drueckhammer D, Reichert J, Walsh C. Biosynthesis of the Escherichia coli siderophore enterobactin: sequence of the entF gene, expression and purification of EntF, and analysis of covalent phosphopantetheine. Biochemistry. 1991;30:2916-27 pubmed
    ..In a search for possible causes for the low level of activity of the overexpressed enzyme, we have discovered that EntF contains a covalently bound phosphopantetheine cofactor. ..
  22. Freeman M, Moshos K, Bodner M, Li R, Townsend C. Four enzymes define the incorporation of coenzyme A in thienamycin biosynthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:11128-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Specific, stepwise truncation of CoA to 4-phosphopantetheine, pantetheine, and finally cysteamine was observed with ThnR, ThnH, and ThnT, respectively, in a series of coupled enzymatic ..
  23. Mootz H, Schörgendorfer K, Marahiel M. Functional characterization of 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase genes of bacterial and fungal origin by complementation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae lys5. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2002;213:51-7 pubmed
    ..The complementation system described also provides the basis for a simple method of functional characterization of PPTase candidate genes and their cloning from chromosomal DNA or cDNA libraries of diverse origin. ..
  24. Panchuk R, Skorokhyd N, Chumak V, Lehka L, Omelyanchik S, Gurinovich V, et al. Specific antioxidant compounds differentially modulate cytotoxic activity of doxorubicin and cisplatin: in vitro and in vivo study. Croat Med J. 2014;55:206-17 pubmed
  25. Dávila Martínez Y, Ramos Vega A, Contreras Martínez S, Encarnación S, Geiger O, López Lara I. SMc01553 is the sixth acyl carrier protein in Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021. Microbiology. 2010;156:230-9 pubmed publisher
    ..meliloti. However, a mutant in which the two duplicated regions were deleted did not show any different phenotype with respect to the wild-type in the free-living or symbiotic lifestyle. ..
  26. van Diepen J, Jansen P, Ballak D, Hijmans A, Rutjes F, Tack C, et al. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of vanin-1 activity in animal models of type 2 diabetes. Sci Rep. 2016;6:21906 pubmed publisher
    Vanins are enzymes that convert pantetheine to pantothenic acid (vitamin B5). Insights into the function of vanins have evolved lately, indicating vanin-1 to play a role in inflammation, oxidative stress and cell migration...
  27. Waters N, Kopydlowski K, Guszczynski T, Wei L, Sellers P, Ferlan J, et al. Functional characterization of the acyl carrier protein (PfACP) and beta-ketoacyl ACP synthase III (PfKASIII) from Plasmodium falciparum. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2002;123:85-94 pubmed
    ..During the schizont stage of parasite development, there is a significant up-regulation of the mRNAs corresponding to these proteins, indicating an important metabolic requirement for fatty acids during this stage. ..
  28. Roberts D, Bartel C, Scott A, Ivison D, Simpson T, Cox R. Substrate selectivity of an isolated enoyl reductase catalytic domain from an iterative highly reducing fungal polyketide synthase reveals key components of programming. Chem Sci. 2017;8:1116-1126 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Pantetheine-bound substrate thiolesters reacted much faster than the corresponding SNAC thiolesters...
  29. Arapitsas P, Ugliano M, Perenzoni D, Angeli A, Pangrazzi P, Mattivi F. Wine metabolomics reveals new sulfonated products in bottled white wines, promoted by small amounts of oxygen. J Chromatogr A. 2016;1429:155-65 pubmed publisher
    ..g. S-sulfonated cysteine, glutathione and pantetheine; and sulfonated indole-3-lactic acid hexoside and tryptophol)...
  30. Harding J. Can drugs or micronutrients prevent cataract?. Drugs Aging. 2001;18:473-86 pubmed
    ..Add-on studies to trials of aspirin for other indications have not been encouraging. Research into other compounds is interesting but less advanced. ..
  31. Shibata K, Kaneko M, Fukuwatari T. D-pantethine has vitamin activity equivalent to d-pantothenic acids for recovering from a deficiency of D-pantothenic acid in rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2013;59:93-9 pubmed
    D-Pantethine is a compound in which two molecules of D-pantetheine bind through an S-S linkage. D-Pantethine is available from commercial sources as well as from D-pantothenic acid...
  32. Bruner S, Weber T, Kohli R, Schwarzer D, Marahiel M, Walsh C, et al. Structural basis for the cyclization of the lipopeptide antibiotic surfactin by the thioesterase domain SrfTE. Structure. 2002;10:301-10 pubmed
    ..The structure provides a basis for understanding the mechanism of acyl-PCP substrate recognition and for the cyclization reaction that results in release of the macrolactone cyclic heptapeptide. ..
  33. Guo S, Evans S, Wilkes M, Bhattacharjee J. Novel posttranslational activation of the LYS2-encoded alpha-aminoadipate reductase for biosynthesis of lysine and site-directed mutational analysis of conserved amino acid residues in the activation domain of Candida albicans. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:7120-5 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate the posttranslational activation and the requirement of specific amino acid residues in the activation domain of the AAR of C. albicans. ..
  34. Modak R, Sinha S, Surolia N. Isothermal unfolding studies on the apo and holo forms of Plasmodium falciparum acyl carrier protein. Role of the 4'-phosphopantetheine group in the stability of the holo form of Plasmodium falciparum acyl carrier protein. FEBS J. 2007;274:3313-26 pubmed
  35. Houston M. The role of nutraceutical supplements in the treatment of dyslipidemia. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2012;14:121-32 pubmed publisher
    ..This new approach to lipid management to decrease vascular disease utilizes a functional medicine approach with a broader treatment program that will address the multitude of steps involved in lipid-induced vascular damage. ..
  36. Haushalter R, Worthington A, Hur G, Burkart M. An orthogonal purification strategy for isolating crosslinked domains of modular synthases. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008;18:3039-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we present a solution that employs an orthogonal purification strategy to achieve the quantity and level of purity necessary for further studies of this complex. ..
  37. Foley T, Burkart M. A homogeneous resonance energy transfer assay for phosphopantetheinyl transferase. Anal Biochem. 2009;394:39-47 pubmed publisher
    ..This assay lays a blueprint for translation of these techniques to other transferase enzymes that accept fluorescent substrate analogues. ..
  38. Fisher D, Szulc M. Reduction of pantethine in rabbit ocular lens homogenate. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1997;15:653-62 pubmed
    ..Pantethine (100 microM) is completely reduced to pantetheine in rabbit lens homogenate in about 16 min. About 1...
  39. Haas J, Frederick M, Fox B. Chemical and posttranslational modification of Escherichia coli acyl carrier protein for preparation of dansyl-acyl carrier proteins. Protein Expr Purif. 2000;20:274-84 pubmed
    ..The efficient in vivo phosphopantetheinylation of E. coli apo-ACP by coexpression with holo-ACP synthase in E. coli BL21(DE3) using fructose as the carbon source is also reported. ..
  40. Amara A, Rehm B. Replacement of the catalytic nucleophile cysteine-296 by serine in class II polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa-mediated synthesis of a new polyester: identification of catalytic residues. Biochem J. 2003;374:413-21 pubmed
  41. Hur G, Meier J, Baskin J, Codelli J, Bertozzi C, Marahiel M, et al. Crosslinking studies of protein-protein interactions in nonribosomal peptide biosynthesis. Chem Biol. 2009;16:372-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Likewise, these crosslinking probes serve as ideal chemical tools for structural studies between NRPS modules where functional assays are lacking. ..
  42. Bruegger J, Haushalter R, Haushalter B, Vagstad A, Vagstad A, Shakya G, et al. Probing the selectivity and protein·protein interactions of a nonreducing fungal polyketide synthase using mechanism-based crosslinkers. Chem Biol. 2013;20:1135-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Such complementary/matching contact pairs can serve as "adapter surfaces" for future efforts to generate new polyketides using NR-PKSs. ..
  43. Ramelot T, Smola M, Lee H, Ciccosanti C, Hamilton K, Acton T, et al. Solution structure of 4'-phosphopantetheine - GmACP3 from Geobacter metallireducens: a specialized acyl carrier protein with atypical structural features and a putative role in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis. Biochemistry. 2011;50:1442-53 pubmed publisher
  44. Luo L, Walsh C. Kinetic analysis of three activated phenylalanyl intermediates generated by the initiation module PheATE of gramicidin S synthetase. Biochemistry. 2001;40:5329-37 pubmed
    ..This study provides the first transient-state kinetic analysis of a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) module. ..
  45. Hughes A, Keatinge Clay A. Enzymatic extender unit generation for in vitro polyketide synthase reactions: structural and functional showcasing of Streptomyces coelicolor MatB. Chem Biol. 2011;18:165-76 pubmed publisher
    ..that this adenylate-forming enzyme is capable of producing most CoA-linked polyketide extender units as well as pantetheine- and N-acetylcysteamine-linked analogs useful for in vitro PKS studies...
  46. Jakubowski H. Aminoacylation of coenzyme A and pantetheine by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases: possible link between noncoded and coded peptide synthesis. Biochemistry. 1998;37:5147-53 pubmed
    ..b>Pantetheine also serves as an amino acid acceptor in reactions catalyzed by AspRS, IleRS, and MetRS, forming corresponding ..
  47. Witkowski A, Joshi A, Rangan V, Falick A, Witkowska H, Smith S. Dibromopropanone cross-linking of the phosphopantetheine and active-site cysteine thiols of the animal fatty acid synthase can occur both inter- and intrasubunit. Reevaluation of the side-by-side, antiparallel subunit model. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:11557-63 pubmed
    ..These results show that the two polypeptides of the fatty acid synthase are oriented such that head-to-tail contacts are formed both between and within subunits, and provide the first structural evidence in support of the new model. ..
  48. Prasad G, Amoroso J, Borketey L, Schnarr N. N-activated ?-lactams as versatile reagents for acyl carrier protein labeling. Org Biomol Chem. 2012;10:1992-2002 pubmed publisher
    ..In all, we expect the probes described in this study to serve as valuable and versatile tools for mechanistic interrogation. ..
  49. Yoon H, Kang J, Mikami B, Lee H, Suh S. Crystal structure of phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase from Enterococcus faecalis in the ligand-unbound state and in complex with ATP and pantetheine. Mol Cells. 2011;32:431-5 pubmed publisher
    ..faecalis was solved in three forms: (i) apo form, (ii) binary complex with ATP, and (iii) binary complex with pantetheine. The substrate analog, pantetheine, binds to the active site in a similar manner to Ppant...
  50. Cheng C, Jia K, Chen T, Chang S, Lin M, Yin H. Experimentally validated novel inhibitors of Helicobacter pylori phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase discovered by virtual high-throughput screening. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e74271 pubmed publisher
    ..We anticipate that novel, potent, and selective HpPPAT inhibitors will emerge for the treatment of H. pylori infection. ..
  51. Tosin M, Betancor L, Stephens E, Li W, Spencer J, Leadlay P. Synthetic chain terminators off-load intermediates from a type I polyketide synthase. Chembiochem. 2010;11:539-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We prepared a series of nonhydrolysable pantetheine and N-acetyl cysteamine mimics of the natural (methyl)malonyl extender units recruited for polyketide formation...
  52. Waichman S, Bhagawati M, Podoplelova Y, Reichel A, Brunk A, Paterok D, et al. Functional immobilization and patterning of proteins by an enzymatic transfer reaction. Anal Chem. 2010;82:1478-85 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of this immobilization method, we established photolithographic patterning of proteins into functional binary microstructures. ..
  53. Wu J, Sandberg M, Weber S. Integrated electroosmotic perfusion of tissue with online microfluidic analysis to track the metabolism of cystamine, pantethine, and coenzyme A. Anal Chem. 2013;85:12020-7 pubmed publisher
    ..4 ± 1.1 mM and Vmax,C = 29 ± 3 nM/s, where ? is the percentage yield of pantethine to pantetheine through disulfide exchange...
  54. Crawford J, Vagstad A, Ehrlich K, Udwary D, Townsend C. Acyl-carrier protein-phosphopantetheinyltransferase partnerships in fungal fatty acid synthases. Chembiochem. 2008;9:1559-63 pubmed publisher
  55. Haas J, Fox B. Fluorescence anisotropy studies of enzyme-substrate complex formation in stearoyl-ACP desaturase. Biochemistry. 2002;41:14472-81 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that acyl chain length selectivity derives in major part from partition of the enzyme-substrate complex between substrate release and subsequent steps in catalysis. ..
  56. Strickland K, Hoeferlin L, Oleinik N, Krupenko N, Krupenko S. Acyl carrier protein-specific 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase activates 10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:1627-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study identifies human PPT as the FDH-modifying enzyme and supports the hypothesis that mammals utilize a single enzyme for all phosphopantetheinylation reactions. ..
  57. Nitto T, Onodera K. Linkage between coenzyme a metabolism and inflammation: roles of pantetheinase. J Pharmacol Sci. 2013;123:1-8 pubmed
    Pantetheinase is an enzyme hydrolyzing pantetheine, an intermediate of the coenzyme A degradation pathway...
  58. Rothmann M, Kang M, Villa R, Ntai I, La Clair J, Kelleher N, et al. Metabolic perturbation of an essential pathway: evaluation of a glycine precursor of coenzyme A. J Am Chem Soc. 2013;135:5962-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Pantetheine and its corresponding disulfide pantethine play a key role in metabolism as building blocks of coenzyme A (CoA), an essential cofactor utilized in ~4% of primary metabolism and central to fatty acid, polyketide, and ..
  59. Lee K, Da Silva N, Kealey J. Determination of the extent of phosphopantetheinylation of polyketide synthases expressed in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Anal Biochem. 2009;394:75-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The data showed that LNKS was efficiently phosphopantetheinylated in S. cerevisiae and that lack of production of the lovastatin precursor polyketide was not due to insufficient phosphopantetheinylation of the expressed synthase. ..
  60. Koglin A, Mofid M, Lohr F, Schäfer B, Rogov V, Blum M, et al. Conformational switches modulate protein interactions in peptide antibiotic synthetases. Science. 2006;312:273-6 pubmed
    ..We further demonstrate that this conformational diversity is an essential prerequisite for the directed movement of the 4'-PP cofactor and its interaction with externally acting proteins such as thioesterases and 4'-PP transferase. ..
  61. Broadwater J, Fox B. Spinach holo-acyl carrier protein: overproduction and phosphopantetheinylation in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), in vitro acylation, and enzymatic desaturation of histidine-tagged isoform I. Protein Expr Purif. 1999;15:314-26 pubmed
    ..In combination, these studies provide a coordinated scheme to produce and characterize quantities of acyl-ACPs sufficient to support expanded biophysical and structural studies. ..
  62. Price A, Rock C, White S. The 1.3-Angstrom-resolution crystal structure of beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase II from Streptococcus pneumoniae. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:4136-43 pubmed
    ..Docking of the pantetheine moiety of the substrate identifies the loop regions involved in substrate binding and indicates roles for ..
  63. Cronan J. The chain-flipping mechanism of ACP (acyl carrier protein)-dependent enzymes appears universal. Biochem J. 2014;460:157-63 pubmed publisher
  64. Rumberger J, Napolitano J, Azumano I, Kamiya T, Evans M. Pantethine, a derivative of vitamin B(5) used as a nutritional supplement, favorably alters low-density lipoprotein cholesterol metabolism in low- to moderate-cardiovascular risk North American subjects: a triple-blinded placebo and diet-controlled i. Nutr Res. 2011;31:608-15 pubmed publisher
    ..026 mmol/L) reduction in LDL-C, there is a concomitant 1% reduction in overall future CVD risk. ..
  65. Kaganman I. The inside tag. Nat Methods. 2006;3:872-3 pubmed
    ..An uncharged CoA precursor that can enter the cell is used for covalent, site-specific labeling of proteins inside living cells. ..
  66. Hwang Y, Ganguly S, Ho A, Klein D, Cole P. Enzymatic and cellular study of a serotonin N-acetyltransferase phosphopantetheine-based prodrug. Bioorg Med Chem. 2007;15:2147-55 pubmed
    ..Implications for CoA prodrug development based on the strategy used here are discussed. ..
  67. Donato H, Krupenko N, Tsybovsky Y, Krupenko S. 10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase requires a 4'-phosphopantetheine prosthetic group for catalysis. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:34159-66 pubmed
    ..Thus, our study defines the intermediate domain of FDH as a novel carrier protein and provides the previously lacking component of the FDH catalytic mechanism. ..
  68. Nyunt A, Ishida Y, Yu Y, Shimada S. Topical apolipoprotein A-1 may have a beneficial effect on the corneal epithelium in a mouse model of dry eye: a pilot study. Eye Contact Lens. 2008;34:287-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of apolipoprotein A (ApoA)-1 and its synergistic action with d-pantethine (DP) on corneal epithelial disorders in dry-eye mouse model...
  69. Ramos Vega A, Dávila Martínez Y, Sohlenkamp C, Contreras Martínez S, Encarnación S, Geiger O, et al. SMb20651 is another acyl carrier protein from Sinorhizobium meliloti. Microbiology. 2009;155:257-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of SMb20651 was detected in S. meliloti as holo-SMb20651 and acyl-SMb20651. ..
  70. Suo Z, Tseng C, Walsh C. Purification, priming, and catalytic acylation of carrier protein domains in the polyketide synthase and nonribosomal peptidyl synthetase modules of the HMWP1 subunit of yersiniabactin synthetase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:99-104 pubmed
    ..Then, in trans malonylation of the excised holo-ACP or holo-PCP(3)-TE fragments by HMWP1 showed both were malonylated with a 3:1 catalytic efficiency ratio, showing a promiscuity to the AT domain. ..
  71. Wu B, Zhang Y, Rock C, Zheng J. Structural modification of acyl carrier protein by butyryl group. Protein Sci. 2009;18:240-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding supports the more general notion that the attachment of different acyl intermediates alters the ACP structure to facilitate their recognition and turnover by the appropriate target enzymes. ..
  72. Flugel R, Hwangbo Y, Lambalot R, Cronan J, Walsh C. Holo-(acyl carrier protein) synthase and phosphopantetheinyl transfer in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:959-68 pubmed
    ..coli. ..
  73. Clark J. Self-assembly of protein aggregates in ageing disorders: the lens and cataract model. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2013;368:20120104 pubmed publisher
    ..The quantitative parameters controlling protein-protein interactions in vivo need characterization to understand the fundamental biology of self-assembling systems in normal cells and disorders of ageing. ..
  74. Brunetti D, Dusi S, Giordano C, Lamperti C, Morbin M, Fugnanesi V, et al. Pantethine treatment is effective in recovering the disease phenotype induced by ketogenic diet in a pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration mouse model. Brain. 2014;137:57-68 pubmed publisher
    ..We here demonstrate that pantethine administration can prevent the onset of the neuromuscular phenotype in mice suggesting the possibility of experimental treatment in patients with pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. ..
  75. Stanley P, Hyland C, Koronakis V, Hughes C. An ordered reaction mechanism for bacterial toxin acylation by the specialized acyltransferase HlyC: formation of a ternary complex with acylACP and protoxin substrates. Mol Microbiol. 1999;34:887-901 pubmed
  76. Suzuki Y, Itoh H, Abe T, Nishimura F, Sato Y, Takeyama M. Comparison of the effects of pantethine and fursultiamine on plasma gastrointestinal peptide levels in healthy volunteers. Biol Pharm Bull. 2011;34:1640-3 pubmed
    ..The pharmacological effects of pantethine may be closely related to the changes in plasma CGRP- and VIP-IS levels. ..
  77. Gehring A, Bradley K, Walsh C. Enterobactin biosynthesis in Escherichia coli: isochorismate lyase (EntB) is a bifunctional enzyme that is phosphopantetheinylated by EntD and then acylated by EntE using ATP and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate. Biochemistry. 1997;36:8495-503 pubmed publisher
  78. Chakrabarti S, Sowdhamini R. Functional sites and evolutionary connections of acylhomoserine lactone synthases. Protein Eng. 2003;16:271-8 pubmed
    ..Evolutionary trace analyses of aligned sequences and docking studies have been used to discuss functionally important residues of EsaI homologues. ..
  79. Gehring A, Lambalot R, Vogel K, Drueckhammer D, Walsh C. Ability of Streptomyces spp. acyl carrier proteins and coenzyme A analogs to serve as substrates in vitro for E. coli holo-ACP synthase. Chem Biol. 1997;4:17-24 pubmed
    ..Such modified ACPs should prove useful for studying the role of particular ACPs and the phosphopantetheine cofactor in the subsequent reactions of polyketide and fatty acid biosynthesis. ..
  80. Kupke T, Uebele M, Schmid D, Jung G, Blaesse M, Steinbacher S. Molecular characterization of lantibiotic-synthesizing enzyme EpiD reveals a function for bacterial Dfp proteins in coenzyme A biosynthesis. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:31838-46 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that the N-terminal domain of the Escherichia coli Dfp protein catalyzes the decarboxylation of (R)-4'-phospho-N-pantothenoylcysteine to 4'-phosphopantetheine. This reaction is essential for coenzyme A biosynthesis. ..
  81. Dusi S, Valletta L, Haack T, Tsuchiya Y, Venco P, Pasqualato S, et al. Exome sequence reveals mutations in CoA synthase as a cause of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. Am J Hum Genet. 2014;94:11-22 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the second inborn error of coenzyme A biosynthesis to be implicated in NBIA. ..
  82. Mootz H, Finking R, Marahiel M. 4'-phosphopantetheine transfer in primary and secondary metabolism of Bacillus subtilis. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:37289-98 pubmed
    ..coli acps disruption. These results call into question the essential role of AcpS in strains that contain a Sfp-like PPTase and consequently the suitability of AcpS as a microbial target in such strains. ..
  83. Luo L, Taylor K, Xiang H, Wei Y, Zhang W, Dunaway Mariano D. Role of active site binding interactions in 4-chlorobenzoyl-coenzyme A dehalogenase catalysis. Biochemistry. 2001;40:15684-92 pubmed
    ..3 kcal/mol. Together, these binding interactions contribute approximately 10(6) to the k(cat)/K(m). ..
  84. Meier J, Patel A, Niessen S, Meehan M, Kersten R, Yang J, et al. Practical 4'-phosphopantetheine active site discovery from proteomic samples. J Proteome Res. 2011;10:320-9 pubmed publisher
    ..By providing new methods for analysis of an often cryptic post-translational modification, these methods represent a first step toward the study of natural product biosynthesis in proteomic settings. ..